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2020 coronavirus pandemic in Europe

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2020 COVID-19 pandemic in Europe
Persons died due to coronavirus COVID-19 per capita in Europe.svg
Cumulative number of deaths per million inhabitants from COVID-19 in Europe.[1]
COVID-19 Outbreak Cases in Europe.svg
Cumulative number of confirmed infected in Europe as of 25 March 2020
  10000+ confirmed cases
  1000–9999 confirmed cases
  100–999 confirmed cases
  10–99 confirmed cases
  1–9 confirmed cases
DiseaseCOVID-19
Virus strainSARS-CoV-2
LocationEurope
First outbreakWuhan, Hubei, China[2]
Index caseBordeaux, France
Arrival date21 January 2020
Confirmed cases319,291[1]
Recovered36,197[1]
Deaths
18,971[1]
Territories
52[1]
COVID-19 cases in Europe  ()
     Deaths        Recoveries        Active cases

Jan Jan Feb Feb Mar Mar Last 15 days Last 15 days

Date
# of cases
# of deaths
2020-01-27
4(n.a.)
2020-01-28
8(+100%)
2020-01-29
10(+25%)
2020-01-30
11(+10%)
2020-01-31
20(+82%)
2020-02-01
23(+15%)
2020-02-02
23(=)
2020-02-03
25(+8.7%)
2020-02-04
26(+4.0%)
2020-02-05
26(=)
2020-02-06
27(+3.8%)
2020-02-07
30(+11%)
2020-02-08
35(+17%)
2020-02-09
36(+2.9%)
2020-02-10
41(+14%)
2020-02-11
43(+4.9%)
2020-02-12
44(+2.3%)
2020-02-13
44(=)
2020-02-14
44(=)
2020-02-15
45(+2.3%) 1(n.a.)
2020-02-16
45(=) 1(=)
2020-02-17
45(=) 1(=)
2020-02-18
45(=) 1(=)
2020-02-19
45(=) 1(=)
2020-02-20
45(=) 1(=)
2020-02-21
62(+38%) 2(+100%)
2020-02-22
104(+68%) 3(+50%)
2020-02-23
197(+89%) 4(+33%)
2020-02-24
275(+40%) 8(+100%)
2020-02-25
380(+38%) 11(+38%)
2020-02-26
533(+40%) 14(+27%)
2020-02-27
783(+47%) 19(+36%)
2020-02-28
1,099(+40%) 23(+21%)
2020-02-29
1,453(+32%) 31(+35%)
2020-03-01
2,190(+51%) 36(+16%)
2020-03-02
2,721(+24%) 55(+53%)
2020-03-03
3,351(+23%) 85(+55%)
2020-03-04
4,341(+30%) 114(+34%)
2020-03-05
5,660(+30%) 160(+40%)
2020-03-06
7,486(+32%) 216(+35%)
2020-03-07
9,655(+29%) 259(+20%)
2020-03-08
12,066(+25%) 411(+59%)
2020-03-09
14,950(+24%) 520(+27%)
2020-03-10
18,501(+24%) 716(+38%)
2020-03-11
23,515(+27%) 959(+34%)
2020-03-12
24,860(+5.7%) 966(+0.7%)
2020-03-13
38,327(+54%) 1,532(+59%)
2020-03-14
46,532(+21%) 1,812(+18%)
2020-03-15
54,945(+18%) 2,296(+27%)
2020-03-16
65,713(+20%) 2,803(+22%)
2020-03-17
77,019(+17%) 3,393(+21%)
2020-03-18
90,623(+18%) 4,012(+18%)
2020-03-19
109,124(+20%) 4,878(+22%)
2020-03-20
129,811(+19%) 6,069(+24%)
2020-03-21
152,766(+18%) 7,523(+24%)
2020-03-22
170,708(+12%) 8,838(+18%)
2020-03-23
196,842(+15%) 10,372(+17%)
2020-03-24
220,799(+12%) 12,139(+17%)
2020-03-25
251,036(+14%) 14,236(+17%)
2020-03-26
286,450(+14%) 16,465(+16%)
2020-03-27
321,656(+12%) 18,834(+14%)
Sources:
  • Real-time map by Berliner Morgenpost.
  • Last updated: 27.03.2020, 23:46 UTC. Note that due to different release times throughout the day, the shown steps do not always correspond to 24 hours.

Countries in Europe have been affected by COVID-19, the disease caused by the coronavirus responsible for the 2019–20 pandemic first recorded in Wuhan, China.

As of 17 March 2020, all countries within Europe had a confirmed case of COVID-19, with Montenegro[3] the last European country to report at least one case. In 18 countries, at least one death has been reported.

Europe was considered the active centre of COVID-19 according to the World Health Organization as of 13 March 2020.

As of 13 March 2020, cases by country across Europe had doubled over periods of typically 3 to 4 days, with some countries (mostly those at earlier stages of detection) showing doubling every 2 days.[4]

Risk assessment for the pandemic in the EU/EEA and UK

As of 17 March 2020, there had been 2,740 reported deaths in the EU/EEA and UK from COVID-19[5] (25 March number: 10,049).

On 13 March 2020, the following COVID-19 related risks were assessed by the ECDC:[6]

Risk Level
risk of severe disease associated with COVID-19 infection for people in the EU/EEA and UK: general population moderate
risk of severe disease associated with COVID-19 infection for people in the EU/EEA and UK: older adults and individuals with chronic underlying conditions high
risk of milder disease, and the consequent impact on social and work-related activity, high
risk of the occurrence of sub-national community transmission of COVID-19 in the EU/EEA and the UK very high
risk of occurrence of widespread national community transmission of COVID-19 in the EU/EEA and the UK in the coming weeks high
risk of healthcare system capacity being exceeded in the EU/EEA and the UK in the coming weeks high
risk associated with transmission of COVID-19 in health and social institutions with large vulnerable populations high

EU coordination

Under the European Union subsidiarity principle, the European Union does not have the legal powers to impose health management policy or actions, such as quarantine measures or closing schools, on member states.[7]

On 28 February 2020, the EU opened a tender process for the purpose of purchasing COVID-19 related medical equipment. Twenty member states submitted requests for purchases. A second round procedure was opened on 17 March, for the purchase of gloves, goggles, face protectors, surgical masks and clothing. Poland was among the member states that applied for the second round tender procedure. The European Commission claimed that all the purchases were satisfied by offers. Commissioner Thierry Breton described the procedure as illustrating the power of EU coordination.[7] On 19 March, the EU announced the creation of the rescEU strategic stockpile of medical equipment, to be financed at the level of 90% by the Commission, to deal with the COVID-19 pandemic.[8]

Statistics by country

Cumulative number of deaths per million inhabitants for European Union countries, over time. The legend is sorted in descending order of these values. Countries without COVID-19 deaths are omitted. Logarithmic vertical axis. Data source: ECDC[5].
Confirmed cases of SARS-CoV-2 infected people in relation to the population of the country. Number of cases per million inhabitants.[1]
Summary table of confirmed cases in Europe (as of 27 March 2020)[9]
Country Confirmed Deaths Recovered Ref
Italy Italy 80,589 8,215 10,361 [10]
Spain Spain 56,197 4,145 7,015 [11]
Germany Germany 47,373 285 5,673 [12]
France France 29,155 1,696 4,948 [13]
Switzerland Switzerland 12,311 207 897 [14]
United Kingdom United Kingdom 11,658 578 135 [15]
Netherlands The Netherlands 8,603 546 [16]
Belgium Belgium 7,284 289 858 [17]
Austria Austria 6,001 58 [18]
Turkey Turkey 5,698 92 42 [19]
Portugal Portugal 4,268 76 43 [20]
Norway Norway 3,423 14 6 [21]
Sweden Sweden 2,840 92[22] 16 [23]
Czech Republic Czech Republic 2,062 9 11 [24]
Denmark Denmark 1,717 32 2 [25]
Republic of Ireland Ireland 1,819 19 5 [26]
Luxembourg Luxembourg 1,453 9 6 [27]
Poland Poland 1,389 16 12 [28]
Romania Romania 1,292 26 115 [29]
Finland Finland 1,041 7 10 [30]
Russia Russia 1,036 3 45 [31]
Greece Greece 966 28 52 [32]
Iceland Iceland 802 2 68 [33]
Slovenia Slovenia 632 9 10 [34]
Croatia Croatia 586 3 37 [35]
Estonia Estonia 538 1 8 [36]
Serbia Serbia 457 7 15 [37]
Hungary Hungary 343 11 28 [38]
Lithuania Lithuania 290 4 1
Latvia Latvia 244 0 1
Bulgaria Bulgaria 313 4 9
Slovakia Slovakia 269 0 2
Andorra Andorra 224 3 1
San Marino San Marino 223 21 6 [39]
North Macedonia North Macedonia 219 3 3 [40]
Bosnia and Herzegovina Bosnia and Herzegovina 185 3 2
Albania Albania 174 8 17
Ukraine Ukraine 162 5 1 [41]
Moldova Moldova 149 1 2
Malta Malta 134 0 2
Cyprus Cyprus 132 3 4
Belarus Belarus 94 0 32 [42]
Kosovo Kosovo 71 1 1 [43]
Montenegro Montenegro 67 1 0
Liechtenstein Liechtenstein 51 0 0 [44]
Monaco Monaco 31 0 1
Vatican City Vatican City 4 0 0 [45]
Total 282,819 16,066 29,525

Pandemic by country

Counting of cases are subject to the number of tested people.

Albania

On 8 March, Albania confirmed its first two coronavirus cases, a father and son who had travelled from Florence, Italy.[46] On 23 March, the total number of confirmed cases rose to 104.[47]

Andorra

On 2 March, Andorra confirmed its first coronavirus case, a 20-year-old man who had returned from Milan.[48]

Austria

On 25 February Austria confirmed its first two cases, a 24-year-old man and a 24-year-old woman from Lombardy, Italy who were treated at a hospital in Innsbruck.[49][50][51][52]

As of 13 March there were 422 confirmed cases in Austria.[53]

Belarus

On 28 February Belarus confirmed its first case. A student from Iran tested positive on 27 February and was admitted to hospital in Minsk.[54][55] The individual arrived in Belarus via a flight from Baku, Azerbaijan, on 22 February.[54][56]

As of 4 March 6 cases in total were confirmed. Four cases in Minsk, two cases in Vitebsk.[57]

Belgium

On 4 February, Belgium confirmed the first case. The patient, an asymptomatic 54-year-old male was one of nine Belgians repatriated from China. All of them were quarantined at Saint-Pierre Hospital in Brussels.[58][59]

As of 14 March 689 cases were confirmed in Belgium with 4 deaths.[60]

Bosnia and Herzegovina

On 5 March, health officials from Republika Srpska confirmed the first two cases in the country, a father and son returning from Italy.[61]

By 13 March five new cases had been identified with a maximum of 18, where 15 are located in RS and 3 are in FBiH.[62]

Bulgaria

On 8 March, Bulgaria confirmed its first two cases, a 27-year-old man from Pleven and a 75-year-old woman from Gabrovo. Neither of the two had traveled to areas with known Coronavirus cases. The man tested positive for the virus after being hospitalized for a respitarory infection, and authorities announced plans to test several people who were in contact with the two individuals.[63] Two other samples in Pleven and Gabrovo were positive on 8 March.[64] Patient zero remains unknown.[65] After the number of patients in the country has reached 23, the Bulgarian Parliament has voted unanimously to declare a state of emergency from 13 March until 13 April.[66] Another death case was confirmed by Bulgarian Ministry of Health on 14 March.[67]

Croatia

On 25 February, Croatia confirmed its first case, a 26-year-old man who had been in Milan, Italy.[68] On 26 February, two new cases were confirmed, one being the twin brother of the first.[69]

As of 8 March, there were twelve confirmed cases in Croatia.[70]

On 22 March a large earthquake (5.5 on the Richter scale) has hit the Croatian capital of Zagreb, just before 06:30 AM (CET) and was followed by multiple smaller earthquakes (second 5.0 and third 3.7 on the Richter scale). The earthquake could also be felt across much of Croatia, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Hungary, Slovenia, and Austria.[71][72] It was the strongest earthquake in Zagreb since the 1880 earthquake.

The pandemic in Croatia occurred during the Croatian Presidency of the Council of the European Union.

Cyprus

On 9 March, Cyprus confirmed its first 2 cases, one in Nicosia and one in Limassol.[73][74]

Czech Republic

It is forbidden to enter front section of buses of the Prague Public Transport during the pandemic (14 March 2020)

The first case was reported in the country on 1 March.[24] As of 22 March, there have been 1120 confirmed cases with 1 lethal outcome.[24]

On 12 March, the Czech Republic declared a 30-day state of emergency and barred entry to non-residents from China, South Korea, Iran, Italy, Spain, Austria, Germany, Switzerland, Sweden, UK, Norway, Denmark and France.[75]

Denmark

On 27 February, Denmark confirmed its first case.[76]

As of 16 March, there have been 898 confirmed cases in Denmark, including 11 in the Faroe Islands (see below).[25]

Numerous preventive measures gradually were implemented. Starting on 13 March, schools, universities and similar places were closed, while most people in non-essential functions have been sent home to work.[77] On 14 March, the borders were closed for all entries, except Danish citizens, people with a residence permit, people with an important reason for visiting, and transport of goods.[78][75]

Faroe Islands

On 4 March, the Faroe Islands had its first confirmed case.[79] As of 16 March, there are 11 confirmed cases in the Faroe Islands.[25]

Estonia

On 27 February Estonia confirmed its first case, an Iranian citizen, travelling from Iran via Turkey.[80]

As of 11 March there were 17 confirmed cases in Estonia. 12 of them had returned with the infection from Northern Italy, one from France, one from Iran and one from undisclosed risk area.[81][82] First two cases of virus transmitting locally were in Saaremaa after international volleyball competition involving a team from Milan.[83]

From 12 March the virus was spreading locally. The number of infected grew fast reaching 109 on 14 March.[84]

Finland

The first case was reported in the country on 28 January.[85][86]

France

Empty supermarket shelves in Annonay, France

On 24 January, the first case in Europe was confirmed in Bordeaux. Two more cases were confirmed in Paris by the end of the day, all of them originated from China. A cluster of infections was discovered in Haute-Savoie which originated from a British national who had visited Singapore.[87][88][89]

From 31 January to 9 February, nearly 550 people were repatriated from Wuhan on a series of evacuation flights arriving at Creil Air Base in Oise and Istres-Le Tubé Air Base in Istres.[90]

On 14 February, an 80-year-old Chinese tourist died in Bichat–Claude Bernard Hospital, Paris, marking the first death from COVID-19 in Europe and France.[91]

On 12 March, president of France Emmanuel Macron announced on public television that all schools and all universities would close from Monday 16 March until further notice. The next day, the prime minister Édouard Philippe banned gatherings of more than 100 people, not including public transportation. The following day, the prime minister ordered the closure of all nonessential public places, including restaurants, cafés, cinemas, and discothèques, effective at midnight.[92]

As of 14 March, there had been 4,499 confirmed cases (a near-four-fold increase over the number 5 days previously), and 91 deaths in France.[93]

As of 20 March, the number of confirmed cases had risen to 12,612, while the number of deaths reached 450.[1]

The daily update of the number of deaths in France is only about the death of patients in hospitals. Deaths in pension houses or at home are not counted in this update. Therefore, it is difficult to know for sure the actual number of deaths due to the virus. [94]

Germany

Near-empty streets in Hamburg on 17 March

On 27 January, the first case was confirmed in Germany.[95] The majority of cases in January and early February originated from Webasto headquarters in Bavaria. A total of 14 employees and family members tested positive and were treated at Schwabing Hospital in Munich.[96]

By 14 March, the number of confirmed infections had increased to 4,585, including 9 fatalities.[97]

Gibraltar

The territory confirmed its first case on 4 March.[98]

Greece

On 26 February, the first case in Greece was confirmed, a 38-year-old woman from Thessaloniki who had recently visited Northern Italy.[99] The next day, the first patient's 9-year-old child and another 40-year-old woman, who had travelled to Italy, also tested positive.[100][101][102] Subsequent cases is Greece were mainly related to people who had travelled to Italy and a group of pilgrims who had travelled to Israel and Egypt, as well as their contacts.[103][104] Health and state authorities issued precautionary guidelines and recommendations, while measures up to that point were taken locally and included the closure of schools and the suspension of cultural events in the affected areas (particularly Ilia, Achaea and Zakynthos).[104] The first confirmed death from COVID-19 in Greece was a 66-year-old man, who died on 12 March.[105]

By 22 March, there were 624 confirmed cases in Greece, 15 deaths and 19 recoveries.[106] The Greek National Public Health Organization (NPHO), in collaboration with local authorities and doctors, is tracking and testing everyone who came in close contact with the patients.[107][108] By March 10 the government decided to suspend the operation of educational institutions of all levels nationwide and then, on 13 March, to close down all cafes, bars, museums, shopping centres, sports facilities and restaurants in the country.[109][110] On 16 March, all retail shops were also closed and all services in all areas of religious worship of any religion or dogma were suspended.[111][112] On 18 and 19 March, the government announced a series of measures of more than 10 billion euros to support the economy, businesses and employees.[113] On 22 March the Greek authorities announced significant restrictions on all nonessential transport and movement across the country, starting from 6 a.m. on 23 March.[114]

Guernsey

On 9 March, the first case in the crown dependency was confirmed.[115]

Hungary

On 4 March Prime Minister Viktor Orbán announced that two Iranian students had been infected with the virus.[116] The students are asymptomatic and have been transported to Saint Ladislaus Hospital in Budapest.[116]

Iceland

The first case was confirmed in Iceland on 28 February, an Icelandic male in his forties who had been on a ski trip to Andalo in Northern Italy and returned home on 22 February.[117]

Iceland's Department of Civil Protection and Emergency Management declared a state of emergency on 6 March after two cases of community transmission in Iceland were confirmed, bringing the total number of confirmed cases to 43.[118] On 13 March, it was announced at an official press conference that a four-week ban on public gatherings of more than 100 persons would be put into effect as of Monday 16 March. Universities and secondary schools will be closed for four weeks. International airports and harbours will remain exempt from these measures.[119]

Ireland

The National Public Health Emergency Team of Ireland announced that a case in Ireland has been confirmed on 29 February.[120][121] Response to the outbreak has included cancellation of St Patrick's Day parades and all festivals.[122] On 12 March, all schools, universities and childcare institutes were closed until 29 March. On 20 March emergency legislation was signed into law by Michael D. Higgins giving the state permission to detain people, restrict travel and keep people in their homes to help combat the spread of the pandemic.[123]

As of 26 March there has been 1,819 cases and 19 deaths.[124]

Italy

On 31 January, the first two cases were confirmed in Rome. Two Chinese tourists, who arrived in Milan on 23 January via Milan Malpensa Airport and travelled to Rome on a tourist bus, tested positive for and were hospitalised in Lazzaro Spallanzani National Institute for Infectious Diseases.[125]

On 6 February, one of the Italians repatriated from Wuhan, China tested positive, bringing the total number of cases in Italy to three.[126] On 22 February, the repatriated Italian recovered and was discharged from the hospital.[127] On 22 and 26 February, the two Chinese tourists tested negative at Lazzaro Spallanzani National Institute for Infectious Diseases in Rome.[128]

On 21 February, a cluster of cases was detected starting with 16 confirmed cases in Lombardy,[129] with additional 60 cases on 22 February,[130] and Italy's first deaths reported on the same day.[131] As of late February, Italy was hit harder than anywhere else in the EU by the COVID-19 outbreak.[132]

As of 17 March 2020, there have been 2,503 deaths and 31,506 confirmed cases.[133]

Lockdown

8 March: In the early hours of Sunday, Italian prime minister Giuseppe Conte signed a decree enacting forced quarantine for the region of Lombardy – home to more than 10 million people and the financial capital, Milan – and multiple other provinces, totalling around 16 million residents. The lockdown decree included the power to impose fines on anyone caught entering or leaving Lombardy, the worst-affected region, until 3 April.[134]

On 9 March in the evening, the lockdown orders were extended to the whole of Italy, effectively quarantining more than 60 million people.[135]

Jersey

On 10 March, the first case in the crown dependency was confirmed.[136]

Kosovo

The first two cases were reported in the country on 13 March. In the ten-day period March 13–23, the number of positive cases with coronavirus rose to 35. In midnight of 23 March, 26 new cases were confirmed, bringing the total number of cases to 61.[137] On March 25, the government collapsed with a vote of no confidence in Prime Minister Albin Kurti after the Prime Minister refused to call a state of emergency to deal with the COVID-19 crisis. [138]

Latvia

The first case was reported in the country on 2 March.[citation needed]

Liechtenstein

The first case was reported in the country on 3 March.[citation needed]

Lithuania

The first case was reported in the country on 28 February. By March 17 there were 21 cases, mostly in Vilnius, Kaunas and Klaipėda. The first infected Lithuanian recovered on 14 March.[citation needed]

Luxembourg

The first case was reported in the country on 29 February.

Malta

On 7 March, Malta reported its first 3 cases of coronavirus: an Italian family consisting of a 12-year-old girl and her parents, who arrived in Malta on 3 March from Rome after a holiday in Trentino.[139] The fourth case of covid-19 was confirmed on 9 March being a foreign man who had recently travelled to northern Italy. The fifth case was confirmed on 10 March. It is a 16-year-old girl who is the daughter of the 49-year-old man who was found to be infected with the coronavirus the previous day.

Isle of Man

Moldova

On 7 March, the first case was confirmed in the Republic of Moldova, a 48-year-old woman who had recently returned from Italy.[140] Three days later, another two cases were confirmed.[141]

Monaco

The first case was reported in the country on 29 February.[citation needed]

Montenegro

The first case was reported in the country on 17 March 2020.[citation needed]

Netherlands

On 27 February, the Netherlands confirmed its first case, a man who had been in the Lombardy region of Italy.[142]

On 6 March, RIVM announced the first death.[143]

On 9 March, RIVM announced 56 more confirmed cases in addition to the total of the 77 infected patients declared in the previous day, bringing the total to 321 infected and 3 dead.[144]

On 15 March, the Dutch government announced in a press conference that all schools, daycares, colleges, universities, and universities of applied sciences would close until 6 April. Though children of parents in vital industries could still go to school or the daycare if they couldn't be taken care of otherwise.[145]

As of 16 March, the total amount of confirmed cases of COVID-19 had risen to 1,413. The total amount of confirmed deaths had risen to 24. This was an increase of 278 infections and 4 deaths in comparison of 15 March.[146]

On the same date, the Minister President, Mark Rutte, of the Netherlands had announced that the country would not go in complete lockdown. Instead the situation would be controlled as much as possible by allowing the virus to spread slowly but widely, relying on herd immunity until a vaccine is made available. This strategy would result in (and rely on) a large proportion of the country's citizens becoming infected in the following months.[147]

Further measures were introduced on 23 March. All events will be banned until 1 June. Gatherings of more than three people, except for families, are prohibited. City mayors received greater authorisation to enforce the rules. Fines will be issued to those not complying with the new rules. [148]

North Macedonia

On 26 February, North Macedonia confirmed its first case, a woman that had returned from Italy.[citation needed]

Norway

Separation of an area near the driver, bus in Trondheim, 15 March

On 26 February, Norway confirmed its first case, in a person who had returned from China the previous week.[149][150]

On 7 March, there were 147 confirmed cases in Norway. Most of the cases could either be linked to outbreaks abroad or close encounters with these. Altogether 89 have been infected on travel in Italy.[151]

On 12 March 2020, all kindergartens, schools, colleges and universities were closed until at least 26 March 2020.[152]

Poland

The first coronavirus infection in Poland, a man hospitalized in Zielona Góra, was confirmed on 4 March.[153] On 6 March another 4 infections were confirmed in Szczecin, Wrocław and Ostróda.[154] As of 27 March, there were 1389 confirmed cases, 12[155] recovered and 16 deaths in Poland.[28][156][157][158] As part of the prevention, all schools in Poland were closed, initially from 12 March to at least 10 April 2020.[159] [160]

Portugal

On 2 March, the first two cases were confirmed in Portugal, both in the city of Porto. One was a doctor that had returned from holiday in northern Italy and the other a worker from Spain.[161][162]

On 18 March, the President of the Republic, Marcelo Rebelo de Sousa, declared the entirety of the Portuguese territory in a state of emergency for the following fifteen days, with the possibility of renewal, the first since the Carnation Revolution in 1974.[163]

On 24 March the Portuguese Government admitted that the country could not contain anymore the COVID-19 as it is wide spreading and will enter the 'Mitigation Phase' on 26 March.[164]

Romania

On 26 February, Romania confirmed its first case.[165] As of 15 March, there were 139 confirmed cases and 9 recoveries in Romania.[166]

Russia

Russian President Vladimir Putin visits coronavirus patients at Moscow hospital on 24 March

Russia implemented preventive measures to curb the spread of COVID-19 in the country by imposing quarantines, carrying raids on potential virus carriers and using facial recognition to impose quarantine measures.[167]

On 31 January, two cases were confirmed, one in Tyumen Oblast, another in Zabaykalsky Krai. Both were Chinese nationals, who have since recovered.[168][167]

On 2 March, the first case in the Moscow region was confirmed.[169][170]

On 7 March, four new cases were confirmed, three was in Lipetsk and one in Saint Petersburg. All people visited Italy in the previous two weeks.[171]

On 8 March, three news cases were confirmed, in Moscow, Belgorod and Kaliningrad Oblasts. All people returned from Italy.[172]

On 10 March, Moscow Mayor Sergey Sobyanin signed a decree for banning mass events in Moscow with more than 5000 participants from 10 March to 10 April.[173]

San Marino

On 27 February, San Marino confirmed its first case, an 88-year-old man with pre-existing medical conditions, who came from Italy. He was hospitalised at a hospital in Rimini, Italy.[174] As of 25 March 2020: With 208 confirmed cases out of a population of 33,344 (as of 2018), it is the country with the highest percentage of confirmed cases per capita at 0.62% – 1 confirmed case per 161 inhabitants.[175] Also, with 21 confirmed deaths, the country has the highest rate of confirmed deaths per capita at 0.063% of the total population – 1 death per 1,588 inhabitants.[175]

Serbia

Disinfection of housing in Serbia during the 2020 coronavirus pandemic

On 29 February, a massive infection occurred in the town of Valjevo after a private party involving a guest from Austria who had previously stayed in Italy[176][177]. On 6 March one case was confirmed in Serbia by Minister of Health Zlatibor Lončar,[178] of a man who had traveled to Budapest.[179] President Aleksandar Vucic and the Government of the Republic of Serbia introduced a state of emergency on March 15th. Two days later, curfew and quarantine were introduced as safeguards against massive infection.

Slovakia

A queue of cars and trucks waiting to cross the Slovak border on 13 March
People in Bratislava wearing masks on 16 March

On 6 March Slovakia confirmed its first case, a 52-year-old man coming from a small town nearby Bratislava. He had not travelled anywhere in recent weeks but his son had visited Venice.[180] His son didn't show any symptoms. On 7 March, the virus was also confirmed in his wife and son.[181]

Slovenia

On 4 March Slovenia confirmed its first case. A patient of about 60 years of age had returned from Morocco few days earlier (via Italy) and was admitted to a hospital in Ljubljana.[182][183]

On 6 March total 8 cases reported, three of them medical professionals, who contracted the virus on holiday in Italy. By 9 March 16 people were confirmed to be infected.[citation needed]

Spain

Television cameras covering the first coronavirus cases in a Hospital in Valencia.

On 31 January Spain confirmed its first case, in the Canary Island of La Gomera. A tourist from Germany tested positive and was admitted to University Hospital of the Nuestra Señora de Candelaria.[184][185][186]

On 24 February, following the outbreak in Italy, a medical doctor from Lombardy, Italy who was vacationing in Tenerife, tested positive at the University Hospital of the Nuestra Señora de Candelaria in Spain.[187][188] Afterwards, multiple cases were detected in Tenerife involving people who had come in contact with the doctor. Other cases involving individuals who visited Italy were also discovered on Spanish mainland.[189]

As of 17 March 2020, there have been 11,826 confirmed cases with 1,028 recoveries and 533 deaths in Spain.[190]

On 14 March, the Spanish government imposed a nationwide quarantine, banned all trips that are not necessary and announces that companies may be intervened to guarantee supplies.[191][192]

Sweden

On 31 January, Sweden confirmed the first case. A woman in her 20s, who visited Wuhan, tested positive and was admitted at Ryhov County Hospital in Jönköping.[193][194]

On 26 February, following the outbreak in Italy and in Iran, infection clusters originating from these two countries appeared in Sweden.[195] A number of individuals in Västra Götaland, Jönköping, Stockholm, Uppsala tested positive and were admitted to the infectious disease units in the respective counties.[196]

As of 11 March, first fatality. An elderly man in Stockholm over 60 who had other illnesses prior to infection.

As of 12 March, National testing strategy shifted to only elderly, severely ill, and healthcare personnel. The official recommendation is as of 13 March to stay at home for symptoms that are not serious and not visit healthcare. This makes statistics becoming less useful[197]

As of 14 March, 924 people reported infected. The Ministry for Foreign Affairs of Sweden made the recommendation to refrain from unnecessary travel to all countries.

Switzerland

On 25 February, following the outbreak in Italy, Switzerland confirmed its first case, a 70-year-old man in the Italian-speaking canton of Ticino, who had previously visited Milan.[198][199] Afterwards, multiple cases related to the Italy clusters were discovered in multiple cantons including Basel-City, Zürich and Graubünden.[200][201][202] Multiple isolated cases not related to the Italian clusters were also confirmed.[203]

On 28 February, the Federal Council announced an immediate ban on all events with more than 1,000 participants.[204]

As of 10 March, there were 500 confirmed cases in Switzerland.[205] On 16 March 2020, the Federal Council announced[206] further measures, and a revised ordinance.[207] Measures include the closure of bars, shops and other gathering places until 19 April, but leaves open certain essentials, such as grocery stores, pharmacies, (a reduced) public transport and the postal service.[208]

Turkey

On 11 March, Health Minister Fahrettin Koca announced that a Turkish man who had contracted the virus while travelling in Europe was the country's first coronavirus case.[209]

On 12 March, the government announced that schools and universities in Turkey would be closed starting from 16 March.[210]

Ukraine

On 27 January SkyUp, a Ukrainian low-cost charter airline, announced that it had suspended flights to Sanya, Hainan, until March.[211][212]

On 4 February, Ukraine International Airlines suspended its charter service to Sanya Phoenix International Airport in Hainan. Initially, the suspension was to last until 24 February,[211] although the airline had not yet indicated that it will resume flights.[213]

On 24 February, Boryspil International Airport and Kyiv International Airport were supposed to implement thermal screening procedures for travellers from Italy, but the staff were either underequipped with thermal cameras or ignored the protocol.[214][215]

On 3 March, Ukraine announced its first confirmed coronavirus case. A man had travelled from Italy to Romania by plane and then arrived in Ukraine by car.[216]

United Kingdom

Man in London wearing a facemask on 19 March

On 31 January, England confirmed the first two cases, both members of a family of Chinese nationals staying in a hotel in York who were taken to specialist facilities in Newcastle upon Tyne.[217] Afterwards, several confirmed cases were detected in a number of regions including Brighton, Northern Ireland, Wales and then Scotland.[218][219][220]

The UK Government implemented preventive measures to curb the spread of infections which included contact tracing, isolation and testing, some of which were related to the Italy clusters.[221][222][223] The NHS set up drive-through screening centres at several hospitals to test members of the public showing symptoms. [224][225] This effort was later replaced with screening focused on diagnosing patients in secondary care.

On 2 March, Ministers approved the Department of Health and Social Care's coronavirus action plan,[226] which sets out actions to date, future measures, cooperation between devolved political and health authorities, and the level of preparedness of the country's four National Health Services. It outlined the government's objectives to deploy phased actions to Contain, Delay, and Mitigate any outbreak, using Research to inform policy development.[227]

On 25 March, the UK Parliament legislated to provide the Government and authorities with emergency powers to handle the 2020 coronavirus pandemic, such as the power to restrict public gatherings, order businesses to close, and the ability to detain those suspected of having the virus.[228] The Coronavirus Act 2020 received Royal Assent on 25 March and came into force on the same day.[229]

As of 27 March, there were 14,543 confirmed cases and 759 deaths in the United Kingdom, with 135 patients having recovered and the majority of cases occurring in England.[230]

Vatican City

The first case was confirmed on 6 March.[231]

Daily confirmed cases and deaths in mayor EU vs South Korea and mainland China development

Confirmed cases[notes 1][232] of COVID-19 in Europe by country ()

Date
[notes 2]
Andorra
Czech
Republic
Luxembourg
North
Macedonia
Netherlands
Daily total
Cumulative
total
2020.01.24 3[233] 3 3
2020.01.25 0
2020.01.26 0
2020.01.27 1[234] 1 4
2020.01.28 1[235] 3[236] 4 8
2020.01.29 1[237] 1[235] 2 10
2020.01.30 1[238] 1[239][240] 2 12
2020.01.31 2[239][241][240] 2[242] 2[243] 1[244][240] 1[245] 2[246] 10 22
2020.02.01 1[247] 1 23
2020.02.02 2[248] 2 25
2020.02.03 2[249] 2 27
2020.02.04 1[250][251] 1[251][252] 28
2020.02.05 0[252][253]
2020.02.06 1[254] 1[254] 1[255] 3[253][254] 31
2020.02.07 0[254][256]
2020.02.08 5[257] 1[256] 6[254][256] 37
2020.02.09 1[258] 5[259][260] 6[258][259][260] 43
2020.02.10 0
2020.02.11 2[261] 2[261] 45
2020.02.12 1[262] 1[262] 46
2020.02.13 0[263]
2020.02.14 0[264]
2020.02.15 1 1[265] 47
2020.02.16 0[266]
2020.02.17 0[266]
2020.02.18 0[267]
2020.02.19 0[268]
2020.02.20 0[269]
2020.02.21 16[129] 16[129] 63
2020.02.22 60[130][270] 60 123
2020.02.23 53 4 57[271] 180
2020.02.24 91[272] 1 91[272] 271
2020.02.25 2[273][274] 1[275] 2[276] 2[277] 99[278] 4 1[279][280] 113 378
2020.02.26 2 1[281] 5 9[282][283][284][285] 1[286] 131 1[287] 1[288] 1[289] 6 1[290] 157 535
2020.02.27 1 1[291] 1[292] 1[293] 21 21 2 202 1[294] 3 1[295] 13[296][297] 5 8[298] 2 283 818
2020.02.28 2 2 1 1 19 10 1 1 238 1 1 2 2 19 4 4 2 303[notes 3][299][300] 1121
2020.02.29 3 1 43 54 3 1 240 1[301] 5 8 14 2[302][303] 6 5 408[notes 3][301][300] 1524
2020.03.01 3[304] 1 4 25 1[305]
2020.03.02 6 2 41 1[306]
2020.03.03 8 2 28 15[307]
2020.03.04 15 23 2 22[308]
2020.03.05 44 30 42[309]
2020.03.06 46 27 43[310] 123[311]
Cumulative total 10 1 1 5 3 3 1 3 100 111 7 1 1 1128 1 1 1 1 128 113 6 3 2 1 152 137 210 23 1524
Deaths 2[300][312] 29[301] 1 0 32
Andorra
Austria
Belarus
Belgium
Croatia
Czech
Republic
Denmark
Estonia
Finland
Greece
Iceland
Ireland
Latvia
Lithuania
Luxembourg
North
Macedonia
Monaco
Netherlands
Norway
Portugal
Romania
Russia
San Marino
Sweden
Switzerland
Daily total
Cumulative
total
Notes:
  1. ^ Laboratory-confirmed cases, including those without disease symptoms.
  2. ^ Dates from national medical sources directly or via media if available;
    ECDC graphs assign dates typically 24 hours later than these.
  3. ^ a b By default, difference between daily ECDC estimates; with corrections if sources require that.

Total confirmed cases since Day 1 of Outbreak

Rate Comparison

Syncing the start date, comparing the Daily growth


Syncing the start date till first 500 cases:

Syncing the start date till first 100 cases:

Criticism of response to the 2019–20 coronavirus pandemic

Although by 7 March some European politicians such as France's Marine Le Pen had called for Europe's internal borders to be temporarily closed,[313] the European Union by 13 March continued to reject the idea of suspending the Schengen free travel area and introducing border controls with Italy.[314][315][316][317] The deputy leader of the Swiss Ticino League, Lorenzo Quadri, by 29 February had criticised the decision: "It is alarming that the dogma of wide-open borders is considered a priority."[318] United States President Donald Trump said by 12 March the European Union had "failed to take the same precautions and restrict travel from China and other hot spots" as the US had implemented.[319]

By 9 March Czech Prime Minister Andrej Babiš stated that "European countries cannot ban the entry of Italian citizens within the Schengen area. The only possible way is to have the Italian prime minister call on his fellow citizens to refrain from traveling to other countries of the European Union."[320]

After Czech Republic, Slovakia, Poland and Denmark announced complete closure of their national borders, the European Commission President Ursula von der Leyen said by 12 March that "Certain controls may be justified, but general travel bans are not seen as being the most effective by the World Health Organization. Moreover, they have a strong social and economic impact, they disrupt people’s lives and business across the borders."[321] European Union leaders condemned the US decision to restrict travel from Europe to the United States. European Council President Charles Michel and Ursula von der Leyen said in a joint statement: "The European Union disapproves of the fact that the US decision to impose a travel ban was taken unilaterally and without consultation."[322] Ursula von der Leyen admitted by 17 March that "all of us who are not experts initially underestimated the coronavirus."[323]

The Italian government has criticised EU's lack of solidarity with Italy.[324][325][326][327] Politico reported on 7 March that "EU countries have so far refused Italy's plea for help fighting coronavirus, as national capitals worry that they may need to stockpile face masks and other medical gear to help their own citizens, officials and diplomats said."[328] Maurizio Massari, Italy's ambassador to the EU, said that "Only China responded bilaterally. Certainly, this is not a good sign of European solidarity."[329] Serbian President Aleksandar Vučić said that "European solidarity does not exist. That was a fairy tale."[329]

The planned NATODefender 2020” military exercise in Germany, Poland, and the Baltic states,[330] the largest NATO war manoeuvres since the end of the Cold War, were to be held on a reduced scale because of the coronavirus pandemic.[331] The Campaign for Nuclear Disarmament's general secretary Kate Hudson critisiced the Defender 2020 exercise: "In the current public-health crisis, it jeopardises the lives not only of the troops from the US and the many European countries participating but the inhabitants of the countries in which they are operating."[332]

See also

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