COVID-19 pandemic in Cambodia

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to navigation Jump to search

COVID-19 pandemic in Cambodia
Cambodia COVID-19 by number of cases.svg
Map of provinces with confirmed cases
(as of 9 May):
  Confirmed 1–9
  Confirmed 10–99
  Confirmed 100–499
  Confirmed 500–999
  Confirmed 1,000–9,999
  Confirmed ≥ 10,000
DiseaseCOVID-19
Virus strainSARS-CoV-2
LocationCambodia
First outbreakWuhan, Hubei, China
Index caseSihanoukville
Arrival date27 January 2020
(1 year, 3 months, 1 week and 5 days)
Confirmed cases19,237 (+520)
Active cases11,468 (+213)
Recovered7,641 (+301)
Deaths
120[a] (+6)
Fatality rate0.62%
Territories
Phnom Penh and 23 provinces
Government website
Communicable Disease Control Department

The COVID-19 pandemic in Cambodia is part of the ongoing worldwide pandemic of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). The first imported case in Cambodia was detected in Sihanoukville on 27 January 2020.[1] Although a number of imported cases and transmission to direct contacts were confirmed throughout 2020, no community transmission was detected until 29 November.[2]

The public health response is led by the Ministry of Health with support from the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, World Health Organization and Institute Pasteur du Cambodge.[3][4][5] Contact tracing, quarantining, screening of arrivals[6][7][8] and public messaging related to hygiene, social distancing and mask wearing[9] have been central to the containment strategy. According to Global Health Security Index's report in 2019, Cambodia ranked 89th out of 195 countries in preparedness for infectious disease outbreak.[10]

Cambodia's initial response was slow - during the initial outbreak in China, few international travel restrictions were introduced, Cambodian citizens were not evacuated from Wuhan and Prime Minister Hun Sen downplayed the threat.[11][12] Cambodia allowed passengers of cruise ship MS Westerdam to disembark in February after it was refused entry to other countries.[13][14][15] Starting in March as the pandemic spread globally, Cambodia established its national response committee,[3] introduced restrictions on arrival,[13][16] closed education institutions, garment factories and entertainment venues,[17][18][19] and major public holidays were cancelled.[20] A controversial State of Emergency Law was passed in April but has not been implemented as of April 2021.[21] Most restrictions within the country were lifted by September.[22] In November, some restrictions were reinstated in Phnom Penh and thousands of Cambodian government employees and contacts went into quarantine following a one day-visit by Hungarian Foreign Minister Péter Szijjártó, who tested positive after arriving in Bangkok.[23][7] On 29 November, the first community transmission cluster was detected in Phnom Penh,[24] with the virus suspected to have entered the country sometime during October and circulated undetected.[25] The country began its vaccination programme and detected its largest outbreak to date in February 2021.[26][27] Cambodia reported its first death on 11 March 2021.[28] As Lineage B.1.1.7 spread in the capital's markets and garment factories, a curfew was later strengthened to the country's first lockdown across the entirety of Phnom Penh and Takhmau in April 2021 as the WHO warned Cambodia's healthcare system was at risk of becoming overwhelmed.[29][30]

Cambodia's response up to July 2020 and its welcoming of the MS Westerdam were praised by the World Health Organization.[31][32] Criticism has included Prime Minister Hun Sen's downplaying of the risk of an outbreak during the early stages of the pandemic,[14][33][12][11] persecution of critics[34][21] and testing and surveillance procedures, particularly in overcrowded prisons.[35][4][36] The pandemic has had a severe impact on the economy, notably the tourism[37][38] and garment[17][39] sectors, with projections of a lasting increase in poverty, debt and unemployment.[40][41][42]

Background[edit]

On 12 January 2020, the World Health Organization (WHO) confirmed that a novel coronavirus was the cause of a respiratory illness in a cluster of people in Wuhan City, Hubei province, China, which was reported to the WHO on 31 December 2019.[43][44]

The case fatality ratio for COVID-19 has been much lower than SARS of 2003,[45][46] but the transmission has been significantly greater, with a significant total death toll.[47][45]

Timeline[edit]

COVID-19 cases in Cambodia  ()
     Deaths        Recoveries        Active cases
2020202020212021
JanJanFebFebMarMarAprAprMayMayJunJunJulJulAugAugSepSepOctOctNovNovDecDec
JanJanFebFebMarMarAprAprMayMay
Last 15 daysLast 15 days
Date
# of cases
# of recoveries
2020-01-27
1(+1)
2020-02-10
1 1(+1)
2020-03-07
2(+1) 1
2020-03-08
2 1
2020-03-09
2 1
2020-03-10
3(+1) 1
2020-03-11
3 1
2020-03-12
5(+2) 1
2020-03-13
7(+2) 1
2020-03-14
7 1
2020-03-15
12(+5) 1
2020-03-16
12 1
2020-03-17
33(+21) 1
2020-03-18
37(+4) 1
2020-03-19
47(+10) 1
2020-03-20
51(+4) 1
2020-03-21
53(+2) 1
2020-03-22
84(+31) 2(+1)
2020-03-23
87(+3) 2
2020-03-24
91(+4) 6(+4)
2020-03-25
96(+5) 10(+4)
2020-03-26
98(+2) 11(+1)
2020-03-27
98 11
2020-03-28
102(+4) 13(+2)
2020-03-29
103(+1) 21(+8)
2020-03-30
107(+4) 23(+2)
2020-03-31
109(+2) 23
2020-04-01
109 25(+2)
2020-04-02
110(+1) 34(+9)
2020-04-03
114(+4) 35(+1)
2020-04-04
114 49(+14)
2020-04-05
114 50(+1)
2020-04-06
114 53(+3)
2020-04-07
115(+1) 58(+5)
2020-04-08
117(+2) 63(+5)
2020-04-09
118(+1) 68(+5)
2020-04-10
119(+1) 72(+4)
2020-04-11
120(+1) 75(+3)
2020-04-12
122(+2) 77(+2)
2020-04-13
122 77
2020-04-14
122 91(+14)
2020-04-15
122 96(+5)
2020-04-16
122 98(+2)
2020-04-17
122 98
2020-04-18
122 103(+5)
2020-04-19
122 105(+2)
2020-04-20
122 107(+2)
2020-04-21
122 110(+3)
2020-04-22
122 110
2020-04-23
122 110
2020-04-24
122 110
2020-04-25
122 117(+7)
2020-04-26
122 117
2020-04-27
122 119(+2)
2020-04-28
122 119
2020-04-29
122 119
2020-04-30
122 119
2020-05-01
122 119
2020-05-02
122 120(+1)
2020-05-12
122 121(+1)
2020-05-13
122 121
2020-05-14
122 121
2020-05-15
122 121
2020-05-16
122 122(+1)
2020-05-17
122 122
2020-05-18
122 122
2020-05-19
122 122
2020-05-20
122 122
2020-05-21
123(+1) 122
2020-05-22
123 122
2020-05-23
124(+1) 122
2020-05-30
125(+1) 123(+1)
2020-06-06
126(+1) 123
2020-06-07
126 123
2020-06-08
126 124(+1)
2020-06-09
126 124
2020-06-10
126 125(+1)
2020-06-11
126 125
2020-06-12
126 125
2020-06-13
126 125
2020-06-14
128(+2) 125
2020-06-15
128 125
2020-06-16
128 125
2020-06-17
128 126(+1)
2020-06-18
129(+1) 126
2020-06-19
129 126
2020-06-20
129 126
2020-06-21
129 127(+1)
2020-06-22
129 127
2020-06-23
130(+1) 127
2020-06-24
130 128(+1)
2020-06-25
130 128
2020-06-26
130 128
2020-06-27
139(+9) 129(+1)
2020-06-28
141(+2) 129
2020-06-29
141 130(+1)
2020-06-30
141 130
2020-07-01
141 131(+1)
2020-07-11
141 133(+2)
2020-07-12
156(+15) 133
2020-07-13
156 133
2020-07-14
165(+9) 133
2020-07-15
165 133
2020-07-16
166(+1) 133
2020-07-17
171(+5) 133
2020-07-18
171 133
2020-07-19
171 136(+3)
2020-07-20
171 136
2020-07-21
197(+26) 140(+4)
2020-07-22
197 140
2020-07-23
198(+1) 142(+2)
2020-07-24
202(+4) 142
2020-07-25
225(+23) 143(+1)
2020-07-26
225 143
2020-07-27
225 147(+4)
2020-07-28
226(+1) 147
2020-07-29
233(+7) 154(+7)
2020-07-30
234(+1) 162(+8)
2020-07-31
234 164(+2)
2020-08-01
239(+5) 164
2020-08-02
240(+1) 196(+32)
2020-08-03
240 197(+1)
2020-08-04
241(+1) 200(+3)
2020-08-05
243(+2) 202(+2)
2020-08-06
243 210(+8)
2020-08-07
243 214(+4)
2020-08-08
246(+3) 215(+1)
2020-08-09
248(+2) 217(+2)
2020-08-10
251(+3) 219(+2)
2020-08-11
266(+15) 220(+1)
2020-08-12
268(+2) 220
2020-08-13
272(+4) 223(+3)
2020-08-14
273(+1) 225(+2)
2020-08-15
273 229(+4)
2020-08-16
273 238(+9)
2020-08-17
273 238
2020-08-18
273 238
2020-08-19
273 251(+13)
2020-08-20
273 253(+2)
2020-08-21
273 259(+6)
2020-08-22
273 263(+4)
2020-08-23
273 263
2020-08-24
273 263
2020-08-25
273 263
2020-08-26
273 264(+1)
2020-08-27
273 264
2020-08-28
273 265(+1)
2020-08-29
273 265
2020-08-30
273 265
2020-08-31
274(+1) 266(+1)
2020-09-01
274 266
2020-09-02
274 266
2020-09-03
274 271(+5)
2020-09-04
274 272(+1)
2020-09-05
274 272
2020-09-06
274 272
2020-09-07
274 272
2020-09-08
274 273(+1)
2020-09-09
274 273
2020-09-10
274 273
2020-09-11
274 274(+1)
2020-09-12
274 274
2020-09-13
275(+1) 274
2020-09-14
275 274
2020-09-27
276(+1) 274
2020-09-28
276 275(+1)
2020-09-29
277(+1) 275
2020-09-30
277 275
2020-10-01
277 275
2020-10-02
278(+1) 275
2020-10-03
278 275
2020-10-04
278 275
2020-10-05
280(+2) 275
2020-10-06
280 276(+1)
2020-10-07
280 276
2020-10-08
281(+1) 276
2020-10-09
282(+1) 277(+1)
2020-10-10
283(+1) 277
2020-10-11
283 278(+1)
2020-10-17
283 280(+2)
2020-10-18
283 280
2020-10-19
283 280
2020-10-20
285(+2) 280
2020-10-21
286(+1) 280
2020-10-22
286 280
2020-10-23
286 280
2020-10-24
287(+1) 283(+3)
2020-10-25
287 283
2020-10-26
287 283
2020-10-27
288(+1) 283
2020-10-28
290(+2) 283
2020-10-29
290 283
2020-10-30
291(+1) 283
2020-10-31
291 283
2020-11-01
291 283
2020-11-02
292(+1) 283
2020-11-03
292 283
2020-11-04
292 283
2020-11-05
292 286(+3)
2020-11-06
292 286
2020-11-07
294(+2) 288(+2)
2020-11-08
295(+1) 288
2020-11-09
297(+2) 288
2020-11-10
300(+3) 288
2020-11-11
301(+1) 288
2020-11-12
301 288
2020-11-13
301 289(+1)
2020-11-14
302(+1) 289
2020-11-15
302 289
2020-11-16
302 289
2020-11-17
303(+1) 291(+2)
2020-11-18
304(+1) 291
2020-11-19
304 291
2020-11-20
304 294(+3)
2020-11-21
305(+1) 295(+1)
2020-11-22
306(+1) 295
2020-11-23
306 295
2020-11-24
306 296(+1)
2020-11-25
307(+1) 298(+2)
2020-11-26
307 298
2020-11-27
307 298
2020-11-28
308(+1) 299(+1)
2020-11-29
315(+7) 301(+2)
2020-11-30
323(+8) 301
2020-12-01
326(+3) 304(+3)
2020-12-02
329(+3) 304
2020-12-03
331(+2) 304
2020-12-04
335(+4) 304
2020-12-05
345(+10) 305(+1)
2020-12-06
346(+1) 306(+1)
2020-12-07
348(+2) 306
2020-12-08
350(+2) 307(+1)
2020-12-09
354(+4) 307
2020-12-10
356(+2) 307
2020-12-11
357(+1) 307
2020-12-12
357 307
2020-12-13
359(+2) 307
2020-12-14
359 309(+2)
2020-12-15
362(+3) 312(+3)
2020-12-16
362 319(+7)
2020-12-17
362 324(+5)
2020-12-18
362 341(+17)
2020-12-19
362 345(+4)
2020-12-20
362 345
2020-12-21
363(+1) 345
2020-12-22
363 347(+2)
2020-12-23
363 349(+2)
2020-12-24
363 351(+2)
2020-12-25
363 354(+3)
2020-12-26
363 355(+1)
2020-12-27
364(+1) 356(+1)
2020-12-28
364(+1) 360(+4)
2020-12-29
364 360
2020-12-30
364 361(+1)
2020-12-31
366(+2) 361
2021-01-01
378(+12) 362(+1)
2021-01-02
379(+1) 362
2021-01-03
381(+2) 362
2021-01-04
382(+1) 362
2021-01-05
382 362
2021-01-06
383(+1) 362
2021-01-07
385(+2) 362
2021-01-08
386(+1) 362
2021-01-09
387(+1) 365(+3)
2021-01-10
391(+4) 371(+6)
2021-01-11
392(+1) 374(+3)
2021-01-12
392 376(+2)
2021-01-13
398(+6) 376
2021-01-14
411(+13) 377(+1)
2021-01-15
426(+15) 381(+4)
2021-01-16
436(+10) 382(+1)
2021-01-17
439(+3) 385(+3)
2021-01-18
439 386(+1)
2021-01-19
441(+2) 386
2021-01-20
448(+7) 392(+6)
2021-01-21
453(+5) 396(+4)
2021-01-22
456(+3) 399(+3)
2021-01-23
456(+3) 403(+4)
2021-01-24
458(+2) 405(+2)
2021-01-25
458 409(+4)
2021-01-26
460(+2) 412(+3)
2021-01-27
460 423(+11)
2021-01-28
461(+1) 428(+5)
2021-01-29
463(+2) 438(+10)
2021-01-30
464(+1) 443(+5)
2021-01-31
465(+1) 443
2021-02-01
466(+1) 443
2021-02-02
466 444(+1)
2021-02-03
466 447(+3)
2021-02-04
467(+1) 451(+4)
2021-02-05
470(+3) 452(+1)
2021-02-06
472(+2) 453(+1)
2021-02-07
474(+2) 454(+1)
2021-02-08
474 456(+2)
2021-02-09
476(+2) 457(+1)
2021-02-10
478(+2) 457
2021-02-11
478 459(+2)
2021-02-12
479(+1) 463(+4)
2021-02-13
479 466(+3)
2021-02-14
479 469(+3)
2021-02-15
479 469
2021-02-16
479 469
2021-02-17
479 470(+1)
2021-02-18
483(+4) 470
2021-02-19
484(+1) 470
2021-02-20
516(+32) 470
2021-02-21
533(+17) 473(+3)
2021-02-22
568(+35) 475(+2)
2021-02-23
593(+25) 475
2021-02-24
632(+39) 476(+1)
2021-02-25
697(+65) 477(+1)
2021-02-26
740(+43) 477
2021-02-27
766(+26) 477
2021-02-28
805(+39) 477
2021-03-01
820(+15) 477
2021-03-02
844(+24) 478(+1)
2021-03-03
878(+34) 482(+4)
2021-03-04
909(+31) 484(+2)
2021-03-05
932(+23) 489(+5)
2021-03-06
953(+21) 491(+2)
2021-03-07
987(+34) 510(+19)
2021-03-08
1,011(+24) 517(+7)
2021-03-09
1,060(+49) 538(+21)
2021-03-10
1,124(+64) 549(+11)
2021-03-11
1,163(+39) 597(+48)
2021-03-12
1,225(+62) 619(+22)
2021-03-13
1,264(+39) 623(+4)
2021-03-14
1,305(+41) 647(+24)
2021-03-15
1,325(+20) 730(+83)
2021-03-16
1,430(+105) 818(+88)
2021-03-17
1,505(+75) 840(+22)
2021-03-18
1,541(+36) 898(+58)
2021-03-19
1,578(+37) 917(+19)
2021-03-20
1,632(+54) 935(+18)
2021-03-21
1,680(+48) 950(+15)
2021-03-22
1,753(+73) 967(+17)
2021-03-23
1,788(+35) 999(+32)
2021-03-24
1,817(+29) 1,033(+34)
2021-03-25
1,872(+55) 1,056(+23)
2021-03-26
1,968(+96) 1,074(+18)
2021-03-27
2,147(+179) 1,132(+58)
2021-03-28
2,233(+86) 1,166(+34)
2021-03-29
2,272(+39) 1,172(+6)
2021-03-30
2,377(+105) 1,176(+4)
2021-03-31
2,440(+63) 1,191(+15)
2021-04-01
2,477(+37) 1,240(+49)
2021-04-02
2,546(+69) 1,256(+16)
2021-04-03
2,645(+99) 1,585(+329)
2021-04-04
2,689(+44) 1,653(+68)
2021-04-05
2,752(+63) 1,747(+94)
2021-04-06
2,824(+72) 1,794(+47)
2021-04-07
2,915(+91) 1,824(+30)
2021-04-08
3,028(+113) 1,914(+90)
2021-04-09
3,604(+576) 1,984(+70)
2021-04-10
4,081(+477) 2,080(+96)
2021-04-11
4,238(+157) 2,152(+72)
2021-04-12
4,515(+277) 2,212(+60)
2021-04-13
4,696(+181) 2,252(+40)
2021-04-14
4,874(+178) 2,290(+38)
2021-04-15
5,218(+344) 2,319(+29)
2021-04-16
5,480(+262) 2,393(+74)
2021-04-17
5,771(+291) 2,416(+23)
2021-04-18
6,389(+618) 2,476(+60)
2021-04-19
7,013(+634) 2,524(+48)
2021-04-20
7,444(+431) 2,555(+31)
2021-04-21
7,747(+303) 2,794(+239)
2021-04-22
8,193(+446) 2,924(+130)
2021-04-23
8,848(+655) 3,148(+224)
2021-04-24
9,359(+511) 3,210(+62)
2021-04-25
9,975(+616) 3,400(+190)
2021-04-26
10,555(+580) 3,577(+177)
2021-04-27
11,063(+509) 3,704(+127)
2021-04-28
11,761(+698) 4,698(+994)
2021-04-29
12,641(+880) 4,986(+288)
2021-04-30
13,402(+761) 5,152(+166)
2021-05-01
13,790(+388) 5,200(+48)
2021-05-02
14,520(+730) 5,369(+169)
2021-05-03
15,361(+841) 5,430(+61)
2021-05-04
16,299(+938) 5,791(+361)
2021-05-05
16,971(+672) 6,019(+228)
2021-05-06
17,621(+650) 6,843(+824)
2021-05-07
18,179(+558) 6,884(+41)
2021-05-08
18,717(+538) 7,340(+456)
2021-05-09
19,237(+520) 7,641(+301)

Preventive measures poster by Communicable Disease Control Department (CDCD)

January–February - first case and docking of MS Westerdam[edit]

An empty hand sanitizer shelf in Kep on 28 January 2020, the day after the first case was confirmed in Cambodia

At 3 p.m. on 31 January, the first case had been confirmed in Sihanoukville on a 60-year-old Chinese man who arrived in 23 January from Wuhan, Hubei with his family. Three other members of his family were placed under quarantine as they did not appear to have symptoms, while he was placed in a separate room at the Preah Sihanouk Referral Hospital.[48][49][50]

On 10 February, after two weeks of being treated and kept under observation, he had fully recovered, Health Ministry stated on account of testing negative for the third time by Pasteur Institute of Cambodia. The family were finally discharged and flew back to their home country on the next day as of the 80 Chinese nationals who arrived in Sihanoukville on the same flight as him, most have since returned to China, although the city of Wuhan remains under quarantine.[51][52]

The cruise ship MS Westerdam was reportedly taking 1,455 passengers and 802 crew around Asia, 651 of whom were U.S citizens. It was previously docked in Hong Kong, around the time it was badly hit by the virus. The Westerdam arrived in Sihanoukville on 13 February after it had been turned away by four countries due to virus concerns. About 20 passengers on board, who were unwell, took clinical tests but the vast majority had their temperature taken and filled out a form. Most of these passengers then disembarked.[32] This move was praised by the World Health Organization (WHO), who called it an "example of international solidarity".[32] No officials or passengers implemented social distancing or mask wearing during the ceremony, and passengers were later encouraged to tour around Phnom Penh.[14]

Of 145 Westerdam passengers who stopped in Malaysia by plane on 15 February, an 83-year-old American woman tested positive for the virus, leading to concern that other passengers may also have been infected.[53] By only then, the remaining of 781 passengers were isolated and taken clinical tests, and still, the Westerdam was criticized as it was not designed for quarantine and the passengers were able to socialize.

A comedian based in Oregon who was hired to perform on the Westerdam was said to have flouted the quarantine by sneaking a flight back to Seattle.[54] However, he averred that the quarantine never took place and was cleared by US CDC on both ends.[55]

Later tests on the American woman who had already returned home showed negative as she never had carried the virus after all, US CDC stated on 6 March.[15] While the CDC had not tested the woman directly, it was confirmed that after the patient's initial positive result, two subsequent tests came back negative. It wasn't clear why she initially tested positive for COVID-19, though CDC officials have said she might have had other respiratory illness.

1-15 March 2020 - imported cases[edit]

On 7 March, the second case of the coronavirus was detected in a 38-year-old man, a Cambodian in Siem Reap. He was among four people (three of the man's relatives and a Japanese woman) placed under quarantine at Siem Reap Provincial Referral Hospital, all of whom had direct contact with a Japanese man in his 40s who left Cambodia on 3 February and tested positive upon arrival in his country at Chubu Centrair International Airport in Tokoname, Aichi. Meanwhile, some 40 other people in the same city had been isolated under medical supervision since indirect contacts with the same Japanese man. The government prompted its decision to close all schools and cancelled the upcoming Songkran in the city.[56]

On 10 March, the Ministry of Health confirmed the country's third case. At 4:30 p.m., a 65-year-old British woman had tested positive for the virus in Kampong Cham. She was a passenger of a cruise ship named Viking Cruise Journey, which travelled from Ho Chi Minh City to Kampong Cham City.[57] The woman took a flight from London straight to Hanoi on 2 March then another flight to Ho Chi Minh City with four other people, all British. Arriving to Phnom Penh on 7 March via the cruise, it was reported that a Vietnamese woman, who was seated next to the group on the plane from London, had carried the virus. The group of five were taken samples for testing. Two of them refused, claiming that they were healthy and having no symptoms, until the cruise ship reached Kampong Cham on 9 March.[58]

Following the event, the boat had been docked to provide samples to be tested from all 29 other passengers and 34 crew and were they placed under quarantine in a hotel somewhere in the city.[59] The British patient was transferred to Royal Phnom Penh Hospital in Phnom Penh at her own request, adding that she had been conducted with coordination from WHO.[60] On 12 March, another cases of two passengers of Viking Cruise Journey were publicly confirmed at noon to have tested positive in a British man, 73 and his wife, 69, bringing up to five the confirmed cases at the time. Due to their ages, the married couple were transferred to Khmer-Soviet Friendship Hospital in Phnom Penh.[61][62]

On 13 March, health officials confirmed two cases in Phnom Penh at 8 p.m. sharp, tallying to seven in total. A 49-year-old Canadian and a 33-year-old Belgian were in quarantine in Khmer-Soviet Friendship Hospital.[63] The authorities were trying to locate those who had contacts with the patients.[64]

For the time being, another two visitors to Tuol Sleng Genocide Museum (A British and his friend, a Canadian woman who worked in China) were suspected to have the symptoms and admitted to the said hospital. A British man, however, made an escape but was found later in Kampot and hospitalized there. They were tested negative, assuming it was just a fever they had. Nevertheless, their self-monitoring was needed for any changes.[citation needed]

All cruise ships had since been prohibited to enter the country through K'am Samnar checkpoint and any other checkpoints.[65][66]

14–25 March - restrictions come into place[edit]

In 14 March, MOEYS published an article, declaring that they would have to shut down all educational institutes in Phnom Penh until further notice, so did an NGO of where the Belgian man had been working at.[67][68] On 16 March, it was announced the closure of all educational institutions would be expanded nationwide.[19]

According to a Ministry of Health press release, Cambodia announced a ban on all entries from Italy, Germany, Spain, France and the United States, thereby all visas would be undeniably suspended. This policy would be held for thirty days, effective on 17 March.[69] Iran was added to the list of countries whose nationals were suspended entry to Cambodia the following day, making a total of six. This would take effect on 18 March.[70]

On 15 March, an additional case of COVID-19 was confirmed in Phnom Penh at 5 p.m. sharp on a French man, 35. With his wife and his four-month-old baby, the family flew from Paris to Singapore on 13 March. Showing signs of fever, the authorities there took his samples for examination. To wait for the results, he wasn't allowed to go any further, however as a follow-up health checkup was presented, he was informed that he could carry on and the results would be available accordingly.[citation needed] The family were off, landed at Phnom Penh International Airport on the morning of 14 March. The same day, the test came back positive. As of 15 March, the man was admitted to Khmer-Soviet Friendship Hospital while his wife and child, were staying at home of a relative under medical supervision.[71]

Contacts with the man were found in the plane he boarded, in total of 24 passengers (including him and his family), and another two transporters who drove them home, to be examined. At 9 p.m., a report of 4 more cases were publicized, tallied up to twelve at the end of the day. It included a 4-month-old child of the French patient, a Cambodian from France, and two Khmer Muslims, 35 and 39, who attended the Tablighi Jamaat mosque superspreader event near Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia on 29 February. The ten mosque event attendees arrived at Preah Vihear (except one, who arrived at Stung Treng) on 3 March and up to 14 March, Malaysia informed that it had found the infected from that gathering. Another 8 people were continually in testing.[72][73]

Within the span of two days on 17 March, the total confirmed cases leapt to 33.[74][75] At half past 9 a.m., 12 cases were publicly stated. 11 Khmer were found to be infected in various provinces. They were among 79 people returning from attending the Tablighi Jamaat mosque event in Malaysia. One case further referred to a Cambodian man who crossed the border from Thailand in Banteay Meanchey.[76] At 9:00 p.m., nine more cases were included, six more attendees in Malaysia and three Malaysians out of a group of five. Two of the group were put under quarantine at a mosque in Kep.[77]

The government mandated the extended closure to karaoke clubs and cinemas and forbid all religious gatherings and concerts.[18][78][79]

On 18 March, four more cases were detected: two Malaysians in Kampot and two more tabligh attendees in Tboung Khmum.[80]

In response to Vietnam's unilaterally shutting down borders with Cambodia without prior notice, the Ministry of Foreign Affairs announced to suspend all border crossings with Vietnam for a month-long period with the exception of diplomats and official passport holders. The measure would take effect on 20 March to avert inconvenience quarantine requirements for both nations.[81][82]

It was reported that Thailand unilaterally closed Cambodian-Thai provincial border crossing, An Ses-Preah Vihear.[citation needed]

The government had established a national committee for combating the COVID-19, it had duties to set national policy and strategy related to the fight against the COVID-19 and control the impact of the virus on politics, economy, and society at national and international levels. The committee was obliged to direct the implementation of the strategic plan in preventing, containing and controlling the spread of the virus.[3]

On 19 March, ten more cases were detected: two wives of the infected men, two more tabligh attendees, and six Malaysians.[83]

On 20 March, the Ministry of Health announced an additional 4 confirmed cases: a Malaysian, and three Cambodians, one of whom was infected from an attendee from Malaysia and had no recent travel record overseas.[84]

On 21 March, two more cases were confirmed at 9 p.m., a 67-year-old and an 80-year-old Frenchmen who arrived Sihanoukville as tourists on 18 March. 37 people suspected to have contacts with were put under quarantine.[85]

On 22 March, having tested negative for a few times, a 65-year-old patient, British woman was reported that she fully recovered. She was said to be discharged later that day.[citation needed]

After bilateral meetings between Cambodia and Thailand was resulted in agreement upon closing all borders starting from 23 March for 14 days. An exception was made at Poipet-Aranyaprathet border crossing where only heavy-duty trucks were allowed under strict conditions. [86]

At 10 p.m., more 29 people linked in the same tourist group of the cases confirmed the previous night, plus two Cambodian guides were detected of the virus. The tourist group arrived Cambodia on 11 March, visiting four provinces. As the tour ended in Sihanoukville on 18 March, the group had stayed in Independence Hotel and was scheduled to depart from Phnom Penh on 21 March.[87]

On 23 March at 19:30, three new cases were recorded to include a mother of a 4-month-old child whom she and her infant had been placed under treatment at the Kantha Bopha Children's Hospital and other two Cambodians.[88]

On 24 March, the Health Ministry registered four new cases, risen up to 91. A British couple and an American couple were passengers of Viking Cruise Journey where the rest of them, 24 people were cleared and would depart for home from Phnom Penh via charter flights the next day.[89] It also added that four patients, two from Tboung Khmum and another two from Battambang, were all tested negative twice and ready to be discharged.[90]

On 25 March, Cambodia recorded five new cases, two from the French tourist group and 3 Cambodians with no recent foreign travels.[91]

Four more patients, three from Phnom Penh and one from Tboung Khmum, had made complete recovery for that day.[92]

174 Chinese nationals had been quarantined in Svay Rieng upon their arrival from Phnom Penh by bus after two of them exhibited high temperatures.[93] [94]

26–31 March[edit]

Reportedly around 40 thousand workers from Thailand had returned home. The local authorities were ordered to pay close attention and getting them informed on preventive measures and self-quarantine themselves for two weeks.[95]

On 26–28 March, two Indonesians taking off from Thailand and a Cambodian family of four who went on a trip to France were added to confirmed cases.[96][97][98]

On 29–31 March, six cases were added to the total of 109 at the month's end.[99][100] [101]

Eleven patients from Koh Kong, Banteay Meanchey, Phnom Penh, Kampong Chhnang, Battambang and Siem Reap was reported to have recovered from the disease.[102][103] [104]

On 28 March, The government mandated to impose travel restrictions to Cambodia, effective on 30 March. It stated that it would suspend visa exemption policy and issuance of tourist visa, e-visa and visa on arrival to all foreigners for a period of one month. Any foreign individual entering the country must obtain a prior visa from Cambodian missions abroad and provide a medical certificate, issued no more than 72 hours prior to arrival time and proof that he/she holds at least 50 thousand dollars for medical coverage.[16]

The authorities had traced 340 people who had indirect contacts with infected French tourist group in Siem Reap.[105]

On 30 March, all casinos were ordered to close temporarily starting from 1 April.[106]

April 2020 - cancellation of Khmer New Year[edit]

Between 1 and 9 April, Cambodia counted 9 new cases, most notably on 9 April, a discharged patient was found to be relapsing two days after.[107][108][109][110][111] Moreover, 48 patients reportedly had recovered, mostly in Sihanoukville, adding up to 68 in total.[112][113]

To ensure the nation's food security during the outbreak, rice exports would be halted from 6 April.[114]

A planned return of 150 Cambodian workers from Malaysia was turn down on 7 April by the government to tighten safety for its country.[115]

Massage parlours and health spas were ordered nationwide to temporarily shut down from 7 April.[116]

Khmer New Year celebrations scheduled 13–16 April were cancelled, implementing no-holiday policy to all employees and officials.[20][117] The government promised to provide US$70 a month to any laid-off worker whose factories were suspended operations.[118][119] For those who go on holidays would have to take quarantine for two weeks without pay when they return to work.[120]

An act was issued on 8 April to prohibit travels across provinces and between districts outside the capital with exceptions for goods transporters, armed forces and civil servants starting midnight on the 10th and would last a week until 16th.[121][122]

May–October 2020 - slowdown in new case detections and reopenings[edit]

After a month-long streak of no new cases in May, the Ministry of Health reported a new imported case of a man travelling from the Philippines. The other 62 passengers on the flight are quarantined at a hotel in Phnom Penh.[123]

In July, a small number of private schools were allowed to reopen for in-person teaching, with a number of safety protocols mandated.[22]

Schools nationwide were reopened for in-person teaching on 7 September after a six-month closure. Temperature checks, mask wearing, hygiene and maximum number of occupants per room were mandated by authorities.[124] Casinos began reopening in late September.[125]

The annual Bon Om Touk (Water Festival) race in Phnom Penh was cancelled in October to minimise the risk of large gatherings.[126]

November visit of Hungarian foreign minister[edit]

On 3 November, foreign minister of Hungary Péter Szijjártó visited Cambodia, holding meetings with high ranking government officials and signing three agreements. Szijjártó tested positive upon his return to Bangkok the following day, prompting staff from 13 government institutions, including Prime Minister Hun Sen, to go into quarantine.[127][23] As of 11 November, the Ministry of Health had tested over 1,000 contacts and had started contact tracing efforts into seven provinces, with four contacts testing positive.[7] Schools, museums, entertainment venues, cinemas, beer gardens and gyms in Phnom Penh and Kandal were closed for two weeks[127][128] and the public were advised to avoid large gatherings such as weddings, group dinners and concerts.[129]

Hun Sen dismissed rumors that a lockdown was being considered on 12 November. International arrival procedures were also changed, mandating a strict 14-day quarantine for all arrivals regardless of a negative test.[130]

Restrictions related to the '3 November event' were lifted on 21 November.[131]

First local transmission[edit]

On 29 November, Cambodia reported its first known local community transmission on a woman in Phnom Penh with no history of overseas travel.[132] All six of her family members, including her husband who is the Director General of the General Department of Prisons, also tested positive.[24] AEON Mall in Phnom Penh was closed as the woman had recently visited there, and contact tracing efforts began across the city and to three other provinces.[132] As of 30, 3 November 382 people have been tested as part of this cluster[133] and as of 5, 29 December people have tested positive.[134] The government also cancelled the remainder of the 2020 school year.[135]

The Ministry of Health later clarified that the strain of the community outbreak was different from the 3 November case, and suggested that COVID-19 may have entered the country sometime during October and been circulating in the population since then.[25] The cluster was traced back to the daughter of prison director, who showed symptoms in October, and may have had contact with an imported case.[134][136]

February - April 2021: large-scale outbreak and vaccinations[edit]

Ministry of Health announced on 4 February that it had granted emergency use authorization to Sinopharm vaccine.[137] A million doses would be provided with first batch of 600 thousand doses received on 7 February. Among those whom to be prioritized for vaccination were government officials, armed forces, health workers, educators, and journalists.[138] Cambodia thus began its vaccination programme of BBIBP-CorV on February 10.[27] Another batch of 700 thousand doses would be delivered on 1 April.[139]

It later rolled out the Covishield vaccine on March 5 with the first batch of 324 thousand doses. People above 60 were urged to receive this vaccine, otherwise, Sinopharm vaccine was still for younger ones.[140]

1.5 million purchased doses of Chinese-made CoronaVac were readied to deploy for registered 60-year-olds and under on April 1.[141]

A large-scale outbreak detected in Phnom Penh in 20 February took place when two out of four Chinese nationals who breached quarantine at the Sokha Hotel few days prior were tested positive. They were said to have spent time in a nightclub and several other residences including those in Koh Pich.[142] This was the largest detected community outbreak to date, and selected city districts and businesses were ordered to close.[26][143] Hospitals in Phnom Penh reached capacity by February 23. Later patients would be sent to Phnom Penh Quarantine Center in Prek Pnov District.[144] One of the patients treated in the said facility was pronounced deceased around 9 a.m. A 34-year-old Chinese man's death was ruled as a heart attack due to Amphetamine withdrawal. Showing no mild symptoms, he was tested positive three days prior, a part of 20 February cluster with sum of 424 active cases so far that day.[145]

On March 11, a Cambodian man, 50, died at 10:40 a.m. from chronic lung disease in Phnom Penh. He was confirmed to be exposed to his employer on 28 February. This occurrence marked the country's first death of COVID-19.[28][146]

According to U.S. CDC, all cases sequenced in the outbreak was infected by a British variant, Lineage B.1.1.7 and was believed to have started from an infected airline passenger who left quarantine without authorization on the night of February 8.[147][29]

An 8-to-5 night curfew order was implemented for two weeks started on April 1 across Phnom Penh. All non-essential travel and business activity was ceased.[148] The death toll raised to 16.[149]

In April 2021, a mass vaccination of Cambodia's textile workers began, with the view to help jump-start the country's post-pandemic economic recovery; the textile industry is worth an estimated $7 billion to Cambodia's economy.[150]

A record daily figure of 576 infections were reported on April 9.[151] 544 of these were in Phnom Penh, mostly associated with cluster outbreaks at O'Russei market and a garment factory in Meanchey district.[152] Some districts of Phnom Penh were placed under lockdown for 14 days, the first to be implemented in Cambodia since the pandemic began.[153] Further restrictions were imposed including a ban on sales of alcohol and limiting restaurants' service to takeaway only.[154] The virus had been circulating in 27 of Phnom Penh's crowded markets and at least 120 factories since the February 20 cluster was detected.[30]

April 2021: city-wide lockdowns[edit]

On 15 April, all of Phnom Penh and Ta Khmau were placed under lockdown, a strict stay at home order, for two weeks.[155][156] Prime Minister Hun Sen warned the country was on the "brink of death", and the World Health Organization warned the country was "on the brink of national tragedy" with the healthcare system at risk of becoming overwhelmed.[157][29] Prison sentences, fines and caning were used by police to enforce restrictions.[158][157] Certain districts were declared as "red zones", where food markets and supermarkets were closed and people cannot leave except for medical emergencies, with the Ministry of Commerce in charge of distributing food supplies.[159] The lockdown resulted in thousands of Phnom Penh residents going hungry and requiring emergency food aid.[160][161][162]

Sihanoukville enacted another lockdown and several "red zones" on April 24.[163]

Statistics[edit]

Summary[edit]

  • As of Sunday, 9 May 2021
    Cumulative cases Active Cases Deaths Tests performed
    19,237 11,468 120
    +6
    993,240
    +6,796
    New cases Recovered
    520 7,641
  • Vaccination [164]
    Doses administered 2,826,589
    +60,967
    At least one dose Per 100 people Fully vaccinated
    1,718,708 10.2

       

    1,107,881


Progression[edit]

Daily figures[edit]

From 20 February 2021

From 27 January 2020–19 February 2021

Case breakdown[edit]

By provinces

As of 4 May 2021
Province Total cases Re⁠coveries Deaths[b] Chart (%)
16,299 5,761 107 (7)
  Phnom Penh
  Sihanoukville
  Kandal
  Banteay Meanchey
  Other
616 68
30 28
118 33 1
16 6
74 14 2 (1)
51 12
10 7
1,387 489 2
10 6 1
50 43
3 3
3 0
3 2
19 19
11,202 3,832 86 (3)
3 3
115 70 2 (1)
15 4
56 23
2,023 851 8 (1)
1 0
314 222 4
127 29
53 27 1 (1)

By nationalities

As of 28 April 2021
Nationality Cases Nationality Cases
10,505 3
810 2
181
115
47 1
17
16
12
11
6
   Nepal
5
4
Total 11,761

By age group

As of 3 May 2021
Age group Cases Deaths Lethality (%)
n % Total Female
 Cambodia 15,361 100 106 46 0.7
0 – 9 709 4.6
10 – 19 1,414 9.2
20 – 29 4,920 32.0 5 2 0.1
30 – 39 4,716 30.7 14 3 0.3
40 - 49 1,920 12.5 18 5 0.9
50 - 59 967 6.3 22 10 2.3
60 - 69 453 2.9 21 12 4.6
70 - 79 186 1.3 19 11 10.2
80 – 89 40 0.3 5 3 12.5
≥ 90 1 0.0 1 100.0
Unknown 35 0.2 1 2.9

By gender

As of 3 May 2021
Age group Cases Percentage Total
0–9 367
  
51.8% 709
342
  
48.2%
10–19 814
  
57.6% 1,414
600
  
42.4%
20–29 2,876
  
58.5% 4,920
2,044
  
41.5%
30–39 2,678
  
56.8% 4,716
2,038
  
43.2%
40–49 1,097
  
57.1% 1,920
823
  
42.9%
50–59 574
  
59.4% 967
393
  
40.6%
60–69 270
  
59.6% 453
183
  
40.4%
70–79 110
  
59.1% 186
76
  
40.9%
80–89 21
  
52.5% 40
19
  
47.5%
≥ 90 0
  
0% 1
1
  
100%
Unknown 20
  
57.1% 35
15
  
42.9%
All 8,828
  
57.5% 15,361
6,533
  
42.5%
Female
Male


Impact[edit]

United Nations Development Programme predicted in October 2020 that the poverty rate in Cambodia could double to 17.6% and unemployment could rise to 4.8% as a result of the COVID-19 recession.[40] The economy is projected to shrink by 5.5% in 2020, following 7% growth in 2019.[165]

According to Asian Development Bank, around 390,000 people were estimated to have lost their jobs.[41][166] Closure of garment factories alone, Cambodia's biggest employer, have left at least 100,000 people unemployed.[17][167] Many Cambodians are indebted to microfinance institutions, putting them at risk of falling into poverty if loan repayments cannot be met.[40][39][42] Around 86,000 Cambodian migrant workers returned from Thailand as border closures took effect, with minimal employment opportunities upon their return.[168][169]

The pandemic severely impacted the tourism sector in Cambodia as international travel was disrupted by restrictions and all tourist visas were suspended. The coastal tourism hub of Sihanoukville was impacted by a drop in arrivals from China.[170] In Siem Reap, ticket sales for Angkor National Park dropped to an average of 22 people per day during April, leaving Angkor Wat, typically bustling with thousands of tourists, almost empty. In October, ticket sales for Angkor were down 98% from sales in October 2019.[126] Cambodian Cultural Village permanently closed.[171] At least 600 hotels nationwide have closed, and more than 10,000 tourism sector employees have become unemployed.[37][172][38]

Over 3 million children were affected by school closures. UNICEF stressed that adjusting to online learning disadvantages rural poor children in Cambodia, and the disruptions to education during the pandemic could have a long-lasting impact.[166]

Lockdown restrictions and enforcement in April 2021 caused disruptions to Phnom Penh food supplies and led to tens of thousands of requests for food aid across the city.[159][160]

Humanitarian assistance[edit]

On 23 March 2020, a team of seven specialist physicians from southern China's Guangxi with medical supplies, including ventilators, medical masks, protective suits, test kits, and infrared temperature sensors, had landed in Phnom Penh to assist tackling the pandemic.[173][174]

In April 2020 and 2021, Vietnam donated 500 thousand USD worth of medical supplies to Cambodia along with 800 ventilators, 2 million medical masks and 300,000 N95 masks. Vietnam's PM told Hun Sen that Hanoi is always ready to assist Cambodia in preventing the pandemic. This is one of the biggest aid from Vietnam to another countries in prevention against COVID-19.[175][176][177]

On 21 May 2021, Cambodia received 528 packs of Cycloferon tablets and 520 packs of Cycloferon ampoules providing from Russia.[178]

Cambodia had donated millions of face masks and PPE to Laos, Myanmar, East Timor and Nepal.[179][180]

On 24 December 2020, the Australian government pledged to assist Cambodia with the acquisition and distribution of COVID-19 vaccines. The support will include procurement, delivery and health advice. The announcement was made following a meeting between Australian ambassador to Cambodia, Pablo Kang and the Cambodian Minister of Economy and Finance, Aun Pornmoniroth in Phnom Penh on 23 December.[181]

On 1 April 2021, Japan aided the country 1 million USD through UNICEF for boosting process of vaccination programme.[182]

Reception[edit]

During the early stages of the pandemic, it was reported that Prime Minister Hun Sen was downplaying the pandemic and Cambodia was not responding in an effort to maintain its close diplomatic and economic relationship with China.[11][33][12][183] In February, Hun Sen downplayed the risk of the virus at a press conference, suggesting the virus was sensationalized by the media and threatened to expel those present who were wearing masks. Hun Sen also visited China to show Cambodia's support in its response, and offered to visit Wuhan specifically.[12] Unlike most other countries, Cambodia did not cease travel to and from China and did not evacuate its overseas citizens from Wuhan during the initial outbreak there.[184][11][183]

During a press conference on 27 July 2020, at the six month mark of the declaration of a Public Health Emergency of International Concern, World Health Organization Director-General Tedros Adhanom praised Cambodia for its success in "preventing [a] large scale outbreak", along with New Zealand, Rwanda, Vietnam and Thailand.[31] The WHO also praised Cambodia's welcoming of the MS Westerdam.[13][better source needed]

Concerns have been raised about the lack of widespread community testing in Cambodia. In April, testing was reportedly restricted to travelers or those with contact to known COVID-19 cases. "Regular flu" cases were not being tested.[35] The lack of transparency was highlighted in the wake of the Hungarian Foreign Minister's visit in November, as were the breach in safety protocols during the meetings. A number of people travelling from Cambodia have tested positive for COVID-19 upon arrival in other countries.[4] No prisoners were tested for COVID-19 despite coming into contact with officials who tested positive, which was criticized by the Cambodian League for the Promotion and Defense of Human Rights, particularly as Cambodia's prisons are often overcrowded.[36][185] Prisons director Nuth Savna told VOD in December that several prisoners had fever but still did not test them, dismissing this as due to the change in weather.[186][185] Some experts have suggested that COVID-19 may be circulating undetected in the country.[4][183] Others have suggested that the hot weather and open-air society have kept transmission low.[5]

On 30 March 2020, Human Rights Watch criticized local authorities for engaging in "inflammatory rhetoric against vulnerable groups and foreigners", including having specifically referred to groups (such as Khmer Islam) as the subject of positive cases in a 17 March Facebook post (which incited discriminatory comments), and having blamed foreigners for its spread.[187] It has also criticized the Cambodian government for using emergency measures to restrict freedoms, including "baseless" arrests of critics and opposition supporters for "incitement" or dissemination of "fake news", including members of the Cambodian National Rescue Party, and an online journalist who merely quoted a speech by Prime Minister Hun Sen on social media.[34]

In April 2021, Phnom Penh police were criticised by Cambodian human rights groups and Minister of Information Khieu Kanharith for implementing caning to punish violators of the city's lockdown restrictions.[158] Human rights groups, and a group of UN special rapporteurs for human rights also expressed concern over the severity of punishments for lockdown violations.[157]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ "Cambodia confirms first case of coronavirus: Health minister". CNA.asia. 27 January 2020. Archived from the original on 27 January 2020. Retrieved 27 January 2020.
  2. ^ "At first Cambodians couldn't believe their COVID-19 numbers. Now they do". www.abc.net.au. 3 December 2020. Retrieved 30 April 2021.
  3. ^ a b c "Cambodia sets national committee to combat COVID-19". XINHUA. 18 March 2020.
  4. ^ a b c d Sony, O; Dickison, M; Keeton-Olson, D (6 November 2020). "As Covid-19 Protocols Breached, Concerns Over Lack of Transparency". VOD. Retrieved 11 November 2020.
  5. ^ a b "The Cambodian lab working to unravel how COVID-19 spreads and grows". Southeast Asia Globe. 2 April 2020. Retrieved 30 November 2020.
  6. ^ Sony, O. "Health Ministry, WHO Warn of Possible Community Virus Transmission". vodenglish.news. Retrieved 30 November 2020.
  7. ^ a b c Dara, M (10 November 2020). "Covid-19 Contact Tracing Spreads to 7 Provinces After Official's Trip". VOD. Retrieved 11 November 2020.
  8. ^ "Provinces Cast Wide Net for Covid-19 Contact Tracing". VOD. 2 December 2020. Retrieved 2 December 2020.
  9. ^ "Insights from the Cambodian experience in preventing the spread of COVID-19". www.unicef.org. Retrieved 30 November 2020.
  10. ^ Global Health Security Index, 2019 Source
  11. ^ a b c d "Hun Sen's Political Gamble: The Coronavirus Epidemic". thediplomat.com. Retrieved 30 November 2020.
  12. ^ a b c d Tiezzi, Shannon. "China and Cambodia: Love in the Time of Coronavirus". thediplomat.com. Retrieved 30 November 2020.
  13. ^ a b c "Cambodia and Coronavirus: Temporary Travel Restrictions". 12 May 2020.
  14. ^ a b c Beech, Hannah (18 February 2020). "Cambodia's Coronavirus Complacency May Exact a Global Toll". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved 12 November 2020.
  15. ^ a b "U.S. Woman Who Traveled on the Westerdam Cruise Ship Does Not Have Coronavirus After All, CDC Says". TIME. 6 March 2020.
  16. ^ a b "Cambodia to impose travel restrictions from Tuesday". Khmer Times. 28 March 2020.
  17. ^ a b c Welle (www.dw.com), Deutsche. "Coronavirus brings trouble to Cambodia's garment industry | DW | 29.04.2020". DW.COM. Retrieved 11 November 2020.
  18. ^ a b "Cambodian Government Closes KTVs and Cinemas Nationwide to Fight Covid-19". Fresh News. 17 March 2020.
  19. ^ a b "Cambodia Announces Nationwide School Closures as COVID Response Ramps Up". VOA Cambodia. 16 March 2020.
  20. ^ a b "Khmer New Year holiday cancelled to curb virus spread". Khmer Times. 8 April 2020.
  21. ^ a b "Fears as Cambodia grants PM vast powers under Covid-19 pretext". the Guardian. 10 April 2020. Retrieved 7 December 2020.
  22. ^ a b "Schools to Reopen in Less Than Two Weeks". Cambodianess. Retrieved 11 November 2020.
  23. ^ a b "Updated: Hungarian Official Tests Positive for Covid-19 Day After Meeting Hun Sen". VOD. 4 November 2020. Retrieved 11 November 2020.
  24. ^ a b "Cambodia records its first COVID-19 community outbreak with family of six tested positive". Khmer Times. 29 November 2020. Retrieved 29 November 2020.
  25. ^ a b "Local COVID Outbreak Different Strain From November 3 Cases ⋆ Cambodia News English". Cambodia News English. 3 December 2020. Retrieved 4 December 2020.
  26. ^ a b "Corruption threatens Cambodia's COVID success as cluster spreads". Nikkei Asia. Retrieved 25 February 2021.
  27. ^ a b Staff, Reuters (10 February 2021). "Cambodia launches COVID-19 vaccinations with shots for PM's sons, ministers". Reuters. Retrieved 25 February 2021.
  28. ^ a b Cheang, Sopheng (11 March 2021). "Cambodia reports first COVID-19 death, 1 year into pandemic". The Associated Press.
  29. ^ a b c Bopha, Phorn. "COVID variant pushes Cambodia to brink of 'national tragedy'". www.aljazeera.com. Retrieved 18 April 2021.
  30. ^ a b "'February 20' Cluster in Numbers: 7,600 and Climbing". vodenglish.news. Retrieved 29 April 2021.
  31. ^ a b "WHO Director-General's opening remarks at the media briefing on COVID-19 - 27 July 2020". www.who.int. Retrieved 12 November 2020.
  32. ^ a b c "Coronavirus: How did Cambodia's cruise ship welcome go wrong?". BBC News. 20 February 2020.
  33. ^ a b Grundy-Warr, Carl; Lin, Shaun (16 June 2020). "COVID-19 geopolitics: silence and erasure in Cambodia and Myanmar in times of pandemic". Eurasian Geography and Economics. 61 (4–5): 493–510. doi:10.1080/15387216.2020.1780928. ISSN 1538-7216.
  34. ^ a b "Cambodia: Covid-19 Spurs Bogus 'Fake News' Arrests". Human Rights Watch. 29 April 2020. Retrieved 4 May 2020.
  35. ^ a b Kong, Meta. "Takeo Health Centers Focus on Travel Histories; Disregarding 'Normal Flu' Cases". VOA Cambodia. VOA Cambodia. Retrieved 26 April 2020.
  36. ^ a b Techseng, Tran (1 December 2020). "No Prisoners Tested Despite Contact With Covid-19 Infected Director". VOD English. Retrieved 2 December 2020.
  37. ^ a b "Tourists amazed about seeing Angkor Wat without usual crowds". South China Morning Post. 6 June 2020. Retrieved 11 November 2020.
  38. ^ a b Hunt, Luke. "Cambodians Reclaim Angkor Wat as Global Lockdowns Continue to Bite". thediplomat.com. Retrieved 11 November 2020.
  39. ^ a b Flynn, G; Dara, M (16 April 2020). "Garment Workers Cornered by Job Loss, Virus Fears and Looming Debt". VOD. Retrieved 11 November 2020.
  40. ^ a b c "ECONOMIC AND SOCIAL IMPACT ASSESSMENT OF COVID-19 IN CAMBODIA RELEASED | UNDP in Cambodia". UNDP. Retrieved 11 November 2020.
  41. ^ a b ADB Loan for Cambodia's COVID-19 Response, Asian Development Bank, 2 September 2020, retrieved 11 November 2020
  42. ^ a b "'Strangled by debt': Coronavirus deepens Cambodia's loan crisis". news.yahoo.com. Retrieved 20 November 2020.
  43. ^ Elsevier. "Novel Coronavirus Information Center". Elsevier Connect. Archived from the original on 30 January 2020. Retrieved 15 March 2020.
  44. ^ Reynolds, Matt (4 March 2020). "What is coronavirus and how close is it to becoming a pandemic?". Wired UK. ISSN 1357-0978. Archived from the original on 5 March 2020. Retrieved 5 March 2020.
  45. ^ a b "Crunching the numbers for coronavirus". Imperial News. Archived from the original on 19 March 2020. Retrieved 15 March 2020.
  46. ^ "High consequence infectious diseases (HCID); Guidance and information about high consequence infectious diseases and their management in England". GOV.UK. Archived from the original on 3 March 2020. Retrieved 17 March 2020.
  47. ^ "World Federation Of Societies of Anaesthesiologists – Coronavirus". www.wfsahq.org. Archived from the original on 12 March 2020. Retrieved 15 March 2020.
  48. ^ "Cambodia Confirms First Coronavirus Case". Voice of America. Retrieved 28 January 2020.
  49. ^ 谭欣雨. "Cambodia confirms first case of novel coronavirus: health minister – Chinadaily.com.cn". China Daily. Archived from the original on 28 January 2020. Retrieved 28 January 2020.
  50. ^ "Coronavirus confirmed in Cambodia". Khmer Times-US. 27 January 2020. Retrieved 28 January 2020.
  51. ^ "Cambodia's Only Confirmed Coronavirus Patient has Recovered, says Ministry of Health". Cambodianess.com. 10 February 2020.
  52. ^ "Chinese National Recovers from Novel Coronavirus, Released from Sihanoukville Hospital". VOA Cambodia. 10 February 2020.
  53. ^ "Coronavirus Infection Found After Cruise Ship Passengers Disperse". The New York Times. 16 February 2020. Archived from the original on 17 February 2020. Retrieved 17 February 2020.
  54. ^ "Hotel getaway: Oregon comedian quarantined amid cruise ship virus sneaks flight to Seattle". KOMO NEWS. 18 February 2020.
  55. ^ His statements on Twitter (@theMHcomedian)
  56. ^ "First Case of Virus Found in Cambodian". VOA Cambodia. 7 March 2020.
  57. ^ "Cambodia confirms third case". Cambodianess.com. 10 March 2020.
  58. ^ "Cambodia Announces Third Virus Case, British Tourist Tests Positive on River Cruise from Vietnam". VOA Cambodia. 10 March 2020.
  59. ^ "Passengers Aboard Riverboat Docked in Kampong Cham to be Tested for COVID-19". Cambodianess. 11 March 2020.
  60. ^ "Cambodia's Third COVID-19 Case to be Transferred to Phnom Penh". Cambodianess. 11 March 2020.
  61. ^ "Cambodia Confirms Two New Cases of Covid-19 on British Citizens". Fresh News. 12 March 2020.
  62. ^ "Two British Tourists Carrying COVID-19 Are Put in Quarantine in Cambodia". Cambodianess. 12 March 2020.
  63. ^ "Cambodia Confirms Two New Cases of Covid-19 Tallying to Seven". Fresh News. 13 March 2020.
  64. ^ "Two More Cases of COVID-19 Are Identified in Cambodia". Cambodianess. 13 March 2020.
  65. ^ "Cruise Ships Coming from Vietnam on the Mekong River Can No Longer Enter the Country". Cambodianess. 13 March 2020.
  66. ^ "Cambodia bans cruise ships, fearing spread of COVID-19". ABS-CBN. 13 March 2020.
  67. ^ "Cambodian Government Temporarily Closes Canadian International School (Koh Pich) after a 49-year-old Canadian Staff Tested Positive of Covid-19". Fresh News. 14 March 2020.
  68. ^ "Schools in Phnom Penh and Siem Reap City Close for Early Summer Vacation". Cambodianess. 14 March 2020.
  69. ^ "Cambodia Bans Entries of Foreigners from Italy, Germany, Spain, France, and US for 30 Days to Prevent Covid-19, Effective 17 March". Fresh News. 14 March 2020.
  70. ^ "Cambodia Bans Entries of Iranians for 30 Days to Prevent Covid-19". Fresh News. 15 March 2020.
  71. ^ "A Frenchman Becomes the Latest Person to Test Positive for COVID-19". Cambodianess. 15 March 2020.
  72. ^ "Cambodia Confirms Four New Cases of Covid-19, Tallying to Twelve". Fresh News. 15 March 2020.
  73. ^ "(In Khmer) Four other cases of COVID-19 were found". VOD Khmer. 15 March 2020.
  74. ^ "12 New COVID-19 Cases Confirmed". CNE. 17 March 2020.
  75. ^ "Cambodia Confirms 12 New Cases of Covid-19, Tallying to 24". Fresh News. 17 March 2020.
  76. ^ "Cambodia reports 12 new cases of COVID-19, bringing total to 24". Channel NewsAsia. 17 March 2020.
  77. ^ "Health Ministry reports 21 new cases of COVID-19 in six provinces". Khmer Times. 17 March 2020.
  78. ^ "Cambodian Government Bans Concerts Nationwide to Fight Covid-19". Fresh News. 17 March 2020.
  79. ^ "Health Ministry Stops Religious Gatherings". CNE. 17 March 2020.
  80. ^ "COVID-19 infection increases to 37". Khmer Times. 18 March 2020.
  81. ^ "Vietnam shutters borders with Cambodia as pandemic spreads". Khmer Times. 18 March 2020.
  82. ^ "Cambodia Announces to Suspend Crossing Borders with Vietnam". Fresh News. 18 March 2020.
  83. ^ "Ten New Cases of COVID-19 Are Identified in Cambodia". Cambodianess. 19 March 2020.
  84. ^ "Four New COVID-19 Cases Bring Cambodia's Total to 51". Cambodianess. 20 March 2020.
  85. ^ "Cambodia reports 2 new COVID-19 cases, bringing total to 53". Xinhua. 21 March 2020.
  86. ^ "ថៃ ប្រកាសបិទច្រកព្រំដែនទាំងអស់ជាមួយកម្ពុជា ដើម្បីទប់ស្កាត់ការរីករាលដាល COVID-19 តែរថយន្តដឹកទំនិញចេញចូលធម្មតា ក្រោមលក្ខខណ្ឌរឹតបន្តឹងខ្លាំង". Fresh News. 22 March 2020.
  87. ^ "Cambodia Sees Largest Single-Day Rise in Covid-19 Cases, Now at 84". VOD. 23 March 2020.
  88. ^ "Covid-19 cases in Cambodia rise to 87". The Star. 24 March 2020.
  89. ^ "22 Viking Cruise Journey passengers fly out of Cambodia". Khmer Times. 26 March 2020.
  90. ^ "Cambodia reports four new coronavirus cases, bringing total to 91". Reuters. 24 March 2020.
  91. ^ "Kingdom records 96 virus cases". Khmer Times. 25 March 2020.
  92. ^ "Four more COVID-19 patients make complete recovery, bringing total to 10". Khmer Times. 25 March 2020.
  93. ^ "More than 170 Chinese tourists quarantined in Bavet city". Khmer Times. 26 March 2020.
  94. ^ "Chinese Nationals Are Detained at the Bavet International Border". Cambodianess. 26 March 2020.
  95. ^ "Interior Minister Sar Kheng Says 40,000 Cambodians Working in Thailand Came Home". Cambodianess. 26 March 2020.
  96. ^ "Four Members of a Cambodian Family Become the Country's Latest COVID-19 Cases". Cambodianess. 28 March 2020.
  97. ^ "Two More Covid-19 Cases Raise Infection Count to 98". VOD English. 27 March 2020.
  98. ^ "Two Indonesians flee Thailand to Cambodia for free COVID-19 treatment". Khmer Times. 27 March 2020.
  99. ^ "COVID-19 cases rise to 103 in Cambodia with new patient at Poipet". Khmer Times. 29 March 2020.
  100. ^ "COVID-19 patients rise to 107". Khmer Times. 30 March 2020.
  101. ^ "COVID-19 patients soar to 109 in Cambodia". Khmer Times. 31 March 2020.
  102. ^ "Cambodia Confirms Two New Cases of Covid-19 Today, Tallying to 98; One Recovered". Fresh News. 26 March 2020.
  103. ^ "Two more COVID-19 patients recover, bring number cured to 13". Khmer Times. 28 March 2020.
  104. ^ "Cambodia's recovery rate for COVID-19 stands at 23 percent with 21 recovered out of 103 infected". Khmer News. 29 March 2020.
  105. ^ "340 in Siem Reap who had indirect contact with French tour group located". Khmer Times. 28 March 2020. Retrieved 13 August 2020.
  106. ^ "All casinos to be temporarily shut on April 1 amid COVID-19 pandemic". Khmer Times. 30 March 2020.
  107. ^ "One New Case Of COVID-19 Confirmed In Sihanoukville". CNE. 2 April 2020.
  108. ^ "Covid-19: Vietnam tourist ups Cambodia's cases to 115". Xinhua. 7 April 2020.
  109. ^ "Cambodian couple test positive for Covid-19, total cases 117". Xinhua. 8 April 2020.
  110. ^ "COVID-19 infections rises to 119 with one new case and one reinfection". Khmer Times. 9 April 2020.
  111. ^ "First case of 'relapse of COVID-19' detected in 40-year-old male in Cambodia". Khmer Times. 9 April 2020.
  112. ^ "Cambodia Reports One New Case of Covid-19 Tallying to 118; One Case of Relapse; Six Recovered Today Tallying to 68". Fresh News. 9 April 2020.
  113. ^ "Malaysian preacher in Cambodia recovers, 50 Covid-19 patients cured in total". The Star. 5 April 2020.
  114. ^ "Cambodia to ban some rice exports starting today to ensure local food security". Foreign Brief. 5 April 2020.
  115. ^ "Cambodia blocks planned return of 150 Cambodians from Malaysia". Kyodo News. 7 April 2020. Archived from the original on 10 April 2020. Retrieved 9 April 2020.
  116. ^ "Cambodia closes massage parlours, health spas to curb virus". The Star. 7 April 2020.
  117. ^ "Cambodia cancels Khmer New Year celebrations". IOL. 8 April 2020.
  118. ^ "Each laid-off worker to get $70 a month". Khmer Times. 8 April 2020.
  119. ^ "Promised Pay for Suspended Garment Workers Reduced, New Year Postponed". VOD English. 7 April 2020.
  120. ^ "Garment and Other Workers Going on Holiday Must Get into Quarantine When They Return". Cambodianess. 9 April 2020.
  121. ^ "Gov't Cancels New Year Holidays, Fears Spread of Virus Through the Provinces". VOA Cambodia. 9 April 2020.
  122. ^ "Government Restricts Movement Outside Phnom Penh Due to Covid-19". VOD English. 9 April 2020.
  123. ^ "Kampot man on Philippine flight positive for Covid-19". The Phnom Penhh Post. 21 May 2020. Retrieved 22 May 2020.
  124. ^ "Schools in Cambodia reopen after COVID-19 situation eases - Xinhua | English.news.cn". www.xinhuanet.com. Retrieved 11 November 2020.
  125. ^ Newsdesk. "GGRAsia – At least 10 Cambodia casinos reopen, more soon: govt". Retrieved 11 November 2020.
  126. ^ a b Sony, O (2 November 2020). "'How Long Can We Survive?': Angkor Visitors Dip, Holiday Bump Minimal". VOD. Retrieved 12 November 2020.
  127. ^ a b "Hungarian diplomat in Bangkok tests positive for coronavirus". AP NEWS. 10 November 2020. Retrieved 11 November 2020.
  128. ^ Kunthear, Mom. "PM: Covid situation in Cambodia 'alarming'". www.phnompenhpost.com. Retrieved 11 November 2020.
  129. ^ Dara, M (10 November 2020). "Health Ministry Advises Against Weddings, Concerts, Group Dinners". VOD. Retrieved 11 November 2020.
  130. ^ Kimmarita, Long. "PM dispels lockdown rumours, gifts masks". www.phnompenhpost.com. Retrieved 16 November 2020.
  131. ^ "Gatherings allowed again after end of 'Nov 3 event' | The Star". www.thestar.com.my. Retrieved 30 November 2020.
  132. ^ a b "COVID-19 case 309 could be Cambodia's first community infection, forces closure of Aeon 1 mall". Khmer Times. 29 November 2020.
  133. ^ Sony, O. "Local Covid-19 Cluster Up to 14 With Eight New Cases Found". vodenglish.news. Retrieved 30 November 2020.
  134. ^ a b Sony, Ouch (5 December 2020). "Health Ministry Traces Covid-19 Cluster to Prisons Director's Daughter". VOD English. Retrieved 6 December 2020.
  135. ^ Sony, O. "School Year Canceled for Public Schools; Sports, Gatherings Discouraged". vodenglish.news. Retrieved 30 November 2020.
  136. ^ "Potential "Patients Zero" for the "November 28 Community incident" discovered". Khmer Times. 5 December 2020. Retrieved 6 December 2020.
  137. ^ "Health Ministry grants Emergency Use Authorization to China's Sinopharm vaccine". Khmer Times. 4 February 2021. Retrieved 4 February 2021.
  138. ^ Reuters Staff (7 February 2021). "China sends 600,000 COVID-19 vaccine doses to Cambodia". Al Arabiya.
  139. ^ Kongnov, Tith. "More vaccine relief: 700,000 doses of Sinopharm vaccine arrive from China". Khmer Times. Retrieved 1 April 2021.
  140. ^ Staff, Reuters (4 March 2021). "Cambodian PM gets AstraZeneca COVID-19 shot, defends Chinese vaccine". Reuters. Retrieved 4 March 2021.
  141. ^ Sokhorn, Nhim. "Government Rolls Out Sinovac Vaccine for Doctors, Officials". VOD English. Retrieved 1 April 2021.
  142. ^ Dara, Mech. "Provinces Scramble to House Covid-19 Patients, Lock Down Contacts". VOD English. Retrieved 25 February 2021.
  143. ^ "Outbreak in Cambodia's Chinese community prompts official warning". South China Morning Post. 21 February 2021. Retrieved 25 February 2021.
  144. ^ Leakhena, Khan. "Phnom Penh Hospitals at Capacity for Covid-19 Patients: Health Ministry". VOD English. Retrieved 25 February 2021.
  145. ^ Dara, Mech (4 March 2021). "Covid-19 Positive Patient's Death in Quarantine 'Due to Drug Overdose'". VOD English.
  146. ^ "COVID-19 patient suffered acute lung problems, leading to complications brought about by COVID-19, leading to his death". Khmer Times. 11 March 2021.
  147. ^ Matt, Surrusco (18 March 2021). "All Sequenced 'February 20' Cases Are 'UK' Covid-19 Variant: US CDC". VOD English.
  148. ^ Chheng, Niem. "Phnom Penh curfew starts today". Phnom Penh Post. Retrieved 1 April 2021.
  149. ^ "2 more die of COVID-19, bringing Cambodia's death toll to 16". Xinhua. Retrieved 25 February 2021.
  150. ^ Staff, Reuters (7 April 2021). "Cambodia starts vaccinating textile factory workers". Reuters. Retrieved 7 April 2021.
  151. ^ Kunthear, Mom. "Cambodia records single-day 576 infections". Phnom Penh Post. Retrieved 9 April 2021.
  152. ^ "Updated: More Than 500 New Covid-19 Cases, Alerts at Markets, Factory". VOD English. Retrieved 9 April 2021.
  153. ^ "Phnom Penh puts several places under lockdown, cases have soared to 631 as of 10pm Friday". Khmer Times. 10 April 2021. Retrieved 11 April 2021.
  154. ^ "New measures in Phnom Penh: Alcohol sales banned while restaurant asked to provide takeaway service only". Khmer Times. 11 April 2021. Retrieved 11 April 2021.
  155. ^ "Phnom Penh and Takmao under lockdown from midnight – full details announced". Khmer Times. 14 April 2021. Retrieved 15 April 2021.
  156. ^ News, A. B. C. "Cambodia orders strict 2-week lockdown of Phnom Penh". ABC News. Retrieved 24 April 2021.
  157. ^ a b c "Cambodia accused of using Covid to edge towards 'totalitarian dictatorship'". the Guardian. 19 April 2021. Retrieved 23 April 2021.
  158. ^ a b "Cambodia police defend caning of lockdown offenders for breaching COVID-19 rules". Reuters. 21 April 2021. Retrieved 23 April 2021.
  159. ^ a b "Cambodians plead for food as lockdown strictly enforced". Nikkei Asia. Retrieved 23 April 2021.
  160. ^ a b "Thousands of Messages Seek Emergency Lockdown Food Aid From City Hall". VOD English. Retrieved 23 April 2021.
  161. ^ "Cambodians complain of lockdown hunger as outbreak takes toll on poor". Reuters. 30 April 2021. Retrieved 30 April 2021.
  162. ^ "Inside Cambodia's lockdown: If you leave the house, you could be beaten. If you stay home, you might starve". www.abc.net.au. 29 April 2021. Retrieved 30 April 2021.
  163. ^ "Sihanoukville Enters Lockdown, Designates New 'Red Zone'". VOD English. Retrieved 23 April 2021.
  164. ^ "សរុបការចាក់វ៉ាក់សាំងកូវីដ១៩នៅទូទាំងប្រទេសបានចំនួន ១,៧១៨,៧០៨នាក់ (គិតត្រឹមថ្ងៃទី ៨ ខែឧសភា)" [A total of 1,718,708 people were vaccinated 19 across the country (as of May 8)]. Fresh News (in Khmer). 8 May 2021.CS1 maint: date and year (link)
  165. ^ Welle (www.dw.com), Deutsche. "Coronavirus pushing Cambodia back into poverty | DW | 13.08.2020". DW.COM. Retrieved 11 November 2020.
  166. ^ a b "Stories from the COVID-19 generation in Cambodia". www.unicef.org. Retrieved 11 November 2020.
  167. ^ "Cambodia in Quarantine: Locking the factory doors". Southeast Asia Globe. 10 August 2020. Retrieved 30 November 2020.
  168. ^ "Coming Home in COVID-19 Times: Migrant Workers Follow Cambodia's Directives". Cambodianess. Retrieved 12 November 2020.
  169. ^ "Sar Kheng: All Migrant Workers Cleared of COVID-19, But no Incomes". VOA. Retrieved 12 November 2020.
  170. ^ Author, No (21 February 2020). "Virus deals new blow to Cambodian city bound to China". The Japan Times. Retrieved 11 November 2020.
  171. ^ "Cambodian Cultural Village set to close next month". Khmer Times. 12 October 2020. Retrieved 11 November 2020.
  172. ^ "Cambodians Revel in Now Tourist-Free Angkor Wat | Voice of America - English". www.voanews.com. Retrieved 11 November 2020.
  173. ^ "Chinese Doctors and Medical Supplies to Fight Covid-19 Arrive in Phnom Penh". Fresh News. 23 March 2020.
  174. ^ "Chinese medical experts arrive in Cambodia to help fight outbreak". The Star. 23 March 2020.
  175. ^ Bộ Y tế Việt Nam sẵn sàng hỗ trợ Bộ Y tế Campuchia trong công tác phòng, chống dịch COVID-19
  176. ^ "Cambodia thanks Vietnam for medical support in COVID-19 fight". Nhan Dan. Retrieved 9 April 2020.
  177. ^ "Vietnam donates US$200,000 to help Cambodia with COVID-19 fight". Nhan Dan. Retrieved 1 April 2021.
  178. ^ Sonyka, Va. "Russian medical supplies handed to Cambodia". Khmer Times. Retrieved 21 May 2020.
  179. ^ Strangio, Sebastian. "What Explains Cambodia's COVID-19 Charm Offensive?". thediplomat.com. Retrieved 7 December 2020.
  180. ^ Thong, Sotha. "Cambodia Hands over 2 Million Masks and Medical Equipment to Nepal". Khmer Post.
  181. ^ Chheng, Niem. "Oz to assist with vaccine purchase". www.phnompenhpost.com. Retrieved 26 December 2020.
  182. ^ Vantha, Phoung. "Japanese Aid to Boost Safe Vaccine Delivery". Cambodianess. Retrieved 1 April 2021.
  183. ^ a b c "Experts Fear Coronavirus Going Undetected in Southeast Asia". Time. Retrieved 30 November 2020.
  184. ^ "Phnom Penh Residents Want Cambodians In China Evacuated". VOA. Retrieved 30 November 2020.
  185. ^ a b "How have Thailand and Cambodia kept Covid cases so low?". the Guardian. 16 December 2020. Retrieved 29 December 2020.
  186. ^ Techseng, Tran (9 December 2020). "Still No Prisoners Tested for Covid-19 Despite Coughing, a 'Bit of Fever'". VOD English. Retrieved 29 December 2020.
  187. ^ "Cambodia: Fight Discrimination Amid Pandemic". Human Rights Watch. Retrieved 30 March 2020.

Footnotes[edit]

  1. ^ 8 deaths from other causes excluded
  2. ^ Numbers in parentheses are deaths from other causes.

External links[edit]