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COVID-19 pandemic in the United Kingdom

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COVID-19 pandemic in the United Kingdom
UK Coronavirus Cases per Local Authority as of the 20th of Jan 2021.png
COVID-19 cases by UK local authority, as of 20 January 2021.[needs update]
UK Coronavirus Deaths per Local Authority as of the 20th of Jan 2021.png
COVID-19 deaths by UK local authority, as of 20 January 2021.[needs update]
Thank you NHS sign on a Spitfire
NHS Nightingale Hospital in London
Deserted A1 road near Newry during the first lockdown in April 2020.
Oxford/AstraZeneca vaccine deployed from late 2020
The National COVID Memorial Wall in London
Movement restrictions Sign at a Welsh county border
Clockwise, from top-left:
DiseaseCOVID-19
Virus strainSARS-CoV-2
LocationUnited Kingdom
First outbreakWuhan, China
Index caseYork, North Yorkshire
Arrival date31 January 2020
(1 year, 9 months, 4 weeks and 2 days ago)[1]
DateAs of 30 September 2021
Confirmed cases
  • 8,270,182 (total)[2]
  • 246,196 (last 7 days)[2]
Active cases
Suspected cases726,895 (+60,796) [nb 3][5]
Hospitalised cases
  • 6,853 (active)[2]
  • 545,886 (total)[2]
Ventilator cases813 (active)[2]
Deaths
Fatality rate2.88%
  • Alpha variant 1.9%
  • Delta variant 0.2%[8]
Vaccinations
  • 50,941,327[9] (total vaccinated)
  • 46,341,057[9] (fully vaccinated)
  • 115,179,248[9] (doses administered)
Government website
UK Government[nb 6]
Scottish Government
Welsh Government
Northern Ireland Department of Health
Suspected cases have not been confirmed by laboratory tests as being due to this strain, although some other strains may have been ruled out.

The COVID-19 pandemic in the United Kingdom is part of the worldwide pandemic of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). The virus reached the UK in late January 2020. As of 11 November 2021, there had been 9,637,190 confirmed cases, the highest in Europe, and 145,253[9] deaths among people who had recently tested positive. The UK has the world's 7th highest death toll, 26th highest death rate by population[10][11] and second-highest death toll in Europe after Russia.[11] There has been some disparity between the outbreak's severity in England, Scotland, Wales and Northern Ireland – health-care in the UK is a devolved matter. Each constituent country has its own publicly-funded healthcare system operated by devolved governments.[12][13][14]

The virus was known to have spread to the UK by early 2020. The country's response included a public information campaign and certain expansions to government powers, but was otherwise slow to introduce preventative measures, increase testing or prepare for an outbreak.[15] From March 2020 onwards,[16] the government introduced restrictions across the UK on aspects of life such as people's freedom of movement,[17] education,[18] and leisure activities.[19] Police were empowered to enforce the measures, and the Coronavirus Act 2020 gave all four governments emergency powers[20] not used since the Second World War.[21][22] These restrictions were eased and tightened periodically, and there was some variance in restrictions between the four countries of the UK and more localised rules were also introduced. In the early days of the pandemic, the health services worked to raise hospital capacity and set up temporary critical care hospitals, but faced shortages of personal protective equipment. In late 2020, a new more infectious variant of the virus emerged in the UK, causing another wave in infections over the winter that was deadlier than the first.[23][24] The country's vaccination programme was the first to start in December 2020 and was in early 2021 one of the fastest in the world.[25][26] The highly transmissible Delta variant arrived in the UK and drove a third wave of infections in mid-2021 that increased into the autumn,[27] although high vaccination rates led to a substantially lower mortality rate than previous waves.[28]

In addition to the major strain on the UK's healthcare service and a substantial fall in life expectancy, the pandemic has had a severe impact on the UK's economy, caused major disruptions to education and had far-reaching impacts on society.

Background

On 12 January 2020, the World Health Organization (WHO) confirmed that a novel coronavirus was the cause of a respiratory illness in a cluster of people in Wuhan City, Hubei, China, which was reported to the WHO on 31 December 2019.[29][30] The case fatality ratio for COVID-19 has been much lower than SARS of 2003,[31][32] but the transmission has been significantly greater, with a significant total death toll.[33][31]

Genetic sequencing has traced most COVID-19 cases in the United Kingdom to imported cases from Italy, France, and Spain, rather than directly from China.[34]

History

COVID-19 cases in the United Kingdom  ()
     Deaths        Confirmed cases
2020202020212021
JanJanFebFebMarMarAprAprMayMayJunJunJulJulAugAugSepSepOctOctNovNovDecDec
JanJanFebFebMarMarAprAprMayMayJunJunJulJulAugAugSepSepOctOctNovNov
Last 15 daysLast 15 days
Date
Cases (rise)
Deaths (rise)
2020-01-31 2(n.a.)
2(=)
2020-02-06 3(+1)
3(=)
2020-02-09 4(+1)
2020-02-10 8(+4)
8(=)
2020-02-13 9(+1)
9(=)
2020-02-24 13(+4)
13(=)
2020-02-28 19(+6)
2020-02-29 23(+4)
2020-03-01 35(+12)
2020-03-02 40(+5)
2020-03-03 51(+11)
2020-03-04 85(+34)
2020-03-05 114(+29) 1(n.a.)
2020-03-06 160(+46) 2(+1)
2020-03-07
206(+46) 2(=)
2020-03-08
271(+65) 3(+1)
2020-03-09
321(+50) 7(+4)
2020-03-10
373(+52) 7(=)
2020-03-11
456(+83) 9(+2)
2020-03-12
590(+134) 10(+1)
2020-03-13
797(+207) 28(+18)
2020-03-14
1,061(+264) 43(+15)
2020-03-15
1,391(+330) 65(+22)
2020-03-16
1,543(+152) 81(+16)
2020-03-17
1,950(+407) 115(+34)
2020-03-18
2,626(+676) 158(+43)
2020-03-19
3,269(+643) 194(+36)
2020-03-20
3,983(+714) 250(+56)
2020-03-21
5,018(+1,035) 285(+35)
2020-03-22
5,683(+665) 359(+74)
2020-03-23
6,650(+967) 508(+149)
2020-03-24
8,077(+1,427) 694(+186)[i]
2020-03-25
9,529(+1,452) 877(+183)
2020-03-26
11,658(+2,129) 1,161(+284)
2020-03-27
14,548(+2,890)[ii] 1,455(+294)
2020-03-28
17,104(+2,556) 1,669(+214)
2020-03-29
19,606(+2,502) 2,043(+374)
2020-03-30
22,271(+2,665) 2,425(+382)
2020-03-31
25,521(+3,250) 3,095(+670)
2020-04-01
30,088(+4,567) 3,747(+652)
2020-04-02
34,610(+4,522) 4,461(+714)
2020-04-03
39,282(+4,672) 5,221(+760)
2020-04-04
43,282(+4,000) 5,865(+644)
2020-04-05
49,481(+6,199) 6,433(+568)
2020-04-06
53,624(+4,143) 7,471(+1,038)
2020-04-07
57,512(+3,888) 8,505(+1,034)
2020-04-08
63,377(+5,865) 9,608(+1,103)
2020-04-09
68,052(+4,675) 10,760(+1,152)
2020-04-10
73,758(+5,706) 11,599(+839)
2020-04-11
78,991(+5,233) 12,285(+686)
2020-04-12
84,279(+5,288) 13,029(+744)
2020-04-13
88,621(+4,342) 14,073(+1,044)
2020-04-14
93,873(+5,252) 14,915(+842)
2020-04-15
98,476(+4,603) 15,944(+1,029)
2020-04-16
103,093(+4,617) 16,879(+935)
2020-04-17
108,692(+5,599) 17,994(+1,115)
2020-04-18
114,217(+5,525) 18,492(+498)
2020-04-19
120,067(+5,850) 19,051(+559)
2020-04-20
124,743(+4,676) 20,223(+1,172)
2020-04-21
129,044(+4,301) 21,060(+837)
2020-04-22
133,495(+4,451) 21,787(+727)
2020-04-23
138,078(+4,583) 22,792(+1,005)
2020-04-24
143,464(+5,386) 23,635(+843)
2020-04-25
148,377(+4,913) 24,055(+420)
2020-04-26
152,840(+4,463) 24,393(+338)
2020-04-27
157,149(+4,309) 25,302(+909)
2020-04-28
161,145(+3,996) 26,097(+795)[iii]
2020-04-29
165,221(+4,076) 26,771(+674)
2020-04-30
171,253(+6,032) 27,510(+739)
2020-05-01
177,454(+6,201) 28,131(+621)
2020-05-02
182,260(+4,806) 28,446(+315)
2020-05-03
186,599(+4,339) 28,734(+288)
2020-05-04
190,584(+3,985) 29,427(+693)
2020-05-05
194,990(+4,406) 30,076(+649)
2020-05-06
201,101(+6,111) 30,615(+539)
2020-05-07
206,715(+5,614) 31,241(+626)
2020-05-08
211,364(+4,649) 31,587(+346)
2020-05-09
215,260(+3,896) 31,855(+268)
2020-05-10
219,183(+3,923) 32,065(+210)
2020-05-11
223,060(+3,877) 32,692(+627)
2020-05-12
226,463(+3,403) 33,186(+494)
2020-05-13
229,705(+3,242) 33,614(+428)
2020-05-14
233,151(+3,446) 33,998(+384)
2020-05-15
236,711(+3,560) 34,466(+468)
2020-05-16
240,161(+3,450) 34,636(+170)
2020-05-17
243,695(+3,534) 34,796(+160)
2020-05-18
246,406(+2,711)[iv] 35,341(+545)
2020-05-19
248,818(+2,412) 35,704(+363)
2020-05-20
248,293[v] 36,042(+338)
2020-05-21
250,908(+2,615) 36,393(+351)
2020-05-22
254,195(+3,287) 36,675(+282)
2020-05-23
257,154(+2,959) 37,116(+441)
2020-05-24
259,559(+2,405) 37,237(+121)
2020-05-25
261,184(+1,625) 37,373(+136)
2020-05-26
263,188(+2,004) 37,807(+434)
2020-05-27
267,240(+4,052) 38,220(+413)
2020-05-28
269,127(+1,887) 38,593(+373)
2020-05-29
271,222(+2,095) 38,819(+226)
2020-05-30
272,826(+1,604) 38,934(+115)
2020-05-31
274,762(+1,936) 39,045(+111)[vi]
2020-06-01
276,332(+1,570) 39,369(+324)
2020-06-02
277,985(+1,653) 39,728(+359)
2020-06-03
279,856(+1,871) 39,904(+176)
2020-06-04
281,661(+1,805) 40,261(+357)
2020-06-05
283,311(+1,650) 40,465(+204)
2020-06-06
284,868(+1,557) 40,542(+77)
2020-06-07
286,194(+1,326) 40,597(+55)
2020-06-08
287,399(+1,205) 40,883(+286)
2020-06-09
289,140(+1,741) 41,128(+245)
2020-06-10
290,143(+1,003) 41,279(+151)
2020-06-11
291,409(+1,266) 41,481(+202)
2020-06-12
292,950(+1,541) 41,662(+181)
2020-06-13
294,375(+1,425) 41,698(+36)
2020-06-14
295,889(+1,514) 41,736(+38)
2020-06-15
296,857(+968) 41,969(+233)
2020-06-16
298,136(+1,279) 42,153(+184)
2020-06-17
299,251(+1,115) 42,288(+135)
2020-06-18
300,469(+1,218) 42,461(+173)
2020-06-19
301,815(+1,346) 42,589(+128)
2020-06-20
303,110(+1,295) 42,632(+43)
2020-06-21
304,331(+1,221) 42,647(+15)
2020-06-22
305,289(+958) 42,927(+280)
2020-06-23
306,210(+921) 43,081(+154)
2020-06-24
306,862(+652) 43,230(+149)
2020-06-25
307,980(+1,118) 43,414(+184)
2020-06-26
309,360(+1,380) 43,514(+100)
2020-06-27
310,250(+890) 43,550(+36)
2020-06-28
311,151(+901) 43,575(+25)
2020-06-29
311,965(+814) 43,730(+155)
2020-06-30
312,654(+689) 43,906(+176)
2020-07-01
313,483(+829) 43,995(+89)
2020-07-02
283,757[vii] 44,131(+136)
2020-07-03
284,276(+519) 44,198(+67)
2020-07-04
284,900(+624) 44,220(+22)
2020-07-05
285,416(+516) 44,236(+16)
2020-07-06
285,768(+352) 44,391(+155)
2020-07-07
286,349(+581) 44,517(+126)
2020-07-08
286,979(+630) 44,602(+85)
2020-07-09
287,621(+642) 44,650(+48)
2020-07-10
288,133(+512) 44,798(+148)
2020-07-11
288,953(+820) 44,819(+21)
2020-07-12
289,603(+650) 44,830(+11)
2020-07-13
290,133(+530) 44,968(+138)
2020-07-14
291,373(+1,240)[viii] 45,053(+85)
2020-07-15
291,911(+538) 45,119(+66)
2020-07-16
292,552(+641) 45,233(+114)[ix]
2020-07-17
293,239(+687) 45,273(+40)
2020-07-18
294,066(+827) 45,301(+28)
2020-07-19
294,792(+726) 45,312(+11)
2020-07-20
295,372(+580) 45,422(+110)
2020-07-21
295,817(+445) 45,501(+79)
2020-07-22
296,377(+560) 45,554(+53)
2020-07-23
297,146(+769) 45,677(+123)
2020-07-24
297,914(+768) 45,738(+61)
2020-07-25
298,681(+767) 45,752(+14)
2020-07-26
299,426(+745) 45,759(+7)
2020-07-27
300,111(+685) 45,878(+119)
2020-07-28
300,692(+581) 45,961(+83)
2020-07-29
301,455(+763) 45,999(+38)
2020-07-30
302,301(+846) 46,054(+55)
2020-07-31
303,181(+880) 46,119(+65)
2020-08-01
303,952(+771) 46,193(+74)
2020-08-02
304,695(+743) 46,201(+8)
2020-08-03
305,623(+928) 46,210(+9)
2020-08-04
306,293(+670) 46,299(+89)
2020-08-05
307,184(+891) 46,364(+65)
2020-08-06
308,134(+950) 46,413(+49)
2020-08-07
309,005(+871) 46,511(+98)
2020-08-08
309,763(+758) 46,566(+55)
2020-08-09
310,825(+1,062) 46,574(+8)
2020-08-10
311,641(+816) 46,526
2020-08-11
312,789(+1,148) 46,526(=)
2020-08-12
313,798(+1,009) 41,329[x]
2020-08-13
314,927(+1,129) 41,329(=)
2020-08-14
316,367(+1,440) 41,357(+28)
2020-08-15
317,444(+1,077) 41,361(+4)
2020-08-16
318,484(+1,040) 41,366(+5)
2020-08-17
319,197(+713) 41,369(+3)
2020-08-18
320,286(+1,089) 41,381(+12)
2020-08-19
321,098(+812) 41,397(+16)
2020-08-20
322,280(+1,182) 41,403(+6)
2020-08-21
323,313(+1,033) 41,405(+2)
2020-08-22
324,601(+1,288) 41,423(+18)
2020-08-23
325,642(+1,041) 41,429(+6)
2020-08-24
326,614(+972) 41,433(+4)
2020-08-25
327,798(+1,184) 41,449(+16)
2020-08-26
328,846(+1,048) 41,465(+16)
2020-08-27
330,368(+1,522) 41,477(+12)
2020-08-28
331,644(+1,276) 41,486(+9)
2020-08-29
332,752(+1,108) 41,498(+12)
2020-08-30
334,467(+1,715) 41,499(+1)
2020-08-31
335,873(+1,406) 41,501(+2)
2020-09-01
337,168(+1,295) 41,504(+3)
2020-09-02
338,676(+1,508) 41,514(+10)
2020-09-03
340,411(+1,735) 41,527(+13)
2020-09-04
342,351(+1,940) 41,537(+10)
2020-09-05
344,164(+1,813) 41,549(+12)
2020-09-06
347,152(+2,988) 41,551(+2)
2020-09-07
350,100(+2,948) 41,554(+3)
2020-09-08
352,520(+2,420) 41,584(+30)
2020-09-09
355,219(+2,699) 41,594(+10)
2020-09-10
358,138(+2,919) 41,608(+14)
2020-09-11
361,677(+3,539) 41,614(+6)
2020-09-12
365,174(+3,497) 41,623(+9)
2020-09-13
368,504(+3,330) 41,628(+5)
2020-09-14
371,125(+2,621) 41,637(+9)
2020-09-15
374,228(+3,103) 41,664(+27)
2020-09-16
378,219(+3,991) 41,684(+20)
2020-09-17
381,614(+3,395) 41,705(+21)
2020-09-18
385,936(+4,322) 41,732(+27)
2020-09-19
390,358(+4,422) 41,759(+27)
2020-09-20
394,257(+3,899) 41,777(+18)
2020-09-21
398,625(+4,368) 41,788(+11)
2020-09-22
403,551(+4,926) 41,825(+37)
2020-09-23
409,759(+6,208) 41,862(+37)
2020-09-24
416,363(+6,604) 41,902(+40)
2020-09-25
423,236(+6,873) 41,936(+34)
2020-09-26
429,277(+6,041) 41,971(+35)
2020-09-27
434,969(+5,692) 41,988(+17)
2020-09-28
439,013(+4,044) 42,001(+13)
2020-09-29
446,156(+7,143) 42,072(+71)
2020-09-30
453,264(+7,108) 42,143(+71)
2020-10-01
460,178(+6,914) 42,202(+59)
2020-10-02
467,146(+6,968) 42,268(+66)
2020-10-03
480,017(+12,871)[xi] 42,317(+49)
2020-10-04
502,978(+22,961)[xi] 42,350(+33)
2020-10-05
515,571(+12,593) 42,369(+19)
2020-10-06
530,113(+14,542) 42,445(+76)
2020-10-07
544,275(+14,162) 42,515(+70)
2020-10-08
561,815(+17,540) 42,592(+77)
2020-10-09
575,679(+13,864) 42,679(+87)
2020-10-10
590,844(+15,165) 42,760(+81)
2020-10-11
603,716(+12,872) 42,825(+65)
2020-10-12
617,688(+13,972) 42,875(+50)
2020-10-13
634,920(+17,232) 42,875(=)
2020-10-14
654,644(+19,724) 43,155(+280)
2020-10-15
673,622(+18,978) 43,293(+138)
2020-10-16
689,257(+15,635) 43,429(+136)
2020-10-17
705,428(+16,171) 43,579(+150)
2020-10-18
722,409(+16,981) 43,646(+67)
2020-10-19
741,212(+18,803) 43,726(+80)
2020-10-20
762,542(+21,330) 43,967(+241)
2020-10-21
789,229(+26,687) 44,158(+191)
2020-10-22
810,467(+21,238) 44,347(+189)
2020-10-23
830,998(+20,531) 44,571(+224)
2020-10-24
854,010(+23,012) 44,745(+174)
2020-10-25
873,800(+19,790) 44,896(+151)
2020-10-26
894,690(+20,890) 44,998(+102)
2020-10-27
917,575(+22,885) 45,365(+367)
2020-10-28
942,275(+24,700) 45,675(+310)
2020-10-29
965,340(+23,065) 45,955(+280)
2020-10-30
989,745(+24,405) 46,229(+274)
2020-10-31
1,011,660(+21,915) 46,555(+326)
2020-11-01
1,034,914(+23,254) 46,717(+162)
2020-11-02
1,053,864(+18,950) 46,853(+136)
2020-11-03
1,073,882(+20,018) 47,250(+397)
2020-11-04
1,099,059(+25,177) 47,742(+492)
2020-11-05
1,123,197(+24,138) 48,120(+378)
2020-11-06
1,146,484(+23,287) 48,475(+355)
2020-11-07
1,171,441(+24,957) 48,888(+413)
2020-11-08
1,192,013(+20,572) 49,044(+156)
2020-11-09
1,213,363(+21,350) 49,238(+194)
2020-11-10
1,233,775(+20,412) 49,770(+532)
2020-11-11
1,256,725(+22,950) 50,365(+595)
2020-11-12
1,290,195(+33,470) 50,928(+563)
2020-11-13
1,317,496(+27,301) 51,304(+376)
2020-11-14
1,344,356(+26,860) 51,766(+462)
2020-11-15
1,369,318(+24,962) 51,934(+168)
2020-11-16
1,390,681(+21,363) 52,147(+213)
2020-11-17
1,410,732(+20,051) 52,745(+598)
2020-11-18
1,430,341(+19,609) 53,274(+529)
2020-11-19
1,453,256(+22,915) 53,775(+501)
2020-11-20
1,473,508(+20,252) 54,286(+511)
2020-11-21
1,493,383(+19,875) 54,626(+340)
2020-11-22
1,512,045(+18,662) 55,024(+398)[xii]
2020-11-23
1,527,495(+15,450) 55,230(+206)
2020-11-24
1,538,794(+11,299) 55,838(+608)
2020-11-25
1,557,007(+18,213) 56,533(+695)
2020-11-26
1,574,562(+17,555) 57,031(+498)
2020-11-27
1,589,301(+14,739) 57,551(+520)
2020-11-28
1,605,172(+15,871) 58,030(+479)
2020-11-29
1,617,327(+12,155) 58,245(+215)
2020-11-30
1,629,657(+12,330) 58,448(+203)
2020-12-01
1,643,086(+13,429) 59,051(+603)
2020-12-02
1,659,256(+16,170) 59,699(+648)
2020-12-03
1,674,134(+14,878) 60,113(+414)
2020-12-04
1,690,432(+16,298) 60,617(+504)
2020-12-05
1,705,971(+15,539) 61,014(+397)
2020-12-06
1,723,242(+17,271) 61,245(+231)
2020-12-07
1,737,960(+14,718) 61,434(+189)
2020-12-08
1,750,241(+12,281) 62,033(+599)
2020-12-09
1,766,819(+16,578) 62,566(+533)
2020-12-10
1,787,783(+20,964) 63,082(+516)
2020-12-11
1,809,455(+21,672) 63,506(+424)
2020-12-12
1,830,956(+21,501) 64,026(+520)
2020-12-13
1,849,403(+18,447) 64,170(+144)
2020-12-14
1,869,666(+20,263) 64,402(+232)
2020-12-15
1,888,116(+18,450) 64,908(+506)
2020-12-16
1,913,277(+25,161) 65,520(+612)
2020-12-17
1,948,660(+35,383)[xiii] 66,052(+532)
2020-12-18
1,977,167(+28,507) 66,541(+489)
2020-12-19
2,004,219(+27,052) 67,075(+534)
2020-12-20
2,040,147(+35,928) 67,401(+326)
2020-12-21
2,073,511(+33,364) 67,616(+215)
2020-12-22
2,110,314(+36,803) 68,307(+691)
2020-12-23
2,149,551(+39,237) 69,051(+744)
2020-12-24
2,188,587(+39,036) 69,625(+574)
2020-12-25
2,221,312(+32,725) 70,195(+570)
2020-12-26
2,256,005(+34,693) 70,405(+210)
2020-12-27
2,288,345(+32,340) 70,752(+347)
2020-12-28
2,329,730(+41,385) 71,109(+357)
2020-12-29
2,382,865(+53,135) 71,567(+458)
2020-12-30
2,432,888(+50,023) 72,548(+981)
2020-12-31
2,488,780(+55,892) 73,512(+964)
2021-01-01
2,542,065(+53,285) 74,125(+613)
2021-01-02
2,599,789(+57,724) 74,570(+445)
2021-01-03
2,654,779(+54,990) 75,024(+454)
2021-01-04
2,713,563(+58,784) 75,431(+407)
2021-01-05
2,774,479(+60,916) 76,305(+874)
2021-01-06
2,836,801(+62,322) 77,346(+1,041)
2021-01-07
2,889,419(+52,618) 78,508(+1,162)
2021-01-08
2,957,472(+68,053) 79,833(+1,325)
2021-01-09
3,017,409(+59,937) 80,868(+1,035)
2021-01-10
3,072,349(+54,940) 81,431(+563)
2021-01-11
3,118,518(+46,169) 81,960(+529)
2021-01-12
3,164,051(+45,533) 83,203(+1,243)
2021-01-13
3,211,576(+47,525) 84,767(+1,564)
2021-01-14
3,260,258(+48,682) 86,015(+1,248)
2021-01-15
3,316,019(+55,761) 87,295(+1,280)
2021-01-16
3,357,361(+41,342) 88,590(+1,295)
2021-01-17
3,395,959(+38,598) 89,261(+671)
2021-01-18
3,433,494(+37,535) 89,860(+599)
2021-01-19
3,466,849(+33,355) 91,470(+1,610)
2021-01-20
3,505,754(+38,905) 93,290(+1,820)
2021-01-21
3,543,646(+37,892) 94,580(+1,290)
2021-01-22
3,583,907(+40,261) 95,981(+1,401)
2021-01-23
3,617,459(+33,552) 97,329(+1,348)
2021-01-24
3,647,463(+30,004) 97,939(+610)
2021-01-25
3,669,658(+22,195) 98,531(+592)
2021-01-26
3,689,746(+20,088) 100,162(+1,631)
2021-01-27
3,715,054(+25,308) 101,887(+1,725)
2021-01-28
3,743,734(+28,680) 103,126(+1,239)
2021-01-29
3,772,813(+29,079) 104,371(+1,245)
2021-01-30
3,796,088(+23,275) 105,571(+1,200)
2021-01-31
3,817,176(+21,088) 106,158(+587)
2021-02-01
3,835,783(+18,607) 106,564(+406)
2021-02-02
3,852,623(+16,840) 108,013(+1,449)
2021-02-03
3,871,825(+19,202) 109,335(+1,322)
2021-02-04
3,892,459(+20,634) 110,250(+915)
2021-02-05
3,911,573(+19,114) 111,264(+1,014)
2021-02-06
3,929,835(+18,262) 112,092(+828)
2021-02-07
3,945,680(+15,845) 112,465(+373)
2021-02-08
3,959,784(+14,104) 112,798(+333)
2021-02-09
3,972,148(+12,364) 113,850(+1,052)
2021-02-10
3,985,161(+13,013) 114,851(+1,001)
2021-02-11
3,998,655(+13,494) 115,529(+678)
2021-02-12
4,013,799(+15,144) 116,287(+758)
2021-02-13
4,027,106(+13,307) 116,908(+621)
2021-02-14
4,038,078(+10,972) 117,166(+258)
2021-02-15
4,047,843(+9,765) 117,396(+230)
2021-02-16
4,058,468(+10,625) 118,195(+799)
2021-02-17
4,071,185(+12,717) 118,933(+738)
2021-02-18
4,083,242(+12,057) 119,387(+454)
2021-02-19
4,095,269(+12,027) 119,920(+533)
2021-02-20
4,105,675(+10,406) 120,365(+445)
2021-02-21
4,115,509(+9,834) 120,580(+215)
2021-02-22
4,126,150(+10,641) 120,757(+177)
2021-02-23
4,134,639(+8,489) 121,305(+548)
2021-02-24
4,144,577(+9,938) 121,747(+442)
2021-02-25
4,154,562(+9,985) 122,070(+323)
2021-02-26
4,163,085(+8,523) 122,415(+345)
2021-02-27
4,170,519(+7,434) 122,705(+290)
2021-02-28
4,176,554(+6,035) 122,849(+144)
2021-03-01
4,182,009(+5,455) 122,953(+104)
2021-03-02
4,188,400(+6,391) 123,296(+343)
2021-03-03
4,194,785(+6,385) 123,783(+487)[xiv]
2021-03-04
4,201,358(+6,573) 124,025(+242)
2021-03-05
4,207,304(+5,946) 124,261(+236)
2021-03-06
4,213,343(+6,039) 124,419(+158)
2021-03-07
4,218,520(+5,177) 124,501(+82)
2021-03-08
4,223,232(+4,712) 124,566(+65)
2021-03-09
4,228,998(+5,766) 124,797(+231)
2021-03-10
4,234,924(+5,926) 124,987(+190)
2021-03-11
4,241,677(+6,753) 125,168(+181)
2021-03-12
4,248,286(+6,609) 125,343(+175)
2021-03-13
4,253,820(+5,534) 125,464(+121)[xv]
2021-03-14
4,258,438(+4,618) 125,516(+52)
2021-03-15
4,263,527(+5,089) 125,580(+64)
2021-03-16
4,268,821(+5,294) 125,690(+110)
2021-03-17
4,274,579(+5,758) 125,831(+141)
2021-03-18
4,280,882(+6,303) 125,926(+95)
2021-03-19
4,285,684(+4,802) 126,026(+100)
2021-03-20
4,291,271(+5,587) 126,122(+96)
2021-03-21
4,296,583(+5,312) 126,155(+33)
2021-03-22
4,301,925(+5,342) 126,172(+17)
2021-03-23
4,307,304(+5,379) 126,284(+112)
2021-03-24
4,312,908(+5,604) 126,382(+98)
2021-03-25
4,319,128(+6,220) 126,445(+63)
2021-03-26
4,325,315(+6,187) 126,515(+70)
2021-03-27
4,329,180(+3,865) 126,573(+58)
2021-03-28
4,333,042(+3,862) 126,592(+19)
2021-03-29
4,337,696(+4,654) 126,615(+23)
2021-03-30
4,341,736(+4,040) 126,670(+55)
2021-03-31
4,345,788(+4,052) 126,713(+43)
2021-04-01
4,350,266(+4,478) 126,764(+51)
2021-04-02
4,353,668(+3,402) 126,816(+52)[xvi]
2021-04-03
4,357,091(+3,423) 126,826(+10)
2021-04-04
4,359,388(+2,297) 126,836(+10)
2021-04-05
4,362,150(+2,762) 126,862(+26)
2021-04-06
4,364,529(+2,379) 126,882(+20)
2021-04-07
4,367,291(+2,762) 126,927(+45)
2021-04-08
4,370,321(+3,030) 126,980(+53)
2021-04-09
4,365,461[xvii] 127,040(+60)
2021-04-10
4,368,045(+2,584) 127,080(+40)
2021-04-11
4,369,775(+1,730) 127,087(+7)
2021-04-12
4,373,343(+3,568) 127,100(+13)
2021-04-13
4,375,814(+2,471) 127,123(+23)
2021-04-14
4,378,305(+2,491) 127,161(+38)
2021-04-15
4,380,976(+2,671) 127,191(+30)
2021-04-16
4,383,732(+2,756) 127,225(+34)
2021-04-17
4,385,938(+2,206) 127,260(+35)
2021-04-18
4,387,820(+1,882) 127,270(+10)
2021-04-19
4,390,783(+2,963) 127,274(+4)
2021-04-20
4,393,307(+2,524) 127,307(+33)
2021-04-21
4,395,703(+2,396) 127,327(+20)
2021-04-22
4,398,431(+2,728) 127,345(+18)
2021-04-23
4,401,109(+2,678) 127,385(+40)
2021-04-24
4,403,170(+2,061) 127,417(+32)
2021-04-25
4,404,882(+1,712) 127,428(+11)
2021-04-26
4,406,946(+2,064) 127,434(+6)
2021-04-27
4,409,631(+2,685) 127,451(+17)
2021-04-28
4,411,797(+2,166) 127,480(+29)
2021-04-29
4,414,242(+2,445) 127,502(+22)
2021-04-30
4,416,623(+2,381) 127,517(+15)
2021-05-01
4,418,530(+1,907) 127,524(+7)
2021-05-02
4,420,201(+1,671) 127,538(+14)
2021-05-03
4,421,850(+1,649) 127,539(+1)
2021-05-04
4,423,796(+1,946) 127,543(+4)
2021-05-05
4,425,940(+2,144) 127,570(+27)
2021-05-06
4,428,553(+2,613) 127,583(+13)
2021-05-07
4,431,043(+2,490) 127,598(+15)
2021-05-08
4,433,090(+2,047) 127,603(+5)
2021-05-09
4,434,860(+1,770) 127,605(+2)
2021-05-10
4,437,217(+2,357) 127,609(+4)
2021-05-11
4,439,691(+2,474) 127,629(+20)
2021-05-12
4,441,975(+2,284) 127,640(+11)
2021-05-13
4,444,631(+2,656) 127,651(+11)
2021-05-14
4,446,824(+2,193) 127,668(+17)
2021-05-15
4,448,851(+2,027) 127,675(+7)
2021-05-16
4,450,777(+1,926) 127,679(+4)
2021-05-17
4,452,756(+1,979) 127,684(+5)
2021-05-18
4,450,392[xviii] 127,691(+7)
2021-05-19
4,452,527(+2,135)[xix] 127,694(+3)
2021-05-20
4,455,221(+2,694)[xx] 127,701(+7)
2021-05-21
4,457,923(+2,702) 127,710(+9)
2021-05-22
4,460,446(+2,523) 127,716(+6)
2021-05-23
4,462,538(+2,092) 127,721(+5)
2021-05-24
4,464,900(+2,362) 127,724(+3)
2021-05-25
4,467,310(+2,410) 127,739(+15)
2021-05-26
4,470,297(+2,987) 127,748(+9)
2021-05-27
4,473,677(+3,380) 127,758(+10)
2021-05-28
4,477,705(+4,028) 127,768(+10)
2021-05-29
4,480,945(+3,240) 127,775(+7)
2021-05-30
4,484,056(+3,111) 127,781(+6)
2021-05-31
4,487,339(+3,283) 127,782(+1)
2021-06-01
4,490,438(+3,099) 127,782(=)
2021-06-02
4,494,699(+4,261) 127,794(+12)
2021-06-03
4,499,878(+5,179) 127,812(+18)
2021-06-04
4,506,018(+6,140) 127,823(+11)
2021-06-05
4,511,669(+5,651) 127,836(+13)
2021-06-06
4,516,892(+5,223) 127,840(+4)
2021-06-07
4,522,476(+5,584) 127,841(+1)
2021-06-08
4,528,442(+5,966) 127,854(+13)
2021-06-09
4,535,754(+7,312) 127,860(+6)
2021-06-10
4,542,986(+7,232) 127,867(+7)
2021-06-11
4,550,944(+7,958) 127,884(+17)
2021-06-12
4,558,494(+7,550) 127,896(+12)
2021-06-13
4,565,813(+7,319) 127,904(+8)
2021-06-14
4,573,419(+7,606) 127,907(+3)
2021-06-15
4,581,006(+7,587) 127,917(+10)
2021-06-16
4,589,814(+8,808) 127,926(+9)
2021-06-17
4,600,623(+10,809) 127,945(+19)
2021-06-18
4,610,893(+10,270) 127,956(+11)
2021-06-19
4,620,968(+10,075) 127,970(+14)
2021-06-20
4,630,040(+9,072) 127,976(+6)
2021-06-21
4,640,507(+10,467) 127,981(+5)
2021-06-22
4,651,988(+11,481) 128,008(+27)
2021-06-23
4,667,870(+15,882) 128,027(+19)
2021-06-24
4,684,572(+16,702) 128,048(+21)
2021-06-25
4,699,868(+15,296) 128,066(+18)
2021-06-26
4,717,811(+17,943) 128,089(+23)
2021-06-27
4,732,434(+14,623) 128,100(+11)
2021-06-28
4,755,078(+22,644) 128,103(+3)
2021-06-29
4,775,301(+20,223) 128,126(+23)
2021-06-30
4,800,907(+25,606) 128,140(+14)
2021-07-01
4,828,463(+27,556) 128,162(+22)
2021-07-02
4,855,169(+26,706) 128,189(+27)
2021-07-03
4,879,616(+24,447) 128,207(+18)
2021-07-04
4,903,434(+23,818) 128,222(+15)
2021-07-05
4,930,534(+27,100) 128,231(+9)
2021-07-06
4,958,868(+28,334) 128,268(+37)
2021-07-07
4,990,916(+32,048) 128,301(+33)
2021-07-08
5,022,893(+31,977) 128,336(+35)
2021-07-09
5,058,093(+35,200) 128,365(+29)
2021-07-10
5,089,893(+31,800) 128,399(+34)
2021-07-11
5,121,245(+31,352) 128,425(+26)
2021-07-12
5,155,243(+33,998) 128,431(+6)
2021-07-13
5,191,459(+36,216) 128,481(+50)
2021-07-14
5,233,207(+41,748) 128,530(+49)
2021-07-15
5,281,098(+47,891) 128,593(+63)
2021-07-16
5,332,371(+51,273) 128,642(+49)
2021-07-17
5,386,340(+53,969) 128,683(+41)
2021-07-18
5,433,939(+47,599) 128,708(+25)
2021-07-19
5,473,477(+39,538) 128,727(+19)
2021-07-20
5,519,602(+46,125) 128,823(+96)
2021-07-21
5,563,006(+43,404) 128,896(+73)
2021-07-22
5,602,321(+39,315) 128,980(+84)
2021-07-23
5,637,975(+35,654) 129,044(+64)
2021-07-24
5,669,260(+31,285) 129,130(+86)
2021-07-25
5,697,912(+28,652) 129,158(+28)
2021-07-26
5,722,298(+24,386) 129,172(+14)
2021-07-27
5,745,526(+23,228) 129,303(+131)
2021-07-28
5,770,928(+25,402) 129,430(+127)
2021-07-29
5,801,561(+30,633) 129,515(+85)
2021-07-30
5,830,774(+29,213) 129,583(+68)
2021-07-31
5,856,528(+25,754) 129,654(+71)
2021-08-01
5,880,667(+24,139) 129,719(+65)
2021-08-02
5,902,354(+21,687) 129,743(+24)
2021-08-03
5,923,820(+21,466) 129,881(+138)
2021-08-04
5,952,756(+28,936) 130,000(+119)
2021-08-05
5,982,581(+29,825) 130,086(+86)
2021-08-06
6,014,023(+31,442) 130,178(+92)
2021-08-07
6,042,252(+28,229) 130,281(+103)
2021-08-08
6,069,362(+27,110) 130,320(+39)
2021-08-09
6,094,243(+24,881) 130,357(+37)
2021-08-10
6,117,540(+23,297) 130,503(+146)
2021-08-11
6,146,800(+29,260) 130,607(+104)
2021-08-12
6,179,506(+32,706) 130,701(+94)
2021-08-13
6,211,868(+32,362) 130,801(+100)
2021-08-14
6,241,011(+29,143) 130,894(+93)
2021-08-15
6,267,437(+26,426) 130,953(+59)
2021-08-16
6,295,613(+28,176) 130,979(+26)
2021-08-17
6,322,241(+26,628) 131,149(+170)
2021-08-18
6,355,887(+33,646) 131,260(+111)
2021-08-19
6,392,160(+36,273) 131,373(+113)
2021-08-20
6,429,147(+36,987) 131,487(+114)
2021-08-21
6,460,930(+31,783) 131,591(+104)
2021-08-22
6,492,906(+31,976) 131,640(+49)
2021-08-23
6,524,581(+31,675) 131,680(+40)
2021-08-24
6,555,200(+30,619) 131,854(+174)
2021-08-25
6,590,747(+35,547) 132,003(+149)
2021-08-26
6,628,709(+37,962) 132,143(+140)
2021-08-27
6,666,399(+37,690) 132,243(+100)
2021-08-28
6,698,486(+32,087) 132,376(+133)
2021-08-29
6,731,423(+32,937) 132,437(+61)
2021-08-30
6,757,650(+26,227) 132,485(+48)[xxi]
2021-08-31
6,789,581(+31,931) 132,535(+50)
2021-09-01
6,825,074(+35,493) 132,742(+207)
2021-09-02
6,862,904(+37,830) 132,920(+178)
2021-09-03
6,904,969(+42,065) 133,041(+121)
2021-09-04
6,941,611(+36,642) 133,161(+120)
2021-09-05
6,978,126(+36,515) 133,229(+68)
2021-09-06
7,018,927(+40,801) 133,274(+45)
2021-09-07
7,056,106(+37,179) 133,483(+209)
2021-09-08
7,094,592(+38,486) 133,674(+191)
2021-09-09
7,132,072(+37,480) 133,841(+167)
2021-09-10
7,168,806(+36,734) 133,988(+147)
2021-09-11
7,197,662(+28,856) 134,144(+156)
2021-09-12
7,226,276(+28,614) 134,200(+56)
2021-09-13
7,256,559(+30,283) 134,261(+61)
2021-09-14
7,282,810(+26,251) 134,446(+185)
2021-09-15
7,312,683(+29,873) 134,647(+201)
2021-09-16
7,339,009(+26,326) 134,805(+158)
2021-09-17
7,371,301(+32,292) 134,983(+178)
2021-09-18
7,400,739(+29,438) 135,147(+164)
2021-09-19
7,429,746(+29,007) 135,203(+56)
2021-09-20
7,465,448(+35,702) 135,252(+49)
2021-09-21
7,496,543(+31,095) 135,455(+203)
2021-09-22
7,530,103(+33,560) 135,621(+166)
2021-09-23
7,565,867(+35,764) 135,803(+182)
2021-09-24
7,601,487(+35,620) 135,983(+180)
2021-09-25
7,631,233(+29,746) 136,105(+122)
2021-09-26
7,664,230(+32,997) 136,168(+63)
2021-09-27
7,701,715(+37,485) 136,208(+40)
2021-09-28
7,736,235(+34,520) 136,375(+167)
2021-09-29
7,771,294(+35,059) 136,525(+150)
2021-09-30
7,807,036(+35,742) 136,662(+137)
2021-10-01
7,841,625(+34,589) 136,789(+127)
2021-10-02
7,871,014(+29,389) 136,910(+121)
2021-10-03
7,900,680(+29,666) 136,953(+43)
2021-10-04
7,934,936(+34,256) 136,986(+33)
2021-10-05
7,967,985(+33,049) 137,152(+166)
2021-10-06
8,006,660(+38,675) 137,295(+143)
2021-10-07
8,046,390(+39,730) 137,417(+122)
2021-10-08
8,081,300(+34,910) 137,541(+124)
2021-10-09
8,120,713(+39,413) 137,697(+156)[xxii]
2021-10-10
8,154,306(+33,593) 137,735(+38)
2021-10-11
8,193,769(+39,463) 137,763(+28)
2021-10-12
8,231,437(+37,668) 137,944(+181)
2021-10-13
8,272,883(+41,446) 138,080(+136)
2021-10-14
8,317,439(+44,556) 138,237(+157)
2021-10-15
8,361,651(+44,212) 138,379(+142)
2021-10-16
8,404,469(+42,818) 138,527(+148)
2021-10-17
8,449,165(+44,696) 138,584(+57)
2021-10-18
8,497,868(+48,703) 138,629(+45)
2021-10-19
8,541,192(+43,324) 138,852(+223)
2021-10-20
8,589,737(+48,545) 139,031(+179)
2021-10-21
8,641,221(+51,484) 139,146(+115)
2021-10-22
8,689,949(+48,728) 139,326(+180)
2021-10-23
8,734,934(+44,985) 139,461(+135)
2021-10-24
8,773,674(+38,740) 139,533(+72)
2021-10-25
8,809,774(+36,100) 139,571(+38)
2021-10-26
8,853,227(+43,453) 139,834(+263)[xxiii]
2021-10-27
8,897,149(+43,922) 140,041(+207)
2021-10-28
8,936,155(+39,006) 140,206(+165)
2021-10-29
8,979,236(+43,081) 140,392(+186)
2021-10-30
9,019,962(+40,726) 140,558(+166)
2021-10-31
9,057,629(+37,667) 140,632(+74)
2021-11-01
9,097,706(+40,077) 140,672(+40)
2021-11-02
9,130,857(+33,151) 140,964(+292)[xxiv]
2021-11-03
9,171,660(+40,803) 141,181(+217)
2021-11-04
9,208,219(+36,559) 141,395(+214)
2021-11-05
9,241,916(+33,697) 141,588(+193)
2021-11-06
9,272,066(+30,150) 141,743(+155)
2021-11-07
9,301,909(+29,843) 141,805(+62)
2021-11-08
9,333,891(+31,982) 141,862(+57)
2021-11-09
9,366,676(+32,785) 142,124(+262)
2021-11-10
9,406,001(+39,325) 142,338(+214)
2021-11-11
9,448,402(+42,401) 142,533(+195)
2021-11-12
9,487,302(+38,900) 142,678(+145)
2021-11-13
9,524,971(+37,669) 142,835(+157)
2021-11-14
9,561,099(+36,128) 142,898(+63)
2021-11-15
9,600,369(+39,270) 142,945(+47)
2021-11-16
9,637,190(+36,821) 143,159(+214)
2021-11-17
9,675,058(+37,868) 143,360(+201)
2021-11-18
9,721,916(+46,858) 143,559(+199)
2021-11-19
9,766,153(+44,237) 143,716(+157)
2021-11-20
9,806,034(+39,881) 143,866(+150)
2021-11-21
9,845,492(+39,458) 143,927(+61)
2021-11-22
9,889,926(+44,434) 143,972(+45)
2021-11-23
9,932,408(+42,482) 144,137(+165)
2021-11-24
9,974,843(+42,435) 144,286(+149)
2021-11-25
10,021,497(+46,654) 144,433(+147)
2021-11-26
10,070,841(+49,344) 144,593(+160)
2021-11-27
10,110,408(+39,567) 144,724(+131)
2021-11-28
10,146,915(+36,507) 144,775(+51)
2021-11-29
10,189,059(+42,144) 144,810(+35)
2021-11-30
10,228,772(+39,713) 144,969(+159)
Sources:

Notes:

  1. ^ On 25 March PHE changed reporting of deaths to be correct up to 17:00 the previous day, while cases are reported up to 09:00 the same day. Deaths reported for Tuesday 24 March only covered from 09:00 to 17:00 on that day; subsequent reporting is for 24-hour periods from 17:00 to 17:00.[37]
  2. ^ Figures for 27 March and after include additional cases from tests carried out on key workers.
  3. ^ Starting with the figures published on 29 April, deaths in all settings are now included. Previously, only deaths in hospitals were included in the official figures. The numbers in this table have been updated with backdated figures for previous dates.
  4. ^ Positive cases are 27 lower than the difference between today’s and yesterday’s cumulative. This is due to Northern Ireland not processing testing data for 17 May, and the removal of a quality control sample from Wales data.
  5. ^ Reduction in the cumulative total is due to unpublished corrections, and the reallocation of some positive test results to previous days.
  6. ^ 111 deaths were reported for 31 May. However, the cumulative total was revised to include an additional 445 deaths from the period from 26 April to 31 May identified by PHE as COVID-19 deaths having received a positive test. The numbers in this table have been updated with backdated figures from 23 May onwards.
  7. ^ The methodology of reporting positive cases has been updated to remove duplicates within and across pillars 1 and 2, to ensure that a person who tests positive is only counted once. This has resulted in a reduction in the number of cumulative tests. Pillar 1: swab testing in Public Health England (PHE) labs and NHS hospitals for those with a clinical need, and health and care workers. Pillar 2: swab testing for the wider population, as set out in government guidance.
  8. ^ Total positive cases reported for 14 July include an additional 842 cases from a testing laboratory in Wales. These positive cases should have been reflected in the data for 13 July. Had they been included in the 13 July data, there would have been 398 positive cases reported on 14 July, and the increases for 13 July and 14 July would have been 0.47% and 0.14% respectively.
  9. ^ The way daily death figures are calculated is currently under review. Statement from HM Government: "The Secretary of State has today, 17 July, asked PHE to urgently review their estimation of daily death statistics. Currently the daily deaths measure counts all people who have tested positive for coronavirus and since died, with no cut-off between time of testing and date of death. There have been claims that the lack of cut-off may distort the current daily deaths number. We are therefore pausing the publication of the daily figure while this is resolved."
  10. ^ After a review, the way daily death figures are calculated was changed. The daily death figures now only includes cases where a death occurred within 28 days of a positive test.
  11. ^ a b A backlog of positive test results from the previous week are included in this figure. Statement from Public Health England: "Due to a technical issue, which has now been resolved, there has been a delay in publishing a number of COVID-19 cases to the dashboard in England. This means the total reported over the coming days will include some additional cases from the period between 24 September and 1 October, increasing the number of cases reported."
  12. ^ Includes a backlog of 141 deaths. Statement from HM Government: "Due to a processing update, 141 historical deaths within 28 days in England were excluded from the published data on 21 November. This issue was corrected for data published on 22 November, which included deaths omitted on 21 November within the total and daily number of newly reported deaths for 22 November."
  13. ^ Includes a backlog of about 11,000 positive test results from Wales. Statement from HM Government: "The number of new UK cases reported on 17 December 2020 includes around 11,000 previously unreported cases for Wales as a result of system maintenance in the NHS Wales Laboratory Information Management System."
  14. ^ 3 March: 172 deaths within 28 days of a positive test were added to Scotland and UK totals.
  15. ^ 13 March: Daily counts of deaths in England rely on multiple data sources. On 13 March 2021 there was a delay in receiving this information from one of these sources. This might have a small impact on the total number of deaths reported on that date. This delay will be reflected on the numbers published on 14 March 2021.
  16. ^ 31 March: During the Easter period, the COVID-19 Dashboard will be updated every day, but the amount of data being updated will vary.
  17. ^ 9 April: Change to case reporting in England
  18. ^ 18 May: 4,776 additional cases from England were removed
  19. ^ 19 May: further 561 additional cases from England were removed
  20. ^ 20 May: further 180 additional cases from England were removed
  21. ^ Because of a public holiday, no data has been updated for Wales and only headline cases, vaccinations and deaths are available from Northern Ireland.
  22. ^ Because of a network issue at Public Health Wales on 8 October 2021, cases and deaths within 28 days of positive test were reported after the UK dashboard was updated.
  23. ^ Because of technical issues at Public Health Wales yesterday, the cases and deaths reported today cover a 72-hour period.
  24. ^ Deaths data was not received from NHS England on 1st November 2021. This means that two days’ worth of data from this data source are potentially included in today’s figures.

Though later reporting indicated that there may have been some cases dating from late 2019,[38][39] COVID-19 was confirmed to be spreading in the UK by the end of January 2020[40] with the first confirmed deaths in March.[41] The country was initially relatively slow in implementing restrictions.[15][42][43] Subsequent epidemiological analysis showed that over 1000 lineages of SARS-CoV-2 entered the UK in early 2020 from international travellers, mostly from outbreaks elsewhere in Europe, leading to numerous clusters that overwhelmed contact tracing efforts.[44] A legally enforced Stay at Home Order, or lockdown, was introduced on 23 March.[17] Restrictions were steadily eased across the UK in late spring and early summer that year.[45][46][47][48][49][50] The UK's epidemic in early 2020 was at the time one of the largest and deadliest worldwide.[44]

By the Autumn, COVID-19 cases were again rising.[51] This lead to the creation of new regulations along with the introduction of localised restrictions.[52][53][54][55][56][57] Larger lockdowns took place in all of Wales, England and Northern Ireland later that season.[58][59][60] A new variant of the virus is thought to have originated in Kent around September 2020.[61][62] Once restrictions were lifted, the novel variant rapidly spread across the UK.[23] Its increased transmissibility contributed to a continued increase in daily infections.[63] The healthcare system had come under severe strain by late December.[64][65][66][67][68] Which quickly led to further restrictions being introduced across all of the UK.[69][70][71][72]

The first COVID-19 vaccine was approved and began being deployed across the UK in early December,[73][25] 15 million vaccine doses had been given to predominantly those most vulnerable to the virus by mid-February.[74] 6 months later more than 75% of adults in the UK were fully vaccinated against COVID-19.[75] Quarantine rules for incoming travellers were introduced in late January.[76] Restrictions began to ease from late February onwards and almost all had ended in Great Britain by August.[77][78][79][80] A third wave of daily infections began in July 2021 due to the arrival and rapid spread of the highly transmissible SARS-CoV-2 Delta variant.[28] However, mass vaccination continued to keep deaths and hospitalisations at much lower levels than in previous waves.[81][82] Infection rates remained high and hospitalisations and deaths rose into the autumn,[27][83] remaining above 40,000 daily cases throughout November.[84][85]

Responses

Government response

In response to the COVID-19 pandemic in the United Kingdom, Her Majesty's Government have introduced various public health and economic measures to mitigate its impact. Devolution has meant that the four nations' administrative responses to the pandemic have differed; the Scottish Government, the Welsh Government, and the Northern Ireland Executive have produced different policies to those that apply in England. Numerous laws have been introduced throughout the crisis.

The British government had developed a pandemic response plan in previous years. The first cases of COVID-19 were confirmed in the UK in January 2020; in response, the UK introduced advice for travellers coming from affected countries in late January and February 2020, and began contact tracing,[86] although this was later abandoned. The government incrementally introduced further societal restrictions on the public as the virus spread across the country in the following weeks, initially resisting more stringent measures introduced elsewhere in Europe and Asia.[87] Prime Minister Boris Johnson announced the first national lockdown on 23 March 2020 and Parliament introduced the Coronavirus Act 2020, which granted the devolved governments emergency powers and empowered the police to enforce public health measures.[88] Once the nationwide stay-at-home order was lifted in May 2020, it was replaced by regional restrictions, social distancing measures, self-isolation laws for those exposed to the virus and rules on face masks. In autumn and winter 2020, further nationwide lockdowns were introduced in response to a surge in COVID-19 cases. A COVID-19 vaccination programme began in December 2020.

Economic support has been provided to struggling businesses and to furlough employees to mitigate the severe economic impact. It also streamlined the procurement process in contracts in response to shortages of medical equipment and for developing a contact tracing app.

The British government has faced criticism for its slow response to and poor preparation for the pandemic, which analysts and critics have blamed for the country's high death toll.[88][89][90][91] A 2021 parliamentary report Coronavirus: Lessons learned to date described the decisions on lockdowns and social distancing during the early weeks of the pandemic, and the advice that led to them, as "one of the most important public health failures the UK has ever experienced", and the vaccination approach, including its research, development, and rollout as "one of the most effective initiatives in UK history".[92] A public inquiry will take place in 2022.

Impacts

Health and life expectancy

The COVID-19 pandemic led to the largest fall in life expectancy in England since records began.[93][94] On average, British COVID-19 victims lost around a decade of life; the last time deaths rose so sharply in the UK was during World War II.[95] Research suggests over 1 million people in the UK have had Long COVID, with the majority reporting substantial impacts on day to day life.[96][97] The lockdown also had a major mental health impact.[98]

In August 2021, a report from Age UK found that 27% of people over 60 could not walk as far and 25% were living in more physical pain earlier this year compared to the start of the pandemic. 54% of older people felt less confident attending a hospital appointment, and 37% of older people felt less confident going to a GP surgery.[99]

Economic

The pandemic was widely disruptive to the economy of the United Kingdom, with most sectors and workforces adversely affected. Some temporary shutdowns became permanent; some people who were furloughed were later made redundant.[100][101] The economic disruption has had a significant impact on people's mental health—with particular damage to the mental health of foreign-born men whose work hours have been reduced/eliminated.[102]

Social

The pandemic has had far-reaching consequences in the country that go beyond the spread of the disease itself and efforts to quarantine it, including political, cultural, and social implications.

Spread to other countries and territories

Sophie Grégoire Trudeau, the wife of Canadian Prime Minister Justin Trudeau, tested positive for COVID-19 upon her return from WE Day events in the UK; on 12 March 2020 the Trudeau family entered two weeks of self-isolation.[103] The first patient in Mauritius was a 59-year-old man who returned from the United Kingdom on 7 March 2020. When he arrived in Mauritius, the Mauritian had no symptoms.[104] Other cases of the novel coronavirus resulting from travel to the UK were subsequently reported in India[105][106] and Nigeria.[107]

On 16 June 2020, it was widely reported in British media that New Zealand's first COVID-19 cases in 24 days were diagnosed in two British women, both of whom had travelled from the UK and were given special permission to visit a dying parent. The women had entered the country on 7 June, after first flying into Doha and Brisbane.[108]

A 2021 study suggested that the SARS-CoV-2 Alpha variant which was first detected in Kent is thought to have began its spread to many countries internationally from flights originating in London in late 2020.[109]

Lockdowns

On 23 March 2020 the prime minister, Boris Johnson, announced a nationwide lockdown that was going to last three weeks but as cases and deaths worsened, the lockdown lasted from March to 4 July 2020. Schools, pubs, restaurants and other businesses were all closed and opened back up gradually.

On 31 October 2020 a second national lockdown was announced. This was a four week circuit breaker lockdown and schools remained open throughout but everything else was closed once again. The lockdown officially ended on 1 December 2020.

On 4 January 2021 a third national lockdown was announced and was a strict lockdown like the first one. Schools, colleges and universities were forced to close this time and go to online lessons. The lockdown ended with no restrictions on 17 May 2021.

Data collection

Statistics

This article presents official statistics gathered during the COVID-19 pandemic in the United Kingdom.

The official daily report from the Department of Health and Social Care (DHSC) counts those who died after testing positive for coronavirus. It "could be the major cause, a contributory factor or simply present when they are dying of something else".[110] From 29 April 2020, the official figures include all coronavirus-positive deaths in the UK, wherever they happened.[111] Before then, the official daily toll included only hospital deaths in England, but included all coronavirus-positive deaths in the rest of the UK wherever they happened, if known to public health agencies.[112][113] There may be a delay between a death and it entering official statistics so families can be informed; this delay is usually a few days, but can be longer.[114][115]

The Office for National Statistics (ONS) issues a weekly report covering the four countries, which counts all deaths where coronavirus was mentioned on the death certificate; not necessarily as the main cause of death. As of 21 September 2021, the total of registered deaths mentioning COVID-19 up till 10 September was 160,374, comprising 146,380 deaths for England, 8,129 for Wales, 10,688 for Scotland and 3,306 for Northern Ireland. In addition 184 non-UK residents died in England and Wales.[116] This incorporates data from the National Records of Scotland and Northern Ireland Statistics and Research Agency. This figure is higher because it also counts deaths where no test was done.[112][113][117] The ONS has analysed death certificates for England and Wales to the end of 2020 and shown that 91% of deaths which mention COVID-19 state this as the main cause of death (compared with 18% for flu and pneumonia).[118]

Mathematical modelling and government response

Social distancing at a London pharmacy, 23 March 2020

Reports from the Medical Research Council's Centre for Global Infectious Disease Analysis at Imperial College, London have been providing mathematically calculated estimates of cases and case fatality rates.[119][120] In February 2020, the team at Imperial College, led by epidemiologist Neil Ferguson, estimated about two-thirds of cases in travellers from China were not detected and that some of these may have begun "chains of transmission within the countries they entered".[121][122][123] They forecast that the new type of coronavirus could infect up to 60% of the UK's population, in the worst-case scenario.[124]

In a paper on 16 March, the Imperial College team provided detailed forecasts of the potential impacts of the epidemic in the UK and US.[125][126] It detailed the potential outcomes of an array of 'non-pharmaceutical interventions'. Two potential overall strategies outlined were: mitigation, in which the aim is to reduce the health impact of the epidemic but not to stop transmission completely; and suppression, where the aim is to reduce transmission rates to a point where case numbers fall. Until this point, government actions had been based on a strategy of mitigation, but the modelling predicted that while this would reduce deaths by approximately 2/3, it would still lead to approximately 250,000 deaths from the disease and the health systems becoming overwhelmed.[125] On 16 March, the Prime Minister announced changes to government advice, extending self-isolation to whole households, advising social distancing particularly for vulnerable groups, and indicating that further measures were likely to be required in the future.[127][126] A paper on 30 March by the Imperial College group estimated that the lockdown would reduce the number of dead from 510,000 to less than 20,000. This paper and others relied on data from European countries including the UK to estimate that the combined non-pharmaceutical interventions reduced the reproduction number of the virus by 67-87%, enough to stop infections from growing.[128][129]

In April 2020, biostatistician Professor Sheila Bird said the delay in the reporting of deaths from the virus meant there was a risk of underestimating the steepness of the rising epidemic trend.[130]

See also

Notes

  1. ^ ONS Infection Survey estimate.
  2. ^ ONS estimate of prevalence of ongoing symptoms or "Long COVID".
  3. ^ Current symptomatic cases. (COVID Symptom Study).
  4. ^ Deaths within 28 days of a positive test by date reported.
    Does not include the death of one British citizen on board the Diamond Princess cruise ship (see COVID-19 pandemic on cruise ships), or the 84 recorded deaths in the British Overseas Territories and Crown dependencies.
  5. ^ Deaths with COVID-19 on the death certificate by date of death.
  6. ^ Daily updates occur around 4 pm UTC.

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Further reading

External links