2020 coronavirus pandemic in Massachusetts

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2020 coronavirus pandemic in Massachusetts
COVID-19 cases in Massachusetts per capita map.svg
Cases per 100,000 people as of April 2
DiseaseCOVID-19
Virus strainSARS-CoV-2
LocationMassachusetts, United States
First outbreakWuhan, Hubei, China
Index caseBoston
Arrival dateFebruary 1, 2020
Confirmed cases10402[1]
Active cases10080
Recovered130 [2]
Deaths
192 as of April 3, 2020
Official website
Information on the Outbreak of Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) from the Massachusetts Department of Health

The 2020 coronavirus pandemic in Massachusetts is part of an ongoing pandemic of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) in the US state of Massachusetts. The first confirmed case was reported on February 1, 2020, and cases began growing rapidly on March 5. Governor Charlie Baker declared a state of emergency on March 10, and by March 12, over 100 people were infected. Most early cases were traceable to a Biogen conference held in Boston in late February. As of April 3, 2020, Massachusetts had 10,402 cases, 966 hospitalizations, and 192 deaths due to COVID-19.[1]

School closures began March 9, when Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) moved large classes to only-online for the rest of the semester,[3][4] and a handful of local schools closed. By March 13, many colleges and state school districts announced closures ranging from weeks to months in duration.[5][6]

On March 15, Baker ordered all schools in Massachusetts closed for three weeks from March 17, through April 7. The same day, he also banned eating at restaurants, banned gatherings of over 25 people, relaxed unemployment claim requirements, and enacted other interventions through April 17, to slow the spread of COVID-19.[7] On March 23, Governor Baker enacted a stay-at-home advisory until April 7, which was extended to May 4, to further inhibit the spread of COVID-19.[8] Two days later, Baker extended the closure period of schools, ordering them to remain closed through May 4.[9]

COVID-19 cases in Massachusetts, United States  ()
     Deaths        Recoveries        Active cases

Feb Feb Mar Mar Apr Apr Last 15 days Last 15 days

Date
# of cases
# of deaths
2020-02-01
1
1(=)
2020-03-02
2(+100%)
2(=)
2020-03-05
3(+50%)
2020-03-06
8(+166%)
2020-03-07
13(+62%)
2020-03-08
28(+115%)
2020-03-09
41(+46%)
2020-03-10
92(+124%)
2020-03-11
95(+3%)
2020-03-12
108(+14%)
2020-03-13
123(+14%)
2020-03-14
138(+12%)
2020-03-15
164(+19%)
2020-03-16
197(+20%)
2020-03-17
218(+11%)
2020-03-18
256(+17%)
2020-03-19
328(+28%)
2020-03-20
413(+26%) 1
2020-03-21
525(+27%) 2(+100%)
2020-03-22
646(+23%) 5(+150%)
2020-03-23
777(+20%) 9(+80%)
2020-03-24
1,159(+49%) 11(+22%)
2020-03-25
1,838(+59%) 15(+36%)
2020-03-26
2,417(+32%) 25(+67%)
2020-03-27
3,240(+34%) 35(+40%)
2020-03-28
4,257(+31%) 44(+26%)
2020-03-29
4,955(+16%) 48(+9%)
2020-03-30
5,752(+16%) 56(+17%)
2020-03-31
6,620(+15%) 89(+59%)
2020-04-01
7,738(+17%) 122(+37%)
2020-04-02
8,966(+16%) 154(+26%)
2020-04-03
10,402(+16%) 192(+25%)
Number of cases and deaths: Cumulative totals reported to date
Sources: Reports from state health officials and news reports cited inline

Timeline[edit]

February[edit]

Most early COVID-19 cases in Massachusetts traced to a Biogen conference held in late February at Marriott Long Wharf hotel in Boston, pictured here.

The first case of COVID-19 was confirmed by state health officials on February 1. Massachusetts became the 2nd state in America to report a case of coronavirus. The individual, a University of Massachusetts Boston student, had returned to Boston from Wuhan, China. Upon returning to Boston he began experiencing symptoms and sought medical care. University of Massachusetts Boston Interim Chancellor Katherine Newman addressed the situation as "business as usual" in a campus wide email. Students and faculty were assured they were at no risk, even though a confirmed case was identified.[10]

175 executives of Biogen Inc., a biotechnology company based in Cambridge, held a two-day leadership conference from February 26–28 at the Boston Marriott Long Wharf hotel.[11] On February 29, a Biogen executive began to develop symptoms and sought treatment at a Boston area hospital. Suspecting COVID-19 was the cause of the illness, the executive requested a test, but was told by hospital staff that it was not necessary.[11][12][13]

March[edit]

March 2–3[edit]

On March 2, the second confirmed case in Massachusetts was reported. The patient was a woman in her 20s from Norfolk County. She had recently traveled to Italy with a school group from Saint Raphael Academy in Pawtucket, Rhode Island. She was the third person from the trip to test positive.[14]

March 4–5[edit]

On March 4, staff from Biogen contacted the Massachusetts Department of Public Health (MDPH) claiming that two executives who had recently traveled from Europe to Boston and had attended the February conference had tested positive for COVID-19 upon returning home. The same day, a "significant number" of Biogen employees asked for coronavirus tests at Massachusetts General Hospital (MGH), which had not been informed that anyone at the company had been exposed to COVID-19. The state police announced Shattuck Street would be closed because a group of 60 individuals were being transported along the route to Brigham and Women's Hospital.[15]

On March 5, Biogen reported that three individuals who had attended a company event in Boston the previous week had tested positive for SARS-CoV-2.[16][17]

March 6–9[edit]

On March 6, public health officials reported five new cases bringing the state total to eight.[1][18] Four cases were in Suffolk County, three in Norfolk County, and one in Middlesex County. Two cases were associated with travel to Italy and one to Wuhan. All five new cases were associated with the Biogen meeting.[19][20][21] Northeastern University, which had already closed satellite campuses in San Francisco and Seattle, hesitated to close their main campus for fear of international students losing their F visa status, and publicly called on the Department of Homeland Security to grant clemency for international students so the University can close.[22] On March 7, there were five more presumptive positive cases of COVID-19, bringing the total to 13.[23] Among those cases was the index case in Berkshire County, a man in his 60s from Clarksburg whose infection could not be traced.[24]

On March 8, the MDPH reported 15 more presumptive cases of COVID-19,[21] all of which were individuals present at the Biogen conference,[19] bringing the total to 28.[1] In response to the outbreak, Biogen ordered all its employees to work from home.[25] The fifteen new presumptive cases included five from Suffolk County, five from Middlesex County, four from Norfolk County, and one whose county of residence was unknown.[26] On March 9, there were 13 new presumptive cases, bringing the total number of confirmed or presumptive cases in Massachusetts to 41.[27] Officials in North Carolina reported that five residents of Wake County tested positive for COVID-19; all five were participants in the previous week's Biogen conference in Boston.[28] The Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) announced that all large lectures would be held online only.[3][29]

March 10–11[edit]

Items out of stock at a CVS Pharmacy in Westford, Massachusetts

On March 10, the state reported 50 new cases of coronavirus, bringing the total to 92.[30] Harvard University announced that its classes would be online-only for the rest of the spring semester.[31][32][33] The University of Massachusetts Boston informed faculty that they should prepare to teach remotely.[34] Amherst College, located in Western Massachusetts, instructed students on spring break to not return to campus, and moved all classes online for the remainder of the semester.[35] Emerson College, Tufts University, Babson College, Smith College, and Wheaton College all canceled in-person classes and moved classes online.[36] A man in Sudbury tested "presumptive positive" for COVID-19.[37] The first case in Essex County was also reported.[38]

On March 11, several schools were closed including Hopkinton Public Schools, Loker Elementary and Wayland Middle School, and Clark Avenue Middle School.[39] Northeastern University and Boston University moved to online classes.[36][40][41] Williams College announced it would end in-person classes on Friday, March 13 and move to remote learning as of Monday, April 6.[42] Boston College moved all classes online, and all students were told to vacate their dorms by March 15.[43] All University of Massachusetts classes moved online until at least April 3.[36]

March 12–13[edit]

On March 12, there were 108 people in Massachusetts with confirmed or presumptive cases of COVID-19. Among those cases, 82 (75% of the total) were associates or employees of Biogen.[44] Governor Baker noted that the state had currently tested over 200 patients and had the capacity to test up to 5,000.[45] The Boston Marriott Long Wharf hotel, which hosted a Biogen company gathering linked to a majority of the coronavirus cases in Massachusetts, closed temporarily. In a letter to guests on Thursday, the hotel said it made the decision with the Boston Public Health Commission.[46][47] Acton-Boxborough announced school closures from March 13 until March 20.[48]

On March 13, the Boston Marathon was postponed from April 20, until September 14.[49] A few hours later, Massachusetts Governor Charlie Baker prohibited gatherings of more than 250 people. The measure was targeted at large events and exempted most workplaces, transit buildings, polling locations, government buildings, and schools.[50] Cardinal O'Malley announced that all daily and Sunday Masses, and other religious services would be suspended in the Archdiocese of Boston until further notice amid concerns about COVID-19.[51] In addition, Boston Mayor Marty Walsh announced that Boston Public Schools would be closed starting on Tuesday, March 17 until April 27.[52] The MDPH announced that there were 123 cases of COVID-19 in Massachusetts.[1][53] Woburn announced that a presumptive positive case in the city had been confirmed as negative.[54]

March 14–15[edit]

On March 14, Cape Cod (Barnstable County) confirmed its first case,[55][56] a man in his 60s from Sandwich.[57] There were 15 new cases, bringing the total number of confirmed or presumptive cases of COVID-19 in Massachusetts to 138.[1] Officials in Worcester and Malden both announced their respective cities' first confirmed case of COVID-19, both linked to Biogen.[58][59][60] Of the state's 138 cases, 104 (75%) could be traced to employees or contacts of Biogen.[1]

A 59-year-old Worcester man died on a flight from Dubai to Boston.[61] He had been sick with gastrointestinal problems and was in cardiac arrest during the flight. On March 16, Massachusetts State Police said that an autopsy revealed he did not have COVID-19.[62]

On March 15, Baker ordered all public and private schools in Massachusetts closed for three weeks from March 17, through April 7. The same day, he also banned eating at restaurants, banned gatherings of over 25 people, relaxed unemployment claim requirements, and enacted other interventions through April 17 to slow the spread of COVID-19.[7] The Massachusetts Department of Public Health (MDPH) announced that 799 residents had been tested for COVID-19, up from 475 one day prior.[63] There were 164 total cases; 45 confirmed and 119 presumptive. Hampden and Plymouth counties had their first cases.[1] Plymouth County's first case, in Hanover, resulted from travel and the individual was doing well.[64] Hampden County's first case tested positive at Baystate Medical Center in Springfield; the hospital noted an additional 23 suspected cases.[65]

March 16–17[edit]

On March 16, a student at Northeastern University tested positive for COVID-19, one day after the university ordered all students to vacate dormitories by 5:00 p.m. on Tuesday, March 17.[66][67] Up to this point students were taking online classes but allowed to remain on University property.[68] Brockton announced its first case, and the mayor declared a state of emergency for the city.[69] The number of cases increased to 197.

Boston Mayor Marty Walsh ordered construction projects to shut down and be secured with at most skeleton crews by March 23, and that all branches of the Boston Public Library would close that night by 6:00 p.m.[70]

The MBTA announced that starting March 17, it would run subway and buses at Saturday levels of service during the week, with express buses still running, ferries not running, and commuter rail running on a modified schedule.[71] The next day, service was increased on the Blue Line, Green Line E branch (which serves Longwood Medical Center), and some bus lines to reduce crowding. Frequency on Massport shuttles to Logan International Airport were reduced or canceled.[72]

The Department of Public Health revised the criteria for recording COVID-19 cases. Per guidance from the CDC, all confirmed or presumptive positive cases are simply categorized as positive, and not differentiated.[1] The daily table published by the DPH also changed, whereas the category for cases associated with the Berkshire Medical Center was replaced with a category for local transmission.[note 1]

Biogen announced that it would donate $10 million to support global response efforts and communities around the world affected by the COVID-19 pandemic.[73]

On March 17, the reported number of coronavirus cases increased 21 from Monday to 218. The number of hospitalized patients with suspected or known infections quadrupled to 53 between March 16 and 17, as major hospitals began reusing protective gear or asking the public for donations of masks.[74]

March 18–21[edit]

On March 18, the number of cases increased to 256, an increase of 38. The number of cases where initial exposure was under investigation rose rapidly, whereas cases tracked to Biogen attendees and household contacts continued an overall mild decline.[note 2] On March 19, Governor Baker activated up to 2,000 Massachusetts National Guard to assist in the management of the pandemic.[75] The number of cases increased by 72, putting the total at 328, with 119 in Middlesex County.[76] Franklin and Hampshire counties—both in Western Massachusetts and the last non-island counties—had their first confirmed cases of COVID-19.[1] The Boston Celtics announced that shooting guard Marcus Smart tested positive for COVID-19 and was in isolation while in treatment.[77]

On March 20, Massachusetts experienced its first death due to COVID-19. The fatality was an 87-year-old man from Suffolk County, hospitalized and with preexisting health conditions.[78][79] Massachusetts authorities announced that 85 new cases of COVID-19 were confirmed in the state bringing the total infections to 413.[80] Of the total cases, 144 were in Middlesex County. Martha's Vineyard in Dukes County had its first case, a 50-year-old man in Tisbury.[81][82] This brought coronavirus to 13 of 14 counties in Massachusetts.[80] Harvard University declared that its 369th Commencement Exercises would be postponed.[83] The cities of Somerville and Cambridge closed non-essential businesses.[84][85]

Social distancing in a Trader Joe's line in Cambridgeport, Cambridge, Massachusetts March 21, 2020
Closed picnic area Natick Turnpike rest area on I-90 during the 2020 coronavirus pandemic in Massachusetts

On March 21, the Massachusetts Department of Corrections (DOC) announced the first confirmed case of COVID-19 among its inmate population. According to officials at MTC Bridgewater, a male inmate who was serving a life sentence tested positive. Massachusetts DOC noted this was the only known case of COVID-19 in its inmate population.[86] The number of cases increased by 112 to 525 statewide.[87] Governor Baker announced that 5,207 people had been tested for COVID-19 in Massachusetts through state and commercial laboratories.[88] That night the state announced its second death due to COVID-19, a woman from Middlesex County in her 50s with a preexisting health condition.[89][90] Nantucket County, the last county in Massachusetts to do so, reported its first coronavirus case.[91] In order to reduce contact between drivers and customers, the MBTA began rear-door boarding on surface stops for buses, the Green Line, and the Mattapan Trolley, except for passengers with disabilities who need to use the front door.[92]

March 22–25[edit]

On March 22, Nantucket issued a shelter in place order starting March 23 and ending on April 6. It will not be a full lockdown, as essential services will remain open.[93] Governor Baker instructed people on mainland Massachusetts with second homes in Nantucket and Dukes County to stay on the mainland.[94] The number of cases increased 121 to reach 646 statewide, with nearly 200 in Middlesex County.[95] Three new deaths were reported by Massachusetts DPH, two men, both in their 70s, from Hampden and Berkshire counties, and a man in his 90s from Suffolk County.[note 3][96]

On March 23, Governor Baker announced his stay-at-home advisory effective March 24 until April 7. Nonessential businesses are ordered to close physical workplaces. People are allowed to go out to obtain essential goods and services such as groceries and medicines, but social distancing protocols should be followed.[8] The number of cases increased 131 to 777 on March 23. Four new deaths were attributed to COVID-19.[note 4]

On March 24, the number of cases jumped 382 to 1,159, with two new deaths attributed to COVID-19.[note 5] This unusually large jump in cases (49%, versus 20-28% in the previous five days) was attributable to Quest Laboratories processing 3,843 tests in one day, yielding 267 of the state's 382 new positive results.[1]

On March 25, the number of cases jumped 679 to 1838, an increase of 59%. Four new deaths were reported by Massachusetts DPH.[97] Governor Baker declared schools closed until May 4.[9] The Commissioner of Public Health issued emergency regulations for grocery stores and pharmacies. A daily senior shopping hour, checkout line distancing markers, hand washing and sanitizer for employees, disinfecting wipes for customers to use on carts, and a ban on reusable bags became mandatory, overriding local bans on single-used plastic bags and eliminating bag fees. Self-service food stations were ordered closed, and regular sanitization was required.[98]

March 26–31[edit]

On March 26, the number of cases increased by 579 to a total of 2,417. 10 more deaths were attributed to COVID-19.[note 6][99] On March 27, 823 new cases were reported, with the total increasing to 3,240. Another 10 people died, putting the number of deaths at 35.[100] The state extended the tax filing deadline to July 15 and announced new travel guidelines.[101][102][103] State officials announced that the Massachusetts Department of Public Health Commissioner, Monica Bharel, had tested positive for COVID-19, had mild symptoms, and would recover at home.[104] On March 28, over 1000 new cases and 9 new deaths were reported, putting the total number of cases at 4,257. The number of deaths increased to 44.[105]

On March 29, 4 new deaths and 698 new cases were reported, with the total number of cases increasing to 4,955. The number of deaths increased to 48.[note 7]

On March 30, 797 new cases put the total at 5,752. The death toll increased to 56.[106] The state also announced that it has conducted almost 43,000 tests of Massachusetts residents with Quest Diagnostics having conducted 21,321 or almost half of the total tests administered.[note 8] A potential cluster of COVID-19 cases was reported in Holyoke, Massachusetts at Soldiers' Home, a nursing facility that cares for retired members of the military. Eleven residents had recently died, and another 11 residents along with several staff members had tested positive for COVID-19.[107] Later that evening, the MBTA announced that 18 transit workers had tested positive for COVID-19.[108] In addition, the Boston Police Department confirmed that 19 uniformed officers and three civilian employees had all tested positive for COVID-19.[109]

On March 31, 868 new cases were reported, putting the running total at 6,620. 33 new deaths were reported, with the total jumping to 89.[note 9]

April[edit]

April 1–3[edit]

Governor Baker appointed an independent investigator to examine the outbreak of COVID-19 at the Soldiers’ Home nursing facility in Holyoke.[110] Holyoke Mayor Alex Morse accused the nursing facility of mismanagement and lack of transparency in the events surrounding the outbreak and its resulting 12 fatalities.[111][112] The Archdiocese of Boston announced that 8 Catholic priests had tested positive for the disease. [113] There were 1,118 new cases confirmed, raising the total to 7,738. The number of deaths in the state due to COVID-19 increased by 33, for a total of 122 deaths.[114]

On April 2, more than 500 health care workers in Boston hospitals were reported to have tested positive for COVID-19.[115][116][117] Three more residents of Holyoke Soldiers' Home died, bringing that outbreak's total deaths to 18.[118] There were 1,228 new confirmed cases across the state for a total of 8,966. Deaths due to the disease increased by 32, to 154.[119]

On April 3, another 1,436 new cases put the total at 10,402. Deaths due to COVID-19 increased by 38, to 192.[120] Holyoke Medical Center announced that a total of 21 residents of the Soldier's Home in Holyoke have recently died with at least 15 having tested positive for COVID-19. [121] According to officials a total of 59 residents have tested positive for COVID-19.[122][123] According to officials in Norwood, Massachusetts at least 15 people have died at the Charlwell House Health and Rehabilitation Center with at least 7 of them having test positive for COVID-19. Officials with the nursing facility acknowledged that have only been able to get 20 individuals tested for COVID-19 out of the over 200 residents and staff at the facility. [124] AdviniaCare a nursing facility located in Wilmington, Massachusetts which had been slated to be converted to temporary recovery center for COVID-19 patients, announced that 51 of 98 residents had tested positive for the respiratory illness, and that it would temporarily halt plans to transition its facilitates into a recovery center. AdviniaCare had been selected as a site for a COVID-19 recovery center for Boston area COVID-19 patients who were contagious but had recovered sufficiently to be discharged out of the Intensive Care Units of Boston area Hospitals. [125]

Epidemiology[edit]

Diagrams[edit]

Initial exposures and spread[edit]

The index case of COVID-19 in Massachusetts was reported on February 1, 2020 in Boston. The patient, a man in his 20s and University of Massachusetts Boston student, had recently returned to Boston from Wuhan, China.[10] The second case in Massachusetts was reported on March 2. The patient was a woman in her 20s from Norfolk County, who had recently traveled to Italy with a school group from Saint Raphael Academy in Pawtucket, Rhode Island.[14] After a month of stasis, cases began growing rapidly on March 5, with most traceable to a Biogen conference held in at the Marriott Long Wharf hotel in Boston from February 26–28.[note 11]

Exposure clusters were reported from mid to late March. Local transmission began being reported on March 16, slightly exceeding cases related to travel.[note 12] An outbreak cluster of untraced origin in Berkshire Medical Center in Western Massachusetts was briefly tracked from March 11 through March 15. Cases that had been contact-traced to Biogen plateaued on March 13, and were surpassed by local transmissions on March 23. Cases of unknown exposure surpassed those of known exposure on March 19, then grew rapidly. When the Massachusetts Department of Public Health ceased updating statistics on exposure on March 27, there were 99 cases traced to Biogen, 163 cases of local transmission, 93 cases related to travel, and 2,885 cases where initial exposure was under investigation.[note 13]

The disease went undetected after entering Boston in Suffolk County in early February. It then re-emerged in early March and spread to the state's remaining 13 counties within three weeks. Suffolk County had its first reported case on February 1,[10] Norfolk County on March 2,[14] Middlesex County on March 6,[note 14] Berkshire County on March 7,[24] Essex County on March 10,[38] Barnstable and Worcester counties on March 14,[55][59] Hampden and Plymouth counties on March 15,[65][64] Franklin and Hampshire counties on March 19,[note 2] Dukes County on March 20,[81] and Nantucket County on March 21.[91]

Tests[edit]

Massachusetts had done 56,608 tests for COVID-19 as of April 2, 2020, averaging 4,712 tests per day over the last week. This translated to a total of 8,157 and daily average of 679 tests per million people.[note 15] Tests were conducted by the Massachusetts State Public Health Laboratory and over 16 other organizations.[note 16]

Hospitalizations[edit]

Between 6% and 14% of COVID-19 cases in Massachusetts were known to be hospitalized.[note 17] The first 4 hospitalizations were reported on March 9.[note 18] The number of hospitalizations surpassed 10 on March 12,[note 19] 100 on March 25,[note 8] and 500 on March 31.[note 9] The number of cases with unknown hospitalization status exceeded those with a known status on March 23.[note 20]

Deaths[edit]

Deaths due to COVID-19 were concentrated among the elderly. As of April 2, 128 of 154 (83%) COVID-19 deaths in Massachusetts were in patients aged 70 or older.[note 21] The state's first death due to COVID-19 was on March 20. The patient was a 87-year-old man from Suffolk County, hospitalized and with preexisting health conditions.[78][79]

Cases by category[edit]

The Massachusetts Department of Public Health published daily updates on COVID-19 in Massachusetts, beginning on March 6, 2020. Local media and the state also published intermittent reports beforehand.

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) cases in Massachusetts[1]
Total Exposure Tests Hospitalization Deaths
Date
Confirmed
Change
% change
Presumptive
CDC confirmed
Biogen
Local
Travel
Unknown
Total
Change
% change
Yes
No
Unknown
Total
Change
% change
Source
February 1 1 0 0 1 [10]
... 1 1 0% 0 1 1
March 2 2 +1 +100% 1 1 2 [14]
... 2 0 0% 1 1 2
March 5 3 +1 +50% 2 1 2 [126]
March 6 8 +5 +166% 7 1 2 [note 22]
March 7 13 +5 +62% 12 1 2 [note 23]
March 8 28 +15 +115% 27 1 2 [note 24]
March 9 41 +13 +46% 40 1 2 4 37 [note 19]
March 10 92 +51 +124% 91 1 70 2 4 18 6 62 24 [note 25]
March 11 95 +3 +3% 89 6 77 2 4 14 8 84 3 [note 26]
March 12 108 +13 +14% 102 6 82 2 5 13 10 89 9 [note 18]
March 13 123 +15 +14% 105 18 94 2 5 16 10 101 12 [note 14]
March 14 138 +15 +12% 119 19 104 2 5 21 11 105 22 [note 27]
March 15 164 +26 +19% 119 45 108 2 13 35 13 115 36 [note 28]
March 16 197 +33 +20% 100 28 18 51 1296 14 123 60 [note 12]
March 17 218 +21 +11% 102 33 24 59 1751 +455 +26% 21 145 52 [note 29]
March 18 256 +38 +17% 97 38 26 95 2271 +520 +23% 27 151 78 [note 2]
March 19 328 +72 +28% 97 46 34 151 3132 +861 +27% 43 160 125 [note 30]
March 20 413 +85 +26% 97 63 49 204 4091 +959 +23% 58 199 156 1 [note 31]
March 21 525 +112 +27% 97 69 53 306 5207 +1116 +21% 61 215 249 2 1 100% [note 32]
March 22 646 +121 +23% 99 83 68 396 6004 +797 +13% 71 263 312 5 +3 +150% [note 3]
March 23 777 +131 +20% 99 104 75 499 8922 +2918 +33% 79 286 412 9 +4 +80% [note 4]
March 24 1159 +382 +49% 99 120 86 854 13755 +4833 +35% 94 313 752 11 +2 +22% [note 5]
March 25 1838 +679 +59% 99 146 92 1501 19794 +6039 +31% 103 350 1385 15 +4 +36% [note 33]
March 26 2417 +579 +32% 99 163 93 2062 23621 +3827 +16% 219 366 1832 25 +10 +67% [note 6]
March 27 3240 +823 +34% 99 163 93 2885 29371 +5691 +19% 288 999 1953 35 +10 +40% [note 13]
March 28 4257 +1017 +31% 35049 +5678 +19% 350 1226 2681 44 +9 +26% [note 20]
March 29 4955 +698 +16% 39066 +4017 +11% 399 1405 3151 48 +4 +9% [note 7]
March 30 5752 +797 +16% 42793 +3727 +9% 453 1603 3696 56 +8 +17% [note 8]
March 31 6620 +868 +15% 46935 +4142 +9% 562 1941 4117 89 +33 +59% [note 9]
April 1 7738 +1118 +17% 51738 +4803 +10% 682 2340 4716 122 +33 +37% [note 16]
April 2 8966 +1228 +16% 56608 +4870 +9% 813 2684 5469 154 +32 +26% [note 34]
April 3 10402 +1436 +16% 62962 +6354 +11% 966 3063 6373 192 +38 +25% [note 35]
Date
Confirmed
Change
% change
Presumptive
CDC confirmed
Biogen
Local
Travel
Unknown
Total
Change
% change
Yes
No
Unknown
Total
Change
% change
Source
Total Exposure Tests Hospitalization Deaths

Cases by county[edit]

Most COVID-19 cases were traced to a county by the Massachusetts Department of Public Health. Mass. DPH releases an updated form with this data daily.

Massachusetts COVID-19 cases by county[1]
Date
Unknown
Source
March 9 5 15 10 10 1 [note 19]
March 10 7 1 41 22 20 1 [note 25]
March 11 7 1 44 23 19 1 [note 26]
March 12 9 2 49 24 22 1 1 [note 18]
March 13 9 2 60 24 26 2 [note 14]
March 14 1 9 1 5 65 28 27 2 [note 27]
March 15 1 9 1 6 1 75 31 1 31 6 2 [note 28]
March 16 1 11 2 8 1 83 36 3 36 6 10 [note 12]
March 17 2 14 5 8 1 89 43 5 42 8 1 [note 29]
March 18 2 17 5 14 1 2 100 45 5 51 10 4 [note 2]
March 19 5 18 6 19 1 3 1 119 52 5 72 14 13 [note 30]
March 20 9 20 6 29 1 3 2 144 64 11 86 19 19 [note 31]
March 21 11 21 14 1 41 2 9 2 177 69 20 108 24 26 [note 32]
March 22 24 23 24 1 60 2 12 4 199 75 25 126 37 34 [note 3]
March 23 30 26 25 1 73 2 15 6 232 82 32 154 42 57 [note 4]
March 24 40 37 31 2 118 5 24 8 304 129 64 234 73 90 [note 5]
March 25 51 71 67 3 177 14 45 11 446 222 101 342 129 159 [note 33]
March 26 67 73 90 3 247 16 55 17 538 292 138 448 166 267 [note 6]
March 27 100 105 129 4 350 24 90 20 685 393 187 631 219 303 [note 13]
March 28 133 119 179 8 472 39 183 30 842 490 272 843 291 356 [note 20]
March 29 148 151 208 8 570 41 201 37 981 548 325 940 337 460 [note 7]
March 30 173 162 263 8 653 49 255 46 1141 628 380 1115 390 489 [note 8]
March 31 191 171 306 8 784 61 354 69 1340 738 459 1373 433 333 [note 9]
April 1 255 183 366 11 885 72 475 81 1582 829 561 1624 563 251 [note 16]
April 2 283 213 424 12 1039 85 546 102 1870 938 621 1896 667 270 [note 34]
April 3 314 240 517 16 1238 89 661 114 2202 1045 745 2183 825 213 [note 35]
Date
Barnstable
Berkshire
Bristol
Dukes and Nantucket
Essex
Franklin
Hampden
Hampshire
Middlesex
Norfolk
Plymouth
Suffolk
Worcester
Unknown
Source

Government response[edit]

Citing the rapid increase in cases, Governor Charlie Baker declared a state of emergency for Massachusetts on March 10.[127][128] During a press conference on March 14, 2020, Governor Baker established an emergency command center, with multiple state departments working with contact with one another, Baker also promised an expansion of statewide lab testing.[129]

On March 15, Governor Baker banned all public gatherings of over 25 people, closed all K-12 public schools from March 17 through April 7, and banned on-site service at bars and restaurants for the same period.[130] On March 25, Governor Baker ordered all schools and childcare services to be closed through May 4, extending the original length by 3 weeks.[131]

On March 27, Governor Baker asked travelers from out of state to avoid Massachusetts or to self-quarantine upon arrival for 14 days. Electronic highway signs were activated, and arrivals at Logan International Airport, Worcester Regional Airport, and South Station Boston were given flyers.[132] Medical students were graduated early, and emergency orders were issued giving some nurses with more than two years of experience to write prescriptions, and granting incoming medical residents and interns 90-day medical licenses.[132]

On March 23, Governor Baker announced his stay-at-home advisory effective March 24 until April 7, which was extended to May 4 on March 31.[8] Starting March 31 extension, hotels, motels and online rentals like AirBNB were ordered to close to recreational travelers, being reserved for essential workers and displaced residents.[133] The DCU Center was set up as a field hospital for recovering COVID-19 patients, overseen by UMass Memorial Medical Center.[134]

Economic and social effects[edit]

The sudden surge of cases in Massachusetts during the week of March 9, led to many organizations ordering workers to work from home and closures of museums and libraries, leading to a noticeable decline of Boston's notorious rush hour traffic. In some cases, drive times for major highways during Boston's rush hour dropped by 30 to 50 percent.[135] Panic buying, especially since the week of March 11, led to shortages of various products, with many shoppers and long lines at grocery stores as early in the day as 7:00 a.m.[136] In response, some grocery retailers such as Stop & Shop adjusted their hours to allow employees more time to restock and to offer older and more vulnerable people a separate time where they can shop separately, but reminded shoppers to practice distancing.[citation needed]

As of 1 April, six deaths have been reported at Jack Satter House in Revere, a nursing home run by Hebrew Senior Life. Other nursing homes are also reporting confirmed cases.[137][138]

School closures[edit]

School closures began in early March, starting on March 9, when MIT announced it was moving to only-online classes for the remainder of the spring semester.[3] Also, on March 9, two elementary schools in the Plainville school district and one in Arlington were closed for the day due to tests being conducted on two parents and one child.[139] School districts began closing on March 11. Within a week, many colleges and state school districts announced closures ranging from weeks to months in duration.[5][6]

Wellesley and Framingham closed their public schools and libraries for two weeks on March 13.[140][141][142][143] Also on March 13, Boston announced that its public schools close for six weeks from Tuesday, March 17 through April 26.[144]

On March 15, Governor Baker ordered all schools in Massachusetts closed for three weeks from March 17 through April 7.[7] On March 25, Governor Baker extended the order with schools to open no sooner than May 4.[145]

Sports[edit]

Most of the state's sports teams were affected. Several leagues began postponing or suspending their seasons starting March 12. Major League Baseball canceled the remainder of spring training on that date, and on March 16, they announced that the season would be postponed indefinitely, after the recommendations from the CDC to restrict events of more than 50 people for the next eight weeks, affecting the Boston Red Sox.[146] Also on March 12, the National Basketball Association announced the season would be suspended for 30 days, affecting the Boston Celtics.[147] Boston Celtics player Marcus Smart announced on March 18 that he had tested positive for COVID-19, having been tested five days prior.[148] In the National Hockey League, the season was suspended for an indefinite amount of time, affecting the Boston Bruins.[149]

The 2020 Boston Marathon, which was originally scheduled to take place on April 20, was postponed to September 14. This was the first postponement of the Boston Marathon since it was first held in 1897.[150]

In college sports, the National Collegiate Athletic Association canceled all winter and spring tournaments, most notably the Division I men's and women's basketball tournaments, affecting colleges and universities statewide.[151] On March 16, the National Junior College Athletic Association also canceled the remainder of the winter seasons as well as the spring seasons.[152]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ Compare documents in notes for "MDPH 3/15" and "MDPH 3/16"
  2. ^ a b c d "MDPH 3/18". Archived from the original on March 19, 2020. Retrieved March 19, 2020.CS1 maint: BOT: original-url status unknown (link)
  3. ^ a b c https://www.mass.gov/doc/covid-19-cases-in-massachusetts-as-of-march-22-2020/download
  4. ^ a b c https://www.mass.gov/doc/covid-19-cases-in-massachusetts-as-of-march-23-2020/download
  5. ^ a b c https://www.mass.gov/doc/covid-19-cases-in-massachusetts-as-of-march-24-2020/download
  6. ^ a b c https://www.mass.gov/doc/covid-19-cases-in-massachusetts-as-of-march-26-2020/download
  7. ^ a b c https://www.mass.gov/doc/covid-19-cases-in-massachusetts-as-of-march-29-2020/download
  8. ^ a b c d https://www.mass.gov/doc/covid-19-cases-in-massachusetts-as-of-march-30-2020/download
  9. ^ a b c d https://www.mass.gov/doc/covid-19-cases-in-massachusetts-as-of-march-31-2020/download
  10. ^ Massachusetts Department of Public Health last reported contact tracing on March 27.
  11. ^ See Cases by category table.
  12. ^ a b c "MDPH 3/16". Archived from the original on March 17, 2020. Retrieved March 17, 2020.CS1 maint: BOT: original-url status unknown (link)
  13. ^ a b c https://www.mass.gov/doc/covid-19-cases-in-massachusetts-as-of-march-27-2020/download
  14. ^ a b c "MDPH 3/13". Archived from the original on March 13, 2020. Retrieved March 15, 2020.CS1 maint: BOT: original-url status unknown (link)
  15. ^ See counts in Cases by county table. Divide total and average by 6,939,373, the state's population as of 2019, and multiply quotient by 1,000,000.
  16. ^ a b c https://www.mass.gov/doc/covid-19-cases-in-massachusetts-as-of-april-1-2020/download
  17. ^ See "Cases by percent hospitalized" diagram.
  18. ^ a b c "MDPH 3/12". Archived from the original on March 13, 2020. Retrieved March 13, 2020.CS1 maint: BOT: original-url status unknown (link)
  19. ^ a b c "MDPH 3/9". Archived from the original on March 10, 2020. Retrieved March 15, 2020.CS1 maint: BOT: original-url status unknown (link)
  20. ^ a b c https://www.mass.gov/doc/covid-19-cases-in-massachusetts-as-of-march-28-2020/download
  21. ^ See "Deaths by age group" chart.
  22. ^ "MDPH 3/6". Archived from the original on March 7, 2020. Retrieved March 11, 2020.CS1 maint: BOT: original-url status unknown (link)
  23. ^ "MDPH 3/7". Archived from the original on March 8, 2020. Retrieved March 11, 2020.CS1 maint: BOT: original-url status unknown (link)
  24. ^ "MDPH 3/8". Archived from the original on March 9, 2020. Retrieved March 11, 2020.CS1 maint: BOT: original-url status unknown (link)
  25. ^ a b "MDPH 3/10". Archived from the original on March 10, 2020. Retrieved March 15, 2020.CS1 maint: BOT: original-url status unknown (link)
  26. ^ a b "MDPH 3/11" (PDF). Archived from the original on March 13, 2020. Retrieved March 15, 2020.CS1 maint: BOT: original-url status unknown (link)
  27. ^ a b "MDPH 3/14". Archived from the original on March 15, 2020. Retrieved March 15, 2020.CS1 maint: BOT: original-url status unknown (link)
  28. ^ a b "MDPH 3/15" (PDF). Archived from the original on March 16, 2020. Retrieved March 16, 2020.CS1 maint: BOT: original-url status unknown (link)
  29. ^ a b "MDPH 3/17". Archived from the original on March 18, 2020. Retrieved March 18, 2020.CS1 maint: BOT: original-url status unknown (link)
  30. ^ a b "MDPH 3/19". Archived from the original on March 20, 2020. Retrieved March 20, 2020.CS1 maint: BOT: original-url status unknown (link)
  31. ^ a b "MDPH 3/20". Archived from the original on March 21, 2020. Retrieved March 21, 2020.CS1 maint: BOT: original-url status unknown (link)
  32. ^ a b "MDPH 3/21". Retrieved March 21, 2020.
  33. ^ a b https://www.mass.gov/doc/covid-19-cases-in-massachusetts-as-of-march-25-2020/download
  34. ^ a b https://www.mass.gov/doc/covid-19-cases-in-massachusetts-as-of-april-2-2020/download
  35. ^ a b https://www.mass.gov/doc/covid-19-cases-in-massachusetts-as-of-april-3-2020/download

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