2020 coronavirus pandemic in Alberta

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2020 coronavirus pandemic in Alberta
DiseaseCOVID-19
Virus strainSARS-CoV-2
LocationAlberta, Canada
First outbreakWuhan, Hubei, China
Index caseCalgary
Arrival dateMarch 5, 2020
(1 month and 1 day)
Confirmed cases1,348[1]
Recovered361[1]
Deaths
24[1]
Official website
Government of Alberta – COVID-19 info for Albertans

The 2020 coronavirus pandemic in Alberta is part of an ongoing global pandemic of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), an infectious disease caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). The Canadian province of Alberta has the fourth-most number of cases of COVID-19 in Canada. By April 6, there were 1,348 confirmed cases and 24 deaths.[1] The majority of cases have been in the Calgary zone, which had 817 cases as of April 6.[1]

Jason Kenney, the Premier of Alberta, working closely with the Emergency Management Cabinet Committee, followed the recommendations of Alberta's Chief Medical Officer of Health, Dr. Deena Hinshaw, in response to the "rapidly evolving global threat". A state of public health emergency was declared on March 17. Alberta's public health laboratory greatly increased tests for COVID-19, reaching 1,000 a day by March 8, and 3,000 a day by March 26.[2] Hinshaw said that by March 20, "World-wide, Alberta has been conducting among the highest number of tests per capita."[3] As of April 6, 2020, 65,914 tests have been conducted in Alberta.[1]

Statistics[edit]

COVID-19 cases in Alberta  ()
     Deaths        Recoveries        Active cases
Date
# of cases
2020-03-05
1(n.a.)
2020-03-06
2(+100%)
2020-03-07
2(=)
2020-03-08
4(+100%)
2020-03-09
7(+75%)
2020-03-10
14(+100%)
2020-03-11
19(+36%)
2020-03-12
23(+21%)
2020-03-13
29(+26%)
2020-03-14
39(+34%)
2020-03-15
56(+44%)
2020-03-16
74(+32%)
2020-03-17
97(+23%)
2020-03-18
119(+22%)
2020-03-19
146(+34%)
2020-03-20
195(+34%)
2020-03-21
226(+16%)
2020-03-22
259(+15%)
2020-03-23
301(+16%)
2020-03-24
358(+19%)
2020-03-25
419(+17%)
2020-03-26
486(+16%)
2020-03-27
542(+12%)
2020-03-28
621(+15%)
2020-03-29
661(+6.4%)
2020-03-30
690(+4.4%)
2020-03-31
754(+9.3%)
2020-04-01
871(+15%)
2020-04-02
968(+11%)
2020-04-03
1,075(+11%)
2020-04-04
1,181(+9.9%)
2020-04-05
1,250(+5.8%)
2020-04-06
1,348(+7.8%)
Source:
  • "Cases in Alberta". www.alberta.ca.

Statistics are provided in daily reports by the Chief Medical Officer of Health, Deena Hinshaw, and posted on the Government of Alberta's website.[3] As of April 6, there were 98 new cases, making a total of 1,348 confirmed cases; 61 percent of these—817 cases—were in the Calgary Zone.[1] As of April 6, 90 patients were hospitalized, and 31 were in the ICU.[1] Twenty-four people have died since the beginning of the pandemic in Alberta.[1] As of April 6, 204 cases were suspected of being spread by community transmission and 361 people have recovered.[1]

Timeline[edit]

March 1–7[edit]

In a March 4 statement, Hinshaw said that there were no confirmed presumptive COVID-19 cases in Alberta, and the risk at that time was low. Hinshaw advised Albertans to prepare in case COVID-19 should arrive here in Alberta by having "three days’ worth of essential items like food, water and medicine on hand in the event of any emergency."[4] She cautioned against panic buying and advised Albertans to "plan ahead".[4]

On March 5, Hinshaw reported Alberta's first presumptive COVID-19 case. On February 21, a woman who was in her 50s, and had been on the Grand Princess Cruise ship had returned to the Calgary zone—an area that includes Calgary, Nanton, Canmore and Claresholm on February 21 and had tested positive.[5] Hinshaw said that more positive cases were found as a result of the work of public health teams who had contacted the 44 Albertans repatriated from the Grand Princess.[6][7]

March 8–14[edit]

On March 9, Hinshaw said that tests had revealed the fifth, sixth, and seventh cases of COVID-19 in Alberta. Case five was an older woman who had been on the Princess Cruise. Case 6, in the Calgary zone, was a young man who had travelled to Ukraine, Netherlands and Turkey.[8] Case seven was a woman who was on the MS Braemar Caribbean cruise ship.[8] Hinshaw said that, COVID-19 "can spread person-to-person by larger droplets, like from a cough or sneeze…or by touching contaminated objects or surfaces, then touching your eyes, nose or mouth."[8] Hinshaw acknowledged the work of Health Link, and Alberta's public health laboratory, among others. The laboratory "dramatically increased" capacity for running tests for COVID-19. On March 7 300 tests were performed and on March 8 alone they performed 700 tests.[8] Since all of the cases tested in Alberta were subsequently confirmed, "positive samples tested by Alberta laboratories no longer require further confirmation" from the Winnipeg-based National Microbiology Laboratory (NML).[8]

By March 10, there were 7 new confirmed cases that brought the total to 14 in Alberta.[9] One person had travelled on the same MS Braemar cruise ship in the Caribbean as case seven.[9]

By March 11, there were 5 new cases, bringing the total to 9 confirmed cases in the province.[10] At her daily briefing, Hinshaw drew attention to the World Health Organization's (WHO) official declaration of COVID-19 as a global pandemic earlier on March 11.[10]

On March 12, Hinshaw said that, faced with the "rapidly evolving global threat", the provincial government had adopted "aggressive new public health measures to limit the spread of this virus."[11] The Emergency Management Cabinet Committee approved Hinshaw's "recommendation that all large gatherings of more than 250 people, or international events" in Alberta be cancelled.[11] She made a number of recommendations regarding how to communicate with children about this virus.[11]

In her response to the March 11 decision by the World Health Organization to "officially declare COVID-19 a global pandemic", Hinshaw said that this "reflects the seriousness" of COVID-19, which is "not like other threats we have seen in the past few decades. It is more severe than seasonal influenza, and more contagious than viruses like SARS."[12] She said that the virus "can be contained" as was the case in "countries like Singapore.[12] At that time, people who had confirmed COVID-19 cases in Alberta, had recently returned from trips to "Iran, Egypt, Spain, Washington State and Mexico."[12] As a result, the province requested that "all travellers returning from Italy" self-isolate for two weeks. As well, airports in Calgary and Edmonton would begin screening starting on March 14.[12]

On March 12, 2020, Alberta announced a ban on all meetings of more than 250 people.[13] As of March 12, all those who have travelled outside Canada "must self-isolate for 14 days and monitor for symptoms."[14] Alberta Health launched an online assessment tool on March 13.[15] If the user answers yes to certain questions, they are prompted to call 911 emergency services, 811 to speak with a nurse, or they were be told that a test is not necessary.[15]

By the late evening of March 12, the University of Calgary suspended lectures for the following day, March 13. By March 16, the university closure was made permanent for the remainder of the semester, with the university moving to deliver course content online.

On March 13, Health Minister Tyler Shandro said that Alberta's Health Link had been "receiving more than 6,300 calls a day."[15] The province had "doubled 811 staff" and more were in training but the wait times were long.[15] By March 13, 2803 tests had been administered in Alberta.[16] By March 13, there were numerous closures and cancellations across the province.[17] including some Alberta Court of Queen's Bench jury trials.[18]

March 15–21[edit]

By March 15, Alberta had reported 56 cases, and had completed 10,524 tests.[19] Hinshaw announced at her daily briefing that Alberta had its first cases of community transmission, which was at that time limited to seven people,[20][21] six of whom attended the Pacific Dental Conference[21] held from March 5 to 7 at the Vancouver Convention Centre.[22] Cases of COVID-19 in Alberta, Ontario, and British Columbia have been identified with the conference, which had 15,000 attendees.[23]

Alberta ordered all daycares to close, all K-12 schools to suspend classes and close to students, and all post-secondary institutions to suspend in-person classes and switch to online classes on March 15. Grade 12 diploma exams will still occur.[24]

Calgary's Mayor Naheed Nenshi on March 15,[25] and Red Deer's Mayor Tara Veer on March 16, declared a State of Local Emergency (SOLE) in their cities.[26] Nenshi ordered "ordered all city-owned and operated fitness facilities and pools, as well as public libraries, to close."[26] and other facilities were restricted to 250 persons or 50 percent occupancy, with some exclusions, including grocery stores, shopping centres, big-box stores, casinos, pharmacies, airports, offices, public transit, and AHS facilities, shelters, and care centres.[27] The director of the Calgary Emergency Management Agency, Tom Sampson,[28] said Calgary residents would have basic services including water and power, public transit, and 911 for emergency services from fire, police and ambulance.[26][Notes 1] The Calgary Emergency Management Agency (CEMA) has been providing regular "COVID-19 – State of Local Emergency impact" updates.[29]

On March 16, the province of Alberta announced that "all kindergarten to Grade 12 classes and in-person post-secondary lectures" were suspended.[26] At her daily briefing, Hinshaw said that she was self-isolating[Notes 2] as she waited for the results of her test for COVID-19. This included not eating meals with family and keeping a distance of 2 metres away from family members until she had test results.[30] She reported that with 18 new cases confirmed, Alberta had 74 cases.[30]

On the evening of March 16, the Emergency Management Cabinet Committee authorized Premier Kenney to use "all powers necessary" to "keep Albertans safe".[31]

Alberta Premier Jason Kenney declared a public health state of emergency under the Public Health Act (PHA) on March 17, on the advice of the Chief Medical Officer. The province imposed specific "aggressive public health measures" which included "limiting mass gatherings", and prohibiting and limiting attendance at a number of public and private facilities.[32][33]

By March 17, there were 23 new cases representing the "largest day-over-day increase yet in the province" resulting in total of 97 people in Alberta with the virus.[21] Confirmed cases across the province include 20 in the Calgary zone, 20 in the Edmonton zone, 3 in the Central zone, 1 in the South zone, and 3 in the North zone.[33]

Hinshaw's March 17 update said that five people that tested positive were hospitalized, two had been were admitted to the ICU, and the other 90 individuals were "self-isolating at home and expected to make a full recovery."[34] She listed the province-wide "aggressive steps" that were taken to prevent the virus from spreading, which included limiting contact between people. She described how these steps were undertaken to "flatten the curve". "The more we can slow the spread of the virus down, the less likely it is that there will be a surge of cases that overwhelm our health system's capacity to care for those who need hospitalization or intensive care." She announced that Alberta Health Services was preparing for an "increase in the number of cases that need hospital care" so all scheduled and elective surgeries were postponed.[34] She listed activities that would be prohibited under the state of emergency declared by Premier Kenney.[34]

On March 18, Alberta reported 119 cases of people testing positive for COVID-19.[35] On March 18, Hinshaw said that Alberta's "online self-assessment tool had been accessed more than 1.3 million times."[36] Alberta had performed about 15,000 tests, adding that, "To put that into perspective, when accounting for population size, that is 35 times higher than the per capita number of tests in the US."[36]

Hinshaw said at her March 18 update, "We have had to weigh lives against livelihoods. And in order to save lives, I have had to make recommendations that will take away livelihoods from many Albertans over the next several weeks to months. There are no easy solutions to the situation we are in, not only in Alberta but around the world."[37] Both Premier Kenney and Hinshaw said that Alberta "may not reach the peak of the current coronavirus pandemic for weeks, and that drastic measures to curb the spread of the virus may be needed until the end of May."[37] Hinshaw said that "first wave of the outbreak could reach its peak in Alberta around mid-April" and that "officials expect another wave of the illness in the fall."[37]

By March 19, doctors in Alberta were encouraged to practice "social distancing, including from their own clinics."[38] Peace River physician, Dr. Heather Shonoski said that, "Family physicians have been begging" Tyler Shandro, Alberta's Minister of Health to allow them to "provide virtual care" to their patients" so that they could keep their "vulnerable patients at home and promote social distancing."[39][40]

On March 19, Hinshaw announced the first death in Alberta in the Edmonton zone, along with 27 new confirmed cases bringing the total to 146.[41][42] By March 19 Alberta labs had performed 16,867 tests.[42] Hinshaw said that eight cases are suspected to be spread through community transmission.[Notes 3][41] She said that the recovery of two patients from their symptoms, was a "sign of hope that many people who get this do recover."[43]

By March 20, there were 49 new confirmed cases making a total of 195 confirmed cases identified in Alberta. Hishaw said that 11 of these "may be community transmission". As of March 20, 3 individuals had recovered, 10 were hospitalized. Three more patients were admitted to the ICU since March 19, for a total of 5 being treated in the ICU.[3] Hinshaw said that, "World-wide, Alberta has been conducting among the highest number of tests per capita."[3] By March 20, Alberta labs had conducted 20,165 tests.[44]

On March 21, 31 new cases with a total of 226 cases and of those 16 are suspected of being shared by community transmission. Of the 11 people hospitalized, 6 are in ICU.[45] The update called for vigilance of "online or phone scams" and reminded Albertans that neither Alberta Health or Alberta Health Services would call and ask for "social insurance numbers or banking information".[45] By March 21, Alberta labs had conducted 23,516 tests.[46] By March 21, Big-box stores, such as Home Depot Canada had sent notices that they would be "limiting the number of customers inside at a time".[47]

March 22–28[edit]

By March 22, the total number of tests conducted was 26,740, the total number of cases was 259, with the addition of 33 new cases on March 22.[48]

There were 301 confirmed cases announced at the March 23 briefing. There were 42 new cases.[49]

By March 24, a second person had died.[50] By March 24, of the tests conducted to date, 32,418 were negative and 358 were positive.[51] There were 57 new cases confirmed.[51]

On March 24, Alberta Health Services changed their approach to testing, to focus on "groups at highest risk of local exposure."[52] People returning from travel abroad after March 10, were advised to self-isolate for 14 days.[52]

At their March 25 briefing Premier Kenney and Minister Shandro announced that Peace Officers would be enforcing rules related to "self-isolation and physical distancing." Hinshaw said that the "significant case numbers"—which included 61 new cases, of which 33 were believed to be by community transmission, 20 patients hospitalized, and 8 in ICU—"underscore the seriousness of the situation that we face."[53][54][55]

March 29–April 4[edit]

On March 29 there were 40 new cases representing the smallest daily increase in Alberta since March 21, compared to March 28 with 79 new cases, the highest daily number to date.[56] On March 30, Hinshaw stated that testing has been reduced the previous two days, as they are no longer automatically testing returning travellers, and there were shortages of lab supplies which should be rectified by the end of the week.[57]

University of Calgary academics, Tyler Williamson and Christopher Naugler are "frequently producing models...which they're sending to government health officials to give the best information available about where the COVID-19 pandemic is likely to lead Alberta."[58] Williamson, who is an assistant professor of biostatistics in community health sciences department, says that "Alberta is currently on a "middle-of-the-road" trajectory, likely to avoid a worst-case scenario of Italy but also unlikely to achieve the dramatic success achieved in Singapore, where stringent social distancing measures were imposed early."[58] Naugler, who is associate dean at the Cumming School of Medicine, says that Alberta "may buck the trend on deaths" as "Alberta has a low mortality rate, with nine deaths to date, as well as a low rate of admission to intensive-care units".[58] Naugler "hypothesizes this may be because of the province's relatively young demographic, low smoking rate or robust health-care system."[58]

Government response[edit]

On March 11, Prime Minister Justin Trudeau announced a $1 billion fund in response to the pandemic. This included $500 million for the provinces and territories. There was also a $50 million contribution to the World Health Organization. There was $275 million for funding Coronavirus research in Canada.[59] On March 18, Prime Minister Justin Trudeau announced an "historic" $82-billion "emergency support package for workers, employers, parents, students, Indigenous communities and other groups" to help those affected by the economic fallout" of the pandemic.[60][61][62][63] On January 15, the federal government activated its Emergency Operations Centre, and on February 27, the response plan was raised to level 3.[64][65][66] Federal Minister of Health, Patty Hajdu, announced Health Canada's Intermim Order to speed up access to Switzerland-based COVID-19 test kits, so provincial labs could increase testing.[67][68]

On the same day, Premier Kenney announced financial measures the province was undertaking to alleviate the economic burden on Albertans. This included deferral of utility payments, ceasing of collection of corporate income taxes, a "six-month moratorium on student loans", and an emergency isolation support package.[62]

Alberta undertook a "new aggressive measure" on March 12 to fight the virus which included banning all large gatherings of more than 250 people. The province-wide ban also recommended against international travel, and requested that any Albertans returning from international travel self-isolate for fourteen days.[69] The Alberta Court of Queen's Bench postponed all jury trials scheduled to begin after March 13. Jury trials which were already in process, would continue.[18] Premier Kenney declared a state of public health emergency on March 17.[62] On March 28, Premier Kenney announced major new measures to slow the spread of the virus, which included suspending vehicle access to provincial parks by closing parking lots, and closing all but a limited number of essential businesses.[70] The Premier also announced protection for renters.[70]

Testing[edit]

By March 8, Alberta's public health laboratory was performing 1,000 a day and by March 26, they were conducting 3,000 a day.[2] The total number of tests performed reached 20,165 by March 20,[44] which represented among the "highest number of tests per capita" in the world.[3] As of April 6, 65,914 tests had been conducted and 1,348 cases were confirmed.[1]

On March 24, following the example of other Canadian provinces, the AHS shifted priorities towards testing "groups at highest risk of local exposure".[52][58] Under the new guidelines, "travellers who returned to Alberta after March 12" with mild symptoms would no longer be tested for COVID-19.[71] Under the new testing protocol, there are four groups of people who will have priority for testing: those who "are hospitalized with respiratory illness"; "residents of continuing care and other similar facilities"; people "who returned from travelling abroad between March 8 and March 12"; and "health-care workers with respiratory symptoms."[71] Hinshaw said, "Our new approach reflects the fact that the most important thing anyone can do if they have mild symptoms isn’t to get tested – it’s to stay home and self-isolate."[71]

Health Link nurses had been referring people with COVID-19 symptoms to one of a number of drive-thru assessment centres for testing.[58]

Communication[edit]

Alberta's Chief Medical Officer of Health Hinshaw's daily updates are included on Alberta Health Services' website—COVID-19 info for Albertans and on YouTube.[33][3] Premier Kenney and Minister Shandro are both giving regular updates that are available on YouTube and on the official Alberta government site.[72][Official communications 1]

Alberta Health Services's online map shows the detailed locations and numbers of cases in each provincial health zones and in neighbourhoods in cities.[73]

Travel and entry restrictions[edit]

Prime Minister Trudeau announced new travel restrictions on March 16 which stated that, starting on March 18, Calgary International Airport and 3 other airports were the only airports in Canada that will accept international flights during the pandemic.[74] Travellers arriving at Calgary international arrival gates are met with Alberta health officials who are "reinforcing a message of mandatory" two-week long self-isolation to returning travelers.[75]

Economic impact[edit]

Westjet planes groundings at YEG airport

On March 14, Alberta Central's chief economist, Charles St-Arnaud, said that with the "sharp drop in oil prices and the impact of the coronavirus", they "expect" the provincial economy will contract by "1.5 per cent in 2020" and that there will be a "loss of about 25,000 jobs in 2020".[76]

Other reactions[edit]

School closures[edit]

Premier Kenney announced school closures on March 15.[19] All daycares were closed. Classes were suspended for K-12 schools but schools were not closed. According to a March 20 Alberta Teachers Association notification, teachers were still required to work, either from home if the school board permits, or in their schools.[77] Post-secondary institutions switched to online classes and all in-person classes were suspended.[24] With schools and daycares closed, and parents needing childcare, a hundred University of Alberta medical students offered to provide childcare to doctors and other COVID-19 front-line health-care workers.[78]

By the evening of March 12, the University of Calgary notified students that it was suspending lectures effective the following day. Effective April 2, access to any campus facilities was closed off, except for electronic/keycard access to authorized staff and students.[79]

By March 21, the University of Alberta notified students living on campus, that they had to leave their residences by March 24, with exemptions for "international students and people from out of province or in isolation."[80] In Calgary, the Southern Alberta Institute of Technology told students they had until March 23 to leave.[80]

Sports[edit]

By March 29, Calgary had banned all team sports—both formal and informal—which includes football, baseball, soccer, and others.[81]

Geographic distribution[edit]

As of April 6, there were 817 confirmed cases and 15 deaths in the Calgary Zone which represents 61 per cent of all cases in Alberta, 66 cases and one death in the Central zone, 351 cases and 4 deaths in the Edmonton zone, 89 cases and 4 deaths in the North zone, and 22 cases in the South zone.[1] The province is using a geospatial tracker,[82][83][73] which provides an "in-depth breakdown" of where cases are located, including data on individual neighbourhoods. In Calgary, for example, there are 14 sections. By March 20, neighbourhoods in Calgary's "far northwest and southwest" had the most cases.[84]

Transmission[edit]

Virus transmission can be travel-related, close contact cases or can be community-transmitted.[85] By March 31, there were 286 cases known to have been spread through travel.[85] Hinshaw reported in the last week in March that returning travellers were obligated to self-quarantine for 14 days. The province shifted testing priorities and was no longer testing returned travelers, so this number is not expected to rise.[85] By the end of March there were 297 cases that had been "spread through close contact with an infected individual or object."[85]

About 72 people attended a curling bonspiel held at the Granite Curling Club in Edmonton from March 11 to 14 and by March 27, at least 24 medical professionals, who participated had tested positive for COVID-19. Health officials believe that a doctor from Saskatchewan who had been to Las Vegas before attending the Edmonton event, was the bonspiel's patient zero.[86] There was a banquet at the event, and health officials suspect that serving spoons, which many people handled, were the source of spreading the virus.[86]

By March 25, 34 cases were linked to a "super spreader" event, a March 6 prayer meeting held at a private home in Calgary's Upper northwest zone, with a pastor from Singapore as the featured guest.[87]

Outbreaks[edit]

By March 30, there were 36 residents of the McKenzie Towne care home and five staff members, were "probable or confirmed cases".[81][88] By March 31, Alberta Health was also tracking outbreaks in Calgary's Carewest Glenmore Park Centre and Shepherd's Care Kensington in the Edmonton Zone.Hinshaw described these outbreaks at "worrisome".[89]

Community transmission[edit]

Community transmission, refers to cases where Alberta Health Service (AHS) investigators "could not identify an obvious source of the virus."[90]

Alberta's first case of community transmission was announced on March 15,[20] and by March 26, there were 34 cases of the virus, suspected to have been spread by community transmission.[2][53][54]

By March 31, the number of community-transmitted cases had increased to 75—which was double the number from the previous week.[85]

The number of community-transmitted cases serves as a significant indicator of the success or failure of physical distancing.[85]

Official sites[edit]

  1. ^ Hinshaw provides daily updates during a video broadcast at 3:30 which often includes undates by Premier Kenney and Health Minister, Shandro. These videos are available on the Alberta government websites and on YouTube. Transcripts are available of Hinshaws updates about 1 hour after the video presentation. For example, the March 25 YouTube video is here March 25, 2020 Deena Hinshaw update Archived March 26, 2020, at the Wayback Machine. The Alberta Government website includes an entire section on Coronavirus Info for Albertans Archived March 8, 2020, at the Wayback Machine. The main page includes the Current situation with links to "Updates from the Chief Medical Officer" and "Complete information for Albertans". The "Public health orders" provides details on changing protocols and regulations regarding self-isolation, etc. Under "Cases in Alberta", there is an additional link where more specific data is provided regularly Archived March 21, 2020, at the Wayback Machine on "Aggregate data Archived March 21, 2020, at the Wayback Machine", published at noon, provides more detailed data on "age range, sex, geographical area and AHS zone of cases," "Cases in Alberta Archived March 21, 2020, at the Wayback Machine" , and Testing in Alberta Archived March 21, 2020, at the Wayback Machine. Under "Interactive data Archived March 23, 2020, at the Wayback Machine, which is also updated at about noon, provides updated data under the headings "Highlights", "case counts", "characteristics", "geospatial", "laboratory testing", and "date notes". The section "Geospatial" provides data on each of the 5 provincial health zones: Calgary Zone, Edmonton zone, Central zone, South zone, and North zone. The Geospatial page also provides an interactive map Archived March 23, 2020, at the Wayback Machine, further dividing cities into smaller sections. The data on each section is updated daily and the map is coloured coded to indicate density of cases. There is a special section on COVID-19 support for employers and employees Archived March 25, 2020, at the Wayback Machine.

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ On March 21, Mayor Nenshi clarified that Chief Sampson was the only one who "can give you orders under a State of Local Emergency" (SOLE) Archived March 21, 2020, at the Wayback Machine. Nenshi reminded Calgarians to maintain physical activity by going outside—outside is not closed, to "keep your physical distance – 2 metres...[A]ccess to nature are critical elements of maintaining our mental health."
  2. ^ Hinshaw clarified that a person who is self-isolating can go outside for a walk but they should stay 2 metres away from others.
  3. ^ Community transmission refers to cases there "AHS investigators could not identify an obvious source of the virus."

References[edit]

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  5. ^ "Alberta reports 1st presumptive case of COVID-19". CBC. Edmonton. March 5, 2020. Archived from the original on March 5, 2020. Retrieved March 17, 2020.
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  8. ^ a b c d e Hinshaw, Deena (March 9, 2020), Chief medical officer of health COVID-19 update – March 9, 2020, archived from the original on March 18, 2020, retrieved March 18, 2020
  9. ^ a b Hinshaw, Deena (March 10, 2020), Chief medical officer of health COVID-19 update – March 10, 2020, archived from the original on March 18, 2020, retrieved March 18, 2020
  10. ^ a b Hinshaw, Deena (March 11, 2020), Chief medical officer of health COVID-19 update – March 11, 2020, archived from the original on March 18, 2020, retrieved March 18, 2020
  11. ^ a b c Hinshaw, Deena (March 12, 2020), Chief medical officer of health COVID-19 update – March 12, 2020, archived from the original on March 18, 2020, retrieved March 18, 2020
  12. ^ a b c d "Coronavirus info for Albertans updated to March 11". March 11, 2020. Archived from the original on March 11, 2020. Retrieved March 17, 2020.
  13. ^ "Alberta shuts down large gatherings as part of 'aggressive' COVID-19 strategy". CTV News. Edmonton. March 12, 2020. Archived from the original on March 13, 2020. Retrieved March 17, 2020.
  14. ^ "Coronavirus info for Albertans updated to March 17". March 17, 2020. Archived from the original on March 17, 2020. Retrieved March 17, 2020.
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  16. ^ "Tracking every case of COVID-19 in Canada". CTV News. March 13, 2020. Archived from the original on March 15, 2020. Retrieved March 15, 2020.
  17. ^ "Closures, cancellations and more: What you need to know about COVID-19 in Alberta on Friday, March 13". CBC. March 13, 2020. Archived from the original on March 14, 2020. Retrieved March 18, 2020.
  18. ^ a b "Alberta jury trials suspended amid coronavirus concerns". Global News. March 13, 2020. Archived from the original on March 14, 2020. Retrieved March 16, 2020.
  19. ^ a b Small, Kaylen (March 15, 2020). "COVID-19 cases rise to 56 in Alberta; Kenney announces school closures and $500M boost to health budget". Global News. Retrieved March 17, 2020.
  20. ^ a b "7 new COVID-19 cases stem from single Calgary-area gathering". Calgary. March 15, 2020. Retrieved March 17, 2020.
  21. ^ a b c Romero, Diego (March 2020). "Alberta confirms 23 new cases of COVID-19, bringing total to 97". Edmonton. Retrieved March 17, 2020.
  22. ^ Zussman, Richard (March 16, 2020). "Non-essential dental services paused after COVID-19 cases linked to Vancouver dental conference". Global News. Retrieved March 17, 2020.
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