2020 coronavirus pandemic in Jamaica

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2020 coronavirus pandemic in Jamaica
DiseaseCOVID-19
Virus strainSARS-CoV-2
LocationJamaica
First outbreakChina
Arrival date10 March 2020
(4 weeks and 2 days)
Confirmed cases63
Recovered12
Deaths
4

The 2019–20 coronavirus pandemic was confirmed to have spread to Jamaica in March 2020.

Background[edit]

On 12 January, the World Health Organization (WHO) confirmed that a novel coronavirus was the cause of a respiratory illness in a cluster of people in Wuhan City, Hubei Province, China, who had initially come to the attention of the WHO on 31 December 2019.[1][2]

Unlike SARS of 2003, the case fatality ratio for COVID-19 [3][4] has been much lower, but the transmission has been significantly greater, with a significant total death toll.[5][3]

The occurrence of the pandemic coincides with the ongoing 2019–2020 dengue fever epidemic in Latin America and the Caribbean.

Timeline[edit]

COVID-19 cases in Jamaica  ()
     Deaths        Recoveries        Active cases
Date
# of cases
2020-03-10
1
2020-03-11
2(+100%)
2020-03-12
2(=)
2020-03-13
8(+300%)
2020-03-14
8(=)
2020-03-15
10(+25%)
2020-03-16
12(+20%)
2020-03-17
13(+8%)
2020-03-18
15(+15%)
2020-03-19
16(+7%)
2020-03-20
19(+19%)
2020-03-21
19(=)
2020-03-22
19(=)
2020-03-23
21(+11%)
2020-03-24
25(+19%)
2020-03-25
26(+4%)
2020-03-26
26(=)
2020-03-27
30(+15%)
2020-03-28
32(+6%)
2020-03-29
36(+13%)
2020-03-30
36(=)
2020-03-31
38(+6%)
2020-04-01
44(+16%)
2020-04-02
47(+7%)
2020-04-03
53(+13%)
2020-04-04
55(+4%)
2020-04-05
58(+5%)
2020-04-06
59(+2%)
2020-04-07
63(+6%)
2020-04-08
63(=)

March 2020[edit]

On 10 March 2020, the Ministry of Health and Wellness (MoHW) confirmed the first case in Jamaica, a female patient who arrived from the United Kingdom on 4 March. The health minister reported that the patient has been in isolation since 9 March after showing respiratory symptoms. Following the update, the travel ban imposed was expanded to include France, Germany, and Spain.[6]

On 11 March, the country's health minister Christopher Tufton confirmed the second "imported corona virus" case.[7]

On 13 March, the country announced six additional cases – including the father and another female patient of the first patient.[8] Later that day, the government announced that the community of Bull Bay — where the funeral attended by the first patient took place — was placed under quarantine for 14 days.[9] With four of the cases involving patients travelling through or from the United Kingdom, the country's foreign minister Kamina Johnson-Smith announced that the travel ban would be expanded to include the United Kingdom.[10]

On 15 March, the Ministry of Health and Wellness (MoHW) confirmed that 19 suspected cases were reported and the patients tested. Of the 19 suspected cases, only two patients were confirmed as having the virus - one coming from Trinidad and Tobago and the other who had "contact tracing from the index case".[11] In the same update, the Ministry confirmed that there were twenty-seven patients in isolation facilities and that Patients 1 and 2 no longer exhibit any symptoms.[citation needed]

On 16 March, the Ministry of Health and Wellness (MoHW) and the Office of the Prime Minister (OPM) reported that there were five preliminary confirmed cases.[12] Later that day, the government confirmed that only two of the five reported cases tested positive for COVID-19. In response to the increase in cases, the government announced further social distancing measures such as imposed work-from-home directives, the banning of all mass gatherings of more than 20 people, and the shuttering of bars, restaurants, sporting events, et cetera.[citation needed]

On 17 March, the Ministry of Health and Wellness (MoHW) and the Office of the Prime Minister (OPM) confirmed another case[13] - someone who attended the same funeral as Patient 1.

On 18 March, the Chief Medical Officer of Jamaica confirmed the first COVID-19 death in the country.[14] At the same press conference, the health ministry confirmed two additional cases.[15]

0n 19 March, the Ministry of Health and Wellness (MoHW) confirmed one additional case bringing the total to 16.

On 20 March, the Ministry of Health and Wellness (MoHW) confirmed three additional cases bringing the total to 19 (of which, five cases are of local transmission).[16]

On 23 March, the Ministry of Health and Wellness (MoHW) confirmed two additional cases bringing the total to 21.[17] Of the two new cases, one was identified through contact tracing and was found to have been within close proximity to two patients.[18]

On 24 March, the Ministry of Health and Wellness (MoHW) confirmed four additional cases bringing the total to 25.[19]

On 25 March, the Ministry of Health and Wellness (MoHW) confirmed an additional case bringing the total to 26.[20]

On 27 March, the Ministry of Health and Wellness (MoHW) confirmed four additional cases bringing the total to 30.[21]

On 28 March, the Ministry of Health and Wellness (MoHW) confirmed two additional cases bringing the total to 32.[22]

On 29 March, the Ministry of Health and Wellness (MoHW) confirmed four additional cases bringing the total to 36 - including two female patients with a travel history from New York and the first healthcare worker.[23][24] The government also reported the recovery of the first patient in Jamaica.

On 31 March, the Ministry of Health and Wellness (MoHW) confirmed two additional cases bringing the total to 38 - including one patient with a travel history from Boston and Atlanta; and, the first patient under the age of 18 years old. In the same release, the health ministry announced the second coronavirus related death, a previously recovering patient who was determined to have succumbed to cardiac arrest; and, the second recovered patient who has since been released from hospital.[25]

April 2020[edit]

On 01 April, the Ministry of Health and Wellness (MoHW) confirmed six additional cases bringing the total to 44.[26] All six cases are from the Corn Piece community in Hayes, Clarendon, which has been under quarantine since 19 March. Earlier that day, the health minister tweeted that the country "had reported another COVID19 related death".[27]

On 02 April, the Ministry of Health and Wellness (MoHW) confirmed three additional cases bringing the total to 47. The patients include a couple in their 70s with a travel history from New York and a 32-year-old male with no known travel history.[28]

On 03 April, the Ministry of Health and Wellness (MoHW) confirmed six additional cases bringing the total to 53.[29] Of these cases: four were determined to be from contact with a confirmed case, one with a travel history from New York, and the other yet to be determined.[30][31] The health ministry also confirmed the recovery and release of five patients bringing the recovery total to 07.[32]

On 04 April, the Ministry of Health and Wellness (MoHW) confirmed two additional cases bringing the total to 55. The patients include a 73-year-old female who has been in contact with a confirmed case and a 63-year-old female whose mode of transmission is under investigation.[33] In the later tweet, the ministry confirmed the recovery and release of another patient bringing the recovery total to 08.[34]

On 05 April, the Ministry of Health and Wellness (MoHW) confirmed three additional cases bringing the total to 58. The patients include a 52-year-old male with a travel history from Brazil; a 41-year-old female with a travel history from New York; and, a 41-year-old female with no travel history. [35]

On 06 April, the Ministry of Health and Wellness (MoHW) confirmed an additional case bringing the total to 59. The patient is a 43-year-old male with no known travel history; his mode of transmission is being investigated.[36]

On 07 April, the Ministry of Health and Wellness (MoHW) confirmed four additional cases bringing the total to 63.[37] The new patients - all from Kingston and Saint Andrew - include: two 48 year old females, a 26 year old female and a 26 year old male; and, all have been determined to have come in contact with a confirmed case.[38][39] The health ministry also confirmed the recovery and release of two additional patients bringing the recovery total to 10.[40]

On 08 April, the Ministry of Health and Wellness (MoHW) confirmed an additional COVID-19 related death bringing the total to 04.[41] The health ministry also noted the recovery and release of two additional patients bringing the recovery total to 12.

Reaction[edit]

January and February 2020[edit]

The government announced a travel ban between China and Jamaica. All people entering Jamaica from China will be subject to immediate quarantine for at least 14 days, and anyone who was allowed to land and shows symptoms of the virus will be put in immediate isolation.[42] In keeping with the new policy, 19 Chinese nationals who arrived at the Norman Manley International Airport on the evening of 31 January were denied entry, quarantined, and put on a flight back to China on 1 February.[43]

March 2020[edit]

On 12 March, Prime Minister Andrew Holness ordered all primary and secondary schools closed for 14 days.[44]

On 13 March, the Prime Minister announced the invocation of the special powers[45] to combat further spread of COVID-19.[46] He said the country was seeking 100 Cuban nurses to help, and recruiting retired medical professionals.[47]

On 17 March, the Government of Jamaica issued work-from-home directives to non-essential workers in Jamaica.[48]

On 19 March, the Government of Jamaica placed the community of Corn Piece in Hayes District, Clarendon under quarantine; the community was the home of the patient who succumbed to the illness on 18 March.

On 20 March, the Government of Jamaica announced that all sea and airports will be closed to incoming traffic for a period of 14 days effective 21 March.[49] The Ministry of Health and Wellness (MoHW) announced that it will be drafting final year medical students and retired medical practitioners to "support clinical and surveillance activities".[50]

On 23 March, the Government of Jamaica imposed a stay-at-home order for all Jamaican citizens and residents 75 years and older for a period of 14 days; the order coming into effect on 25 March.[51] Prime Minister Andrew Holness also announced that all public sector workers 65 years and older must work from home;[52] school closures shall extend to the end of the Easter term (8 April);[53] and, that all persons who entered the country on 18 March will be placed on an additional 14 days quarantine.[54]

On 30 March, the Government of Jamaica announced an all-island curfew commencing on 01 April to combat what it believed was an "increase in movement over the weekend". The curfew, between 08pm and 06am each day, should end on 08 April.[55]

April 2020[edit]

On 03 April, Prime Minister Andrew Holness confirmed that of the 7000 individuals who arrived in Jamaica between 18-24 March, 4500 have failed to report to the Ministry of Health and Wellness (MoHW) as required by the Disaster Risk Management Act despite much pleading. In response to their failure to report, he announced that the Passivity , Immigration and Citizenship Agency (PICA) has been directed to not allow said individuals from leaving the country. The individuals who failed to report to the health ministry, once found, would face a fine of up to $1 million and/or imprisonment, and may be forced into government-run quarantine facilities when found. That same day, the Minister of Health and Wellness Christopher Tufton announced in Parliament that these individuals could ultimately be named in the press.[56]

On 03 April, Prime Minister Andrew Holness also announced that the country should receive 25 additional ventilators by 01 May increasing the number of ventilators to 105. The Prime Minister and the Minister of Foreign Affairs Kamina Johnson-Smith indicated that a number of the ventilators, N95 masks, other medical equipment and non-medical support are being obtained through donations from international partners - including the European Union, South Korea, the People's Republic of China and the International Atomic Energy Agency. Minister Johnson-Smith added that United States has donated $700,000 USD ($95 million JMD) which will go towards the national COVID-19 response; the allocation of funds will be directed by the newly formed External Support Coordination Committee.[57]

On 06 April, the Chief Medical Officer Dr. Jacquiline Bisasor McKenzie issued guidelines on the usage of masks following similar announcements by the United States' Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and the World Health Organisation.[58]

On 07 April, the Minister of Health and Wellness Christopher Tufton announced that of the 7000 individuals who arrived in Jamaica between 18-24 March, 4500 have reported to the health ministry out of 5400 who remain on the island.[59] At the same press conference, Minister Tufton announced several public-private partnerships designed “to manage the care of persons with co-morbid conditions, including diabetes and chronic hypertension, who utilize the public health system”; which effectively meant controlled patients would be outsourced to private practitioners and the freeing up the resources at the island's hospitals.[60] Minister Tufton announced the authorisation by Cabinet for the use of the National Arena as a field hospital; the welcoming of 80 medical students from the University of the West Indies to help operate the MoHW Call Centre; and, the donation of 100,000 N95 masks by the Medical Association of Jamaica.[61][62][63] That same day, the Prime Minister in a tweet announced that the night time curfew which commenced on 01 April will be extended.[64]

On 08 April, the Prime Minister Andrew Holness announced that the nightly curfew in place since 01 April will be extended to 21 April; that the stay-at-home and work-from-home orders in place from mid-March will be extended until 21 April; and, that the wearing of masks will becoming mandatory for some class of persons and strongly advised for other Jamaicans.[65][66] Additionally, Prime Minister Holness announced that schools in Jamaica will remain closed until 22 April;[67] and, that the government is considering controlled re-entry of Jamaican expatriates.[68][69]

Graphs[edit]

Data collected from Jamaica Ministry of Health and Wellness. Last updated 20:00[70] 08 April 2020.

New cases[edit]

Data collected from Jamaica Ministry of Health and Wellness. Last updated 20:00 08 April 2020.

Patient Demographics[edit]

Data sourced from Jamaica Ministry of Health and Wellness website. Last updated 20:00 08 April 2020.

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Elsevier. "Novel Coronavirus Information Center". Elsevier Connect. Archived from the original on 30 January 2020. Retrieved 15 March 2020.
  2. ^ Reynolds, Matt (4 March 2020). "What is coronavirus and how close is it to becoming a pandemic?". Wired UK. ISSN 1357-0978. Archived from the original on 5 March 2020. Retrieved 5 March 2020.
  3. ^ a b "Crunching the numbers for coronavirus". Imperial News. Archived from the original on 19 March 2020. Retrieved 15 March 2020.
  4. ^ "High consequence infectious diseases (HCID); Guidance and information about high consequence infectious diseases and their management in England". GOV.UK. Archived from the original on 3 March 2020. Retrieved 17 March 2020.
  5. ^ "World Federation Of Societies of Anaesthesiologists – Coronavirus". www.wfsahq.org. Archived from the original on 12 March 2020. Retrieved 15 March 2020.
  6. ^ "Update: Jamaica confirms first case of Coronavirus, travel ban expanded". jamaica-gleaner.com. 10 March 2020.
  7. ^ @IRIE_FM (11 March 2020). "Breaking News" (Tweet). Archived from the original on 12 March 2020. Retrieved 12 March 2020 – via Twitter.
  8. ^ @darylvazmp (13 March 2020). "6 New COVID-19 cases confirmed" (Tweet). Retrieved 14 March 2020 – via Twitter.
  9. ^ "7, 8 Miles, Bull Bay under quarantine". Jamaica Observer. 13 March 2020. Retrieved 14 March 2020.
  10. ^ "Jamaica imposes travel restriction for UK". Jamaica Observer. 13 March 2020. Retrieved 14 March 2020.
  11. ^ @themohwgovjm (15 March 2020). "#COVID19 Update" (Tweet) – via Twitter.
  12. ^ JA, MOHW (15 March 2020). "Covid-19 Update: 5 more cases preliminary confirmed.pic.twitter.com/bBWQls5cv7".
  13. ^ Holness, Andrew (17 March 2020). "Jamaica now has 13 confirmed cases of Covid-19-@christufton".
  14. ^ Gleaner, Jamaica (18 March 2020). "BREAKING NEWS: Jamaica has reported its first death from the #COVID-19. The patient died at the isolation facility at Mandeville Regional Hospital this afternoon. Up to Tuesday, Jamaica had recorded 13 cases of the virus.pic.twitter.com/KFLm3kmOR3".
  15. ^ Holness, Andrew (18 March 2020). ""Jamaica now has 15 confirmed cases of Covid-19." -Dunstan Bryan, Permanent Secretary, Ministry of Health and Wellness".
  16. ^ Tufton, Dr Chris (20 March 2020). "Jamaica now has a total of 19 confirmed cases of COVID-19. 5 of which are from local cases. #Jacovid19".
  17. ^ Tufton, Dr Chris (23 March 2020). "#JaCovid19 Update: Jamaica now has a total of 21 confirmed cases of COVID-19. The Breakdown is as follows: •14 imported cases • 6 import-related • 1 still under investigation".
  18. ^ Tufton, Dr Chris (23 March 2020). "Details: 1. 61 year old male from Manchester. Travel History: Florida, Dubai, Tanzania and Egypt 2. 51 year old male from Westmoreland. Connected to two imported confirmed cases. He was identified through contact tracing and admitted to a government quarantine facility".
  19. ^ Fitz-Henley, Abka (24 March 2020). "UPDATE: 25 confirmed cases of the #Covid19 in Jamaica. An increase of 4. Details below.pic.twitter.com/nUx7BsknSf".
  20. ^ Tufton, Dr Chris (25 March 2020). "We have tested 150 samples: • 26 confirm • 18 pending • 142 home quarantine • 254 released #Jacovid19 #COVID19JAMAICA".
  21. ^ Tufton, Dr Chris (27 March 2020). "There are four (4) new confirmed case in the last 24 hours. Jamaica now has a total of 30 confirmed cases of COVID-19. •20 are imported cases (with 1 death) •8 are import-related •2 are under investigation #JaCovid19 #Covid19Jamaica".
  22. ^ JA, MOHW (28 March 2020). "Jamaica now has 32 confirmed cases of #COVID19. @christuftonpic.twitter.com/4KuvebzO97".
  23. ^ Tufton, Dr Chris (29 March 2020). "#JaCOVID19 Update: Jamaica now has 34 confirmed cases. Protect yourself and others by taking the necessary precautions to help in the fight against the coronavirus. ⠀pic.twitter.com/fEmcdSBiNm".
  24. ^ Tufton, Dr Chris (29 March 2020). "pic.twitter.com/sqWlO1rvvw".
  25. ^ Tufton, Dr Chris (31 March 2020). "pic.twitter.com/E2fQMg7ejT".
  26. ^ Tufton, Dr Chris (1 April 2020). "Jamaica how has 44 confirmed cases and 3 deaths for #Covid19Jamaica #JaCovid19".
  27. ^ Tufton, Dr Chris (1 April 2020). "Jamaica has reported an additional COVID-19 related death. Further details will be announced at the @themohwgovjm press briefing".
  28. ^ Dr. Chris Tufton (2 April 2020). "Dr. Chris Tufton on Twitter: "#JaCovid19 Update: There are now 47 confirmed cases in Jamaica. @themohwgovjm release". Twitter.com. Retrieved 6 April 2020.
  29. ^ Dr. Chris Tufton (18 June 2009). "Dr. Chris Tufton on Twitter: "Jamaica now has 53 confirmed cases of COVID-19. This follows six (6) new additions over the last 48 hours. #JaCovid19 #Covid19Jamaica"". Twitter.com. Retrieved 6 April 2020.
  30. ^ Dr. Chris Tufton (18 June 2009). "Dr. Chris Tufton on Twitter: "The new cases: - A 57-year-old male from Manchester, who is the contact of a confirmed case; - A 57-year-old male from Kingston and St. Andrew, who is a contact of a confirmed case; - A 40-year-old male from Kingston and St. Andrew whose mode of transmission (1/2) #JaCovid19"". Twitter.com. Retrieved 6 April 2020.
  31. ^ Dr. Chris Tufton (18 June 2009). "Dr. Chris Tufton on Twitter: "is under investigation; - A 23-year-old male from Clarendon who is the contact of a confirmed case; - A 42-year-old male from Clarendon who has a travel history to the United States; and - A 22-year-old female from Clarendon who is a contact of a confirmed case. #JaCovid19"". Twitter.com. Retrieved 6 April 2020.
  32. ^ Dr. Chris Tufton (18 June 2009). "Dr. Chris Tufton on Twitter: "To date, seven (7) persons have been Isolated, Treated and RELEASED #JaCovid19 #Covid19Jamaica"". Twitter.com. Retrieved 6 April 2020.
  33. ^ Mohw Ja (4 November 2014). "MOHW JA on Twitter: "Jamaica records 55 #COVID19 cases. @christufton‌ "". Twitter.com. Retrieved 6 April 2020.
  34. ^ https://twitter.com/themohwgovjm/status/1246627882262245378
  35. ^ Mohw Ja (4 November 2014). "MOHW JA on Twitter: "#JaCovid19 Update as of April 5, 2020: - 3 samples have tested positive bringing the total number of confirmed cases of COVID-19 in Jamaica to 58"". Twitter.com. Retrieved 6 April 2020.
  36. ^ Jamaica Gleaner (18 May 2009). "Jamaica Gleaner on Twitter: "The Health Ministry is reporting that one more person has tested positive for the #coronavirus in Jamaica pushing the total to 59. The new patient is a 43-year-old male from Portland, whose case is still under investigation. So far, 32 males and 27 females have tested positive."". Twitter.com. Retrieved 7 April 2020.
  37. ^ https://twitter.com/christufton/status/1247637883554598913
  38. ^ https://twitter.com/christufton/status/1247639408049782785
  39. ^ https://twitter.com/christufton/status/1247639594432180226
  40. ^ https://twitter.com/christufton/status/1247638216120901632
  41. ^ https://twitter.com/christufton/status/1247958286684618757
  42. ^ "Jamaica imposes travel ban over coronavirus". jamaica-gleaner.com. 31 January 2020. Archived from the original on 2 February 2020. Retrieved 8 February 2020.
  43. ^ "Jamaica turns back 19 Chinese nationals under coronavirus travel ban". loopjamaica.com. Archived from the original on 8 February 2020. Retrieved 8 February 2020.
  44. ^ "Holness orders closure of all schools". The Star. 12 March 2020. Retrieved 14 March 2020.
  45. ^ The Disaster Risk Management Act, the Emergency Powers Act and the Public Health Act
  46. ^ "Jamaica treating COVID-19 outbreak as a disaster". Jamaica Observer. 13 March 2020. Retrieved 14 March 2020.
  47. ^ "Jamaica declares disaster over coronavirus, seeks Cuban nurses". Reuters. 14 March 2020.
  48. ^ Commerce, JA Chamber (17 March 2020). "Prime Minister Andrew Holness clarifies what is meant by "work from home" for the public and private sector as we as a nation continue to fight the spread of COVID19.pic.twitter.com/TQfXo8H1KA".
  49. ^ Tufton, Dr Chris (20 March 2020). "With effect from 11:59PM on Saturday March 21, 2020, and for a period of fourteen (14) days in the first instance, Jamaica's air and seaports will be closed to incoming passenger traffic. Outgoing passenger and cargo will be allowed #JaCovid19".
  50. ^ Tufton, Dr Chris (20 March 2020). "PM @AndrewHolnessJM: "Final year med students will support clinical & surveillance activities of the Health and Wellness Ministry A Quarantine Centre will be established at University Hospital" #JaCovid19".
  51. ^ Holness, Andrew (23 March 2020). "With effect from the 25th day of March 2020 for a period of fourteen (14) days, all persons 75 years and older must stay at home, subject to exemptions to be specified. #COVIDー19 #COVID19JAMAICA #covid19containment".
  52. ^ Holness, Andrew (23 March 2020). "With effect from the 25th day of March 2020, for a period of fourteen (14) days, all public sector workers, 65 years and older are to work from home, subject to exemptions to be specified. #COVIDー19 #COVID19JAMAICA #covid19containment".
  53. ^ Holness, Andrew (23 March 2020). "Schools are to remain closed until the end of the Easter Term. #COVIDー19 #COVID19JAMAICA #covid19containment".
  54. ^ Holness, Andrew (23 March 2020). "Every person who entered Jamaica as at 18th March, 2020 must be in quarantine for a further fourteen days after the initial seven days expire. #COVIDー19 #COVID19JAMAICA".
  55. ^ "Prime Minister Announces All-Island Curfew". Jamaica Information Service. 31 March 2020.
  56. ^ "Travel ban placed on thousands for not reporting to health authorities | Loop News". Loopjamaica.com. 10 March 2020. Retrieved 6 April 2020.
  57. ^ https://jis.gov.jm/govt-receiving-additional-equipment-and-support-for-national-covid-19-response/
  58. ^ https://www.moh.gov.jm/ministry-issues-recommendations-for-the-wearing-of-masks/
  59. ^ https://twitter.com/christufton/status/1247654107508281346
  60. ^ https://twitter.com/christufton/status/1247640594148659212
  61. ^ https://twitter.com/christufton/status/1247641362503262208
  62. ^ https://twitter.com/christufton/status/1247645076433633282
  63. ^ https://twitter.com/christufton/status/1247642774331166721
  64. ^ https://twitter.com/AndrewHolnessJM/status/1247647191386279936
  65. ^ https://twitter.com/AndrewHolnessJM/status/1248024496109477888
  66. ^ https://twitter.com/televisionjam/status/1248020734091440129
  67. ^ https://twitter.com/AndrewHolnessJM/status/1248032958235230211
  68. ^ https://twitter.com/AndrewHolnessJM/status/1248030125511368706
  69. ^ https://twitter.com/AndrewHolnessJM/status/1248029003946102786
  70. ^ UTC-05:00