2022 Atlantic hurricane season

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2022 Atlantic hurricane season
2022 Atlantic hurricane season summary map.png
Season summary map
Seasonal boundaries
First system formedJune 5, 2022
Last system dissipatedSeason ongoing
Strongest storm
NameFiona
 • Maximum winds130 mph (215 km/h)
(1-minute sustained)
 • Lowest pressure932 mbar (hPa; 27.52 inHg)
Seasonal statistics
Total depressions9
Total storms9
Hurricanes4
Major hurricanes
(Cat. 3+)
2
Total fatalities38 total
Total damage≥ $400 million (2022 USD)
Related articles
Atlantic hurricane seasons
2020, 2021, 2022, 2023, 2024

The 2022 Atlantic hurricane season is the current cycle of the annual tropical cyclone season in the Atlantic Ocean in the Northern Hemisphere. The season officially began on June 1, and will end on November 30. These dates, adopted by convention, historically describe the period in each year when most subtropical or tropical cyclogenesis occurs in the Atlantic Ocean.[1] This year's first named storm, Tropical Storm Alex, developed five days after the start of the season, making this the first season since 2014 not to have a pre-season named storm.[2] There have been nine named tropical storms so far this season. Four of them strengthened into a hurricane, and two reached major hurricane intensity (Category 3 or higher on the Saffir–Simpson scale).

In July, Tropical Storm Bonnie formed and quickly made landfall along the Costa Rica–Nicaragua border. It then crossed over into the Pacific basin a day later, becoming the first to survive the crossover from the Atlantic to the Pacific since Hurricane Otto in 2016. The same day as Bonnie's crossover, Tropical Storm Colin unexpectedly formed inland over coastal South Carolina. It quickly weakened and dissipated the next day after moving into coastal North Carolina. Following this activity, tropical cyclogenesis was suppressed across the basin for several weeks by a combination of high wind shear, drier air, and the presence of the Saharan Air Layer.[3] As a result, this was the first season since 1997 in which no tropical cyclones formed in August, and the first season on record to do so during a La Niña year.[4] After a 60-day lull in tropical cyclone activity, Hurricanes Danielle and Earl formed on September 1 and 3 respectively, with Danielle becoming the season's first hurricane. The last season to have its first hurricane develop this late was 2013.[5] Activity then increased tremendously towards the end of the month as four named storms formed in quick succession. Among them, Hurricane Fiona became the season's first major hurricane on September 20, which is about three weeks later than when the first one typically forms,[6] and Hurricane Ian, which impacted Cuba as a high-end Category 3 hurricane.

Seasonal forecasts[edit]

Predictions of tropical activity in the 2022 season
Source Date Named
storms
Hurricanes Major
hurricanes
Ref
Average (1991–2020) 14.4 7.2 3.2 [7]
Record high activity 30 15 7 [8]
Record low activity 4 2 0 [8]

CSU December 9, 2021 13–16 6–8 2–3 [9]
TSR December 10, 2021 18 8 3 [10]
TSR April 6, 2022 18 8 4 [11]
CSU April 7, 2022 19 9 4 [12]
TWC April 14, 2022 20 8 4 [13]
UA April 14, 2022 14 7 3 [14]
NCSU April 20, 2022 17–21 7–9 3–5 [15]
PSU May 9, 2022 11-19 N/A N/A [16]
UKMO* May 23, 2022 18 9 4 [17]
NOAA May 24, 2022 14–21 6–10 3–6 [18]
TSR May 31, 2022 18 8 4 [19]
CSU June 2, 2022 20 10 5 [20]
TWC June 17, 2022 21 9 4 [21]
UA June 20, 2022 15 7 3 [22]
TSR July 5, 2022 18 9 4 [23]
CSU July 7, 2022 20 10 5 [24]
UKMO August 2, 2022 16 6 4 [25]
NOAA August 4, 2022 14–20 6–10 3–5 [26]
CSU August 4, 2022 18 8 4 [26]
TWC August 18, 2022 17 7 3 [27]

Actual activity
9 4 2
* June–November only
† Most recent of several such occurrences. (See all)

In advance of, and during, each hurricane season, several forecasts of hurricane activity are issued by national meteorological services, scientific agencies, and noted hurricane experts. These include forecasters from the United States National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA)'s Climate Prediction Center, Tropical Storm Risk (TSR), the United Kingdom's Met Office (UKMO), and Philip J. Klotzbach, William M. Gray and their associates at Colorado State University (CSU). The forecasts include weekly and monthly changes in significant factors that help determine the number of tropical storms, hurricanes, and major hurricanes within a particular year. According to NOAA and CSU, the average Atlantic hurricane season between 1991 and 2020 contained roughly 14 tropical storms, seven hurricanes, three major hurricanes, and an accumulated cyclone energy (ACE) index of 72–111 units.[28] Broadly speaking, ACE is a measure of the power of a tropical or subtropical storm multiplied by the length of time it existed. It is only calculated for full advisories on specific tropical and subtropical systems reaching or exceeding wind speeds of 39 mph (63 km/h).[7] NOAA typically categorizes a season as above-average, average, or below-average based on the cumulative ACE index, but the number of tropical storms, hurricanes, and major hurricanes within a hurricane season is sometimes also considered.[7]

Pre-season forecasts[edit]

On December 9, 2021, CSU issued an extended range forecast for the 2022 hurricane season, giving a 40% chance of near-average activity with 13–16 named storms, 6–8 hurricanes, 2–3 major hurricanes, and an ACE index of about 130 units. The forecast also gave a 25% chance that the ACE Index would end up being around 170 units, and a 25% likelihood the likelihood that the index would end up around 80.[9] TSR also issued an extended range forecast on December 10, 2021.[10] It predicted overall near-average tropical activity with its ACE index, anticipating 18 tropical storms, 8 hurricanes and 3 intense hurricanes to form during the season. One of their factors was the expectation of a neutral El Niño-Southern Oscillation condition by the third quarter of 2022. This outlook had "large uncertainties".[10]

On April 7, CSU issued their first extended range seasonal forecast for the 2022 Atlantic hurricane season, predicting well above-average activity, with 19 named storms, 9 hurricanes, 4 major hurricanes and an ACE index of 160 units. Their factors supporting an active hurricane season included above average-sea surface temperatures in the subtropical Atlantic Ocean and Caribbean Sea, and a cool neutral ENSO or weak La Niña pattern, corresponding to a low chance of an El Niño.[29] On April 14, 2022, University of Arizona (UA) issued its seasonal prediction for a slightly above-average hurricane season, with 14 named storms, seven hurricanes, three major hurricanes, and an ACE index of 129 units.[14] North Carolina State University (NCSU) made its prediction for the season on April 20, calling for an above-average season with 17 to 21 named storms, 7 to 9 hurricanes, and 3 to 5 major hurricanes.[15]

On May 23, UKMO issued their own forecast for the 2022 season, predicting an above average season with 18 named storms, 9 hurricanes, and 4 major hurricanes, with a 70% chance that each of these statistics will fall between 13 and 23, 6 and 12, and 2 and 6, respectively.[17] The following day, NOAA's Climate Prediction Center issued their forecasts for the season, predicting a 65% chance of above-average activity and 25% chance for below-average activity, with 14–21 named storms, 6–10 hurricanes, and 3–6 major hurricanes.[18]

Mid-season forecasts[edit]

On June 2, CSU updated their extended range seasonal forecast, increasing the amount of tropical cyclones to 20 named storms, 10 hurricanes, 5 major hurricanes, and an overall ACE index of 180 units. This was done after later analysis of lower chances of an El Niño during the season, as well as a warmer than average tropical Atlantic.[30] On June 20, 2022, University of Arizona (UA) updated its seasonal prediction, which is very similar to its April prediction, with 15 named storms, seven hurricanes, three major hurricanes, and an ACE index of 131 units.[22] On July 5, TSR released their third forecast for the season, slightly increasing their numbers to 18 named storms, 9 hurricanes, and 4 major hurricanes. This prediction was largely based on the persistence of the weak La Niña into the third quarter of the year.[23] On July 7, CSU did not make changes to their updated prediction of 20 named storms, 10 hurricanes, and 5 major hurricanes.[24] UKMO's updated forecast on August 2 called for 16 named storms, 6 hurricanes, and 4 major hurricanes.[25] Two days later, NOAA and CSU each revised their activity outlook slightly downward, though both still predicted that the season would end up being busier than the 30-year average. The revisions were made in part because of the relative slow start to the season (as compared to the past couple), with only three short-lived named storms as of the start of August.[26]

Seasonal summary[edit]

Hurricane IanHurricane FionaHurricane Bonnie (2022)Tropical Storm Alex (2022)Saffir–Simpson scale
A satellite photo of Tropical Storm Earl (bottom left) and Hurricane Danielle (top right) both active simultaneously on September 5, 2022.
Tropical Storm Earl (bottom left) and Hurricane Danielle (top right) on September 5

The 2022 season was the first season since 2014 to not have a pre-season named storm.[31] Activity began with the formation of Tropical Storm Alex on June 5, after several days of slow development while traversing the Gulf of Mexico and then moving over Central Florida. The storm peaked at near-hurricane strength before becoming extratropical over the Central North Atlantic. At the beginning of July, Tropical Storm Bonnie formed in the Southern Caribbean Sea and made landfall shortly thereafter near the Costa Rica–Nicaragua border. It then crossed over into the into the Pacific basin a day later, the first storm to do so since Hurricane Otto in 2016,[32] where it would become a category 3 hurricane. On the same day that Bonnie crossed over, a low-pressure system over coastal South Carolina abruptly organized into Tropical Storm Colin. It would be a short-lived storm as it became disorganized shortly after forming and dissipated the next day over eastern North Carolina. Tropical activity then ceased, with no tropical cyclones forming in almost two months. It became the first season to not have a tropical cyclone form in August since 1997.[33] One disturbance over the Gulf of Mexico during the middle of the month was briefly designated as a potential tropical cyclone, but it did not organize into a tropical cyclone before moving inland over Northeastern Mexico.

Four tropical cyclones active simultaneously on September 23: Fiona, Gaston, Hermine, and Tropical Depression Nine (which ultimately became Ian).

Tropical activity ultimately resumed with the formation of Tropical Storm Danielle over the Central Atlantic on September 1. The storm intensified a hurricane the following day, the latest "first hurricane of the season" since 2013.[34] It remained nearly stationary far to the west of the Azores for several days before moving northeastward and becoming extratropical on September 8 without affecting any land areas. Additionally, a slow-developing disturbance east of the Lesser Antilles became organized and developed into Tropical Storm Earl late on September 2–3.[35] It strengthened into a hurricane, tracked east of Bermuda, fluctuating between Category 1 and 2 intensity, and then became extratropical near Newfoundland on September 10. Four days later, Tropical Storm Fiona formed in the Central Atlantic. Fiona eventually became a hurricane, striking both Puerto Rico and the Dominican Republic before becoming the season's first major hurricane as it passed by the Turks and Caicos Islands on September 20. That same day, Tropical Storm Gaston formed over the Central Atlantic. Fiona would strengthen into a category 4 hurricane as it passed west of Bermuda while Gaston would strike the Azores. As Fiona transitioned into a powerful extratropical cyclone that would strike Nova Scotia on September 23, Tropical Storm Hermine and Tropical Depression Nine formed in the Eastern Atlantic and the Carribbean Sea respectively, marking the first time since 2020 that four tropical cyclones were active simultaneously in the Atlantic basin.[36] Tropical Depression Nine would rapidly stregthen into Hurricane Ian as the three other storms dissipated, and make landfall on Cuba as a high-end Category 3 hurricane.

This season's ACE index as of 9:00 UTC on September 27, as calculated by Colorado State University using data from the NHC, is approximately 67.7 units.[37] This number represents the sum of the squares of the maximum sustained wind speed (knots) for all named storms while they are at least tropical storm intensity, divided by 10,000. Therefore, tropical depressions are not included.[38]

Systems[edit]

Tropical Storm Alex[edit]

Tropical storm (SSHWS)
Alex 2022-06-05 1745Z.jpg Alex 2022 track.png
DurationJune 5 – June 6
Peak intensity70 mph (110 km/h) (1-min) 984 mbar (hPa)

On May 31, a large low-pressure area developed near the Yucatán Peninsula, partially related to the Pacific basin remnants of Hurricane Agatha interacting with an upper-level trough over the Gulf of Mexico.[39] The low moved eastward over the Yucatán Peninsula, producing a large area of disorganized showers and thunderstorms over the peninsula and northwestern Caribbean Sea on June 1–2.[40] Due to the threat the developing system posed to Cuba, the Florida Keys and South Florida, the National Hurricane Center initiated advisories on it, designating it as Potential Tropical Cyclone One at 21:00 UTC on June 2.[41] As it proceeded northeastward over the Gulf of Mexico, the disturbance was being buffeted by 25–35 mph (35–55 km/h) southwesterly shear, which limited its ability to intensify. On June 3, two Hurricane Hunters missions into the system found deep convection ongoing near and to the east of the estimated center, but no conclusive evidence of a closed circulation.[42][43] Early the following day, the broad and poorly-defined center of the disturbance moved over southwestern Florida.[44] Then, after moving into the Atlantic later that same day, a well-defined center formed with sufficient convection, resulting in it being upgraded to Tropical Storm Alex at 06:00 UTC on June 5.[45] The storm intensified some later that same day, attaining sustained winds of 70 mph (110 km/h) as it passed west of Bermuda.[46] Soon thereafter, Alex began its extra-tropical transition, a process that was complete by 21:00 UTC on June 6.[47] Several days later, the system passed to the west of Scotland and near the Faroe Islands,[48][49] before rapidly weakening while moving toward Norway, which it reached on June 13.[50]

While a potential tropical cyclone, what would later become Alex produced significant rainfall across western Cuba and South Florida, which resulted in flash flooding across both regions. During a 30 hour period on June 2–3, Paso Real de San Diego in the province of Pinar del Río recorded about 12 inches (301 mm) of rain, and Playa Girón in Matanzas received over 8 inches (193 mm).[51] There were four storm related deaths in Cuba,[52][53] and numerous homes and bridges were damaged by the flooding.[54] Between 7:00 a.m. local time on June 3, and 10:00 p.m. the following day, Miami saw just over 11 inches (28 cm) of rain, while Hollywood had just over 9 inches (23 cm). Naples, near where the storm's estimated center came onshore, also had close to 9 inches (23 cm).[53] Across Broward County and Miami-Dade County, there were a combined 3,543 power outages.[55]

Tropical Storm Bonnie[edit]

Tropical storm (SSHWS)
Bonnie 2022-07-01 1845Z.jpg Bonnie 2022 track.png
DurationJuly 1 – July 2 (Exited basin)
Peak intensity50 mph (85 km/h) (1-min) 997 mbar (hPa)

A tropical wave moved off the northwest coast of Africa south of 10°N on June 23, producing a large but disorganized area of showers and thunderstorms.[56][57] The low-level wind circulation associated with the system became better defined[58] and thunderstorm activity increased[59] on June 25–26, as it moved along a west to west-northwesterly track toward the southernmost Windward Islands. A NOAA Hurricane Hunters mission on June 27, reported tropical-storm-strength winds on the north side of the disturbance, but indicated that it had not yet shown a well-defined closed circulation. Although it could not yet be classified as a tropical cyclone, due to the threat the system posed to the Lesser Antilles, the National Hurricane Center (NHC) initiated advisories on it as Potential Tropical Cyclone Two later that same day.[60][61] Later, after moving through the southern Windward Islands late on June 28, the disturbance sped west at 26 mph (43 km/h) toward the coast of South America.[62] Over the next couple of days, the system passed just to the north of Venezuela, where it was hindered from developing a distinct low-level circulation due to its fast forward speed and its interaction with land. Yet all the while it generated sustained winds of tropical-storm strength.[63] As the disturbance moved toward Central America on the morning of July 1, it became sufficiently organized to be classified as a tropical storm and was given the name Bonnie.[64] Embedded in a low-shear and warm SST environment, Bonnie started to steadily intensify.[65] At 03:00 UTC on July 2, Bonnie made landfall near the Costa Rica–Nicaragua border at its peak intensity within the Atlantic with sustained winds of 50 mph (85 km/h).[66] Bonnie then crossed Central America and exited into the Eastern Pacific basin 12 hours later.[67]

Bonnie and its precursor disturbance produced gusty winds and heavy rainfall as it tracked through the southern Caribbean Sea.[63] In Nicaragua, authorities reported four deaths in relation to the storm.[68]

Tropical Storm Colin[edit]

Tropical storm (SSHWS)
Colin 2022-07-02 1600Z.jpg Colin 2022 track.png
DurationJuly 2 – July 3
Peak intensity40 mph (65 km/h) (1-min) 1011 mbar (hPa)

An area of low pressure formed offshore of Savannah, Georgia, on the morning of July 1, and moved inland across coastal South Carolina later that same day. During this time the system unexpectedly developed with persistent deep convection forming close to the center and quickly becoming well organized.[69] On July 2, at 09:00 UTC, Tropical Storm Colin formed about 50 mi (80 km) southwest of Myrtle Beach, South Carolina, with sustained winds of 40 mph (65 km/h) and an estimated central pressure of 1011 mbar (29.9 inHg).[70] The storm became increasingly disorganized later that day, with its circulation becoming elongated from north-northeast to south-southwest due to high wind shear and continued land interaction.[71] By 03:00 UTC on July 3, after passing Wilmington, North Carolina, Colin had weakened to a tropical depression.[72] The system dissipated over eastern North Carolina nine hours later.[73]

Most of Colin's heavy rains and strong winds remained out over the Atlantic due to its proximity to the coast and northwesterly shear of around 25 mph (35 km/h).[74] Rainfall totals inland ranged from 2–3 in (51–76 mm) in parts of the Midlands of South Carolina to near 7 in (180 mm) near Charleston, South Carolina.[75] A Fourth of July weekend event in Charleston was cancelled because of flooding at the event site, as was a festival in Southport, North Carolina.[76] Winds from Colin's remnants produced high surf along the North Carolina coast on July 3, and one man drowned at a beach in Oak Island.[77][78]

Hurricane Danielle[edit]

Category 1 hurricane (SSHWS)
Danielle 2022-09-05 1320Z.jpg Danielle 2022 track.png
DurationSeptember 1 – September 8
Peak intensity90 mph (150 km/h) (1-min) 972 mbar (hPa)

On August 30, an area of low pressure formed along a decaying frontal zone over the central subtropical Atlantic.[79] The disturbance quickly organized and developed into Tropical Depression Five early on September 1 before strengthening into Tropical Storm Danielle later that evening.[80] The storm continued to strengthen and became a Category 1 hurricane on September 2.[81] It stalled the following day, caught south of a blocking high, and weakened back into a tropical storm due to upwelling of cooler waters and some dry air.[82] Later, the storm began drifting toward the west, where it again strengthened into a hurricane overnight September 3–4.[83] After turning northwestward, Danielle reached its peak intensity with sustained winds of 90 mph (150 km/h) early on September 5,[84] It then moved over a relatively cool part of the Gulf Stream and weakened to a low-end Category 1 hurricane.[85] Danielle briefly re-intensified when it moved over marginally warm waters on September 7, but resumed a weakening trend shortly afterwards.[86] Danielle weakened to a tropical storm on September 8[87] before transitioning into an extratropical cyclone later that day.[88]

As an extratropical cyclone, Danielle brought strong winds and heavy rain to Portugal on September 12–13, which caused flash flooding, landslides and downed trees. The heaviest rainfall amounts were estimated to be in Alentejo and Algarve regions.[89][90] Heavy rain was observed in Spain.[91]

Hurricane Earl[edit]

Category 2 hurricane (SSHWS)
Earl 2022-09-09 1200Z.jpg Earl 2022 track.png
DurationSeptember 3 – September 10
Peak intensity105 mph (165 km/h) (1-min) 954 mbar (hPa)

A tropical wave producing widespread disorganized showers and thunderstorms moved off the west coast of Africa on August 25.[92] After moving across the eastern and central tropical Atlantic, the disturbance encountered environmental conditions east of the Leeward Islands that were only marginally conducive for tropical cyclone development.[93] After struggling against high wind shear for several days, the disturbance was finally able to become better organized and developed into Tropical Storm Earl early on September 3.[94] A burst of deep convection occurred near Earl's center during the evening of September 5, and a Hurricane Hunters mission into the storm later that night reported that it briefly strengthened to very near hurricane strength.[95] Earl's intensity continued to fluctuate throughout much of the next day due to continued effects of westerly deep-layer shear.[96] Later that day, the shear began to quickly diminish, and Earl became better organized, strengthening into a hurricane around 00:00 UTC on September 7.[97] By 03:00 UTC on September 8, Earl reached Category 2 strength while moving northward; Hurricane Hunters data showed it to have an eye of almost 60 mi (90 km) and a fairly symmetric wind field.[98] Three hours later the hurricane attained peak sustained winds of 105 mph (165 km/h).[99] Despite being forecasted to continue strengthening into a Category 4 hurricane, Earl's inner core was repeatedly interrupted due to dry air entrainment and it fluctuated in strength the following day while passing well to the east of Bermuda despite being over very warm sea surface temperatures of around 84–86 °F (28–29 °C).[100] It briefly weakened to Category 1 strength early on September 9,[101] before rebounding to Category 2 strength with a peak intensity of 105 mph (165 km/h) sustained winds and a minimum barometric pressure of 954 mbar (28.17 inHg). At this time, Earl had become a large hurricane, with hurricane-force winds extending outward up to 80 miles (130 km) from the center and tropical-storm-force winds extend outward up to 275 miles (445 km).[102] After maintaining this intensity for several hours, Earl weakened to a Category 1 hurricane again at 15:00 UTC on September 10, then transitioned into an extratropical low south of Cape Race, Newfoundland six hours later.[103]

Two people died on September 4 in Salinas, Puerto Rico, after being struck by lightning while riding a jet ski.[104][105] Bermuda was buffeted with sustained winds of 35 mph (60 km/h) as Hurricane Earl passed within about 90 mi (145 km) of the island's eastern coast; higher gusts were reported, including one of 67 mph (108 km/h) at the National Museum of Bermuda. There were localized power outages across the archipelago but no large-scale damage was observed.[106][107] During a 36-hour period September 10–12, 7–8 in (175–200 mm) of rain fell in the St. Johns area, causing overflowing along the Waterford River which led to urban flooding. Similar rainfall amounts were also reported in communities throughout the Avalon Peninsula. Additionally, the cyclone caused rough surf which damaged the breakwater on the coast in the area of Trepassey, Newfoundland and Labrador, causing localized flooding.[108]

Hurricane Fiona[edit]

Category 4 hurricane (SSHWS)
Fiona 2022-09-22 1750Z.jpg Fiona 2022 track.png
DurationSeptember 14 – September 24
Peak intensity130 mph (215 km/h) (1-min) 932 mbar (hPa)

Early on September 12, the NHC began to monitor a tropical wave over the central tropical Atlantic for gradual development, though environmental conditions for development were assessed as only marginally favorable.[109] Even so, shower and thunderstorm activity within the disturbance began to become more concentrated later that same day,[110] then increased and became better organized during the next day.[111] The circulation associated with the system became more defined and persisted overnight and into the morning of September 14, attaining sufficient organization to designated as Tropical Depression Seven later that day.[112] Despite the continued effects of moderate westerly shear and dry mid-level air flow,[113] new satellite imagery indicated the depression had strengthened, thus at 01:45 UTC on September 15, it became Tropical Storm Fiona.[114] The storm moved over Guadeloupe as a 50 mph (85 km/h) tropical storm around 00:00 UTC on September 16 and then entered the eastern Caribbean.[115] Early on September 18, the storm strengthened into a hurricane as it approached Puerto Rico,[116] before making landfall there that afternoon about 15 mi (25 km) south-southeast of Mayaguez, with maximum sustained winds of 85 mph (140 km/h).[117] It then emerged over the Mona Passage, and strengthened slightly further before making landfall near Boca de Yuma, Dominican Republic, with maximum sustained winds of 90 mph (150 km/h).[118] Fiona weakened slightly as it moved overland, but began to rapidly strengthen once back over water, becoming a category 2 hurricane by 21:00 UTC on September 19,[119] and then a Category 3 major hurricane early the next morning near Grand Turk Island.[6] Further intensification resulted in it reaching Category 4 strength with maximum sustained winds of 130 mph (210 km/h) at 06:00 UTC on September 21,[120] while moving northward across very warm waters with surface temperatures of 84–86 °F (29–30 °C).[121][122]

Fiona's winds then held steady for a couple of days while its central pressure dropped to 932 mbar (27.52 inHg) at 00:00 UTC on September 22,[123] the hurricane's peak intensity as a tropical cyclone. Fiona's wind field also began to grow in size and tropical storm-strength winds impacted Bermuda for several hours on September 23, despite Fiona passing well west of the island.[124] Fiona, weakened to a Category 3 hurricane that morning,[125] but briefly rebounded to Category 4 strength several hours later as it moved northeastward at about 35 mph (56 km/h),[126] before weakening once more to a Category 3 strength late that same day.[127] Shortly thereafter, Fiona weakened again before turning northward and quickly transitioning into a large and powerful post-tropical cyclone as it approached the coast of Nova Scotia at 03:00 UTC on September 24.[128] Soon thereafter, the system made landfall in eastern Nova Scotia 07:00 UTC with 100 mph (160 km/h) and a pressure of 931 mbar (27.49 inHg), slowing rapidly as it did so.[129] It then moved over Cape Breton Island with hurricane strength winds, although it continued to weaken as it moved northward.[130] When the NHC issued its final advisory on Fiona at 21:00 UTC that same day, it was centered about 80 mi (130 km) northwest of Port aux Basques, Newfoundland, and had maximum sustained winds of 70 mph (110 km/h).[131]

Altogether, at least 22 deaths have been attributed to Fiona. One death was confirmed in Guadeloupe, while at least two deaths were confirmed in the Dominican Republic and three in Canada.[121][132] In Puerto Rico, as of September 24, the Department of Health had confirmed 16 deaths related to the path of the system.[133][134] Still recovering from the effects of Hurricane Maria in 2017, torrential rains fell island-wide on September 18–19, up to 25 in (640 mm) in some regions, causing destructive flash flooding that washed out roads and bridges. In addition, the effects of the storm resulted in the island-wide power grid being knocked out.[118][135] In Canada, homes and businesses across The Maritimes, Quebec's North Coast and Newfoundland were destroyed and several hundred thousand people were left without power in Fiona's wake.[132]

Tropical Storm Gaston[edit]

Tropical storm (SSHWS)
Gaston 2022-09-23 1505Z.jpg Gaston 2022 track.png
DurationSeptember 20 – September 26
Peak intensity65 mph (100 km/h) (1-min) 995 mbar (hPa)

A tropical wave moved off the coast of West Africa into the tropical Atlantic on September 12, producing disorganized showers and thunderstorms, but doing so in an environment just marginally favorable for development.[136] By September 15, the wave had moved generally westward to about midway between Africa and the Lesser Antilles.[137] There the showers and thunderstorms continued within the northern portion of the wave.[138] The disturbance then transitioned into a trough of low pressure on September 17, as it moved slowly northward.[139] After showing little sigs of development over the next two day, a low-pressure formed within the trough and convection began to organize around it. Upon producing a well-defined center and persistent deep convection, became Tropical Depression Eight at 15:00 UTC on September 20.[140] The depression strengthened into Tropical Storm Gaston six hours later while it was located about 990 mi (1595 km) west of the Azores.[141] Gaston quickly intensified, attaining peak sustained winds of 65 mph (105 km/h) the following day, just 18 hours after formation.[142] However, additional strengthening was prevented as dry air became entrained into the eastern portion of the circulation.[143] Gaston then maintained its intensity for two days as it accelerated northeastward toward the western Azores despite being in an environment of moderate to strong shear, relatively dry air, and cool sea surface temperatures.[144] On September 23, Gaston began to interact with shortwave trough/baroclinic zone, which shunted all of its the deep convection to the northeastern portion of the storm and it weakened slightly as it slowed down and began an anticyclonic loop through the central Azores along the southern side of a mid-level ridge.[145][146] However, Gaston restrenghtened later that day as convection reformed over northern and western sides of its circulation and it reached its peak intensity with sustained winds of 65 mph (100 km/h) and a minimum barometric pressure of 995 mbar (29.38 inHg) at 15:00 UTC.[147][148] Relentless wind shear then stripped Gaston of its deep convection and the storm began to weaken again early the next morning as it continued its loop, which it completed later that day as it passed just west of the central Azores.[149][150] Now moving westward away from the Azores, Gaston dropped to minimal tropical storm strength, but restrengthened for a third time as a large burst of convection developed over the northern portion of the circulation as it interacted with an upper-level trough.[151] Its winds increased to 50 mph (80 km/h) on the morning of September 25 and it maintained this intensity for most of the day as it center reformed under the convective mass.[152][153] However, Gaston soon moved away from the trough and wind shear quickly removed the remaining deep convection from the storm late that afternoon.[154] Convection did not reform over Gaston and it weakened for the final time before being declared a post-tropical cyclone at 03:00 UTC on September 26.[155]

Heavy rainfall and tropical storm forced winds was reported across the Azores, especially in the western and central islands.[156] A weather station at Horta on Faial Island measured a wind gust to 41 mph (66 km/h) as Gaston passed through.[157]

Hurricane Ian[edit]

Hurricane IanCategory 3 hurricane icon.png
Current storm status
Category 3 hurricane (1-min mean)
2022 NRL AL092022 IAN infrared-gray satellite.png
Satellite image
2022 NHC AL092022 5day cone no line and wind.png
Forecast map
As of:4:00 p.m. EDT (20:00 UTC) September 27
Location:23°48′N 83°12′W / 23.8°N 83.2°W / 23.8; -83.2 (Hurricane Ian) ± 15 nm
About 250 mi (400 km) S of Sarasota, Florida
About 65 mi (105 km) SSW of the Dry Tortugas
Sustained winds:105 kn (120 mph; 195 km/h) (1-min mean)
gusting to 129 kn (150 mph; 240 km/h)
Pressure:952 mbar (28.11 inHg)
Movement:N at 9 kn (10 mph; 17 km/h)
See more detailed information.

On September 19, the NHC began tracking a tropical wave to the east of the Windward Islands for possible gradual development.[158] Two days later, the disturbance passed over Trinidad and Tobago as it entered the southeast Caribbean, and then near to the ABC Islands and the northern coast of South America. On September 22, while moving west-northwestward, it showed signs of increasing organization, though strong wind shear of 30–35 mph (45–55 km/h) generated by the upper-level outflow from Hurricane Fiona was inhibiting development of a tropical depression.[159] Even so, a well-defined circulation was able to form within the disturbance that day; its convection then increased and become persistent over night into the next day, resulting in it being designated Tropical Depression Nine early on September 23.[160] The organization of the depression improved slowly over the course of that day, and it became Tropical Storm Ian at 03:00 UTC on September 24.[161] The high wind shear from Fiona was gone completely by the next day,[36] as the storm entered the central Caribbean where it encountered wind, water and atmosphere conditions favorable for intensification: light wind shear, warm 86°F (30°C) sea surface temperatures and a mid-level relative humidity of 70%.[162] In this environment, Ian quickly become better organized and strengthened into an Category 1 hurricane at 09:00 UTC on September 26.[163] Twelve hours later, it intensified into a Category 2 hurricane as it approached the western tip of Cuba.[164] At 08:30 UTC on September 27, Ian made landfall near La Coloma, in Pinar del Río Province, Cuba, as a high-end Category 3 hurricane, with sustained winds of 125 mph (205 km/h).[165] After about six hours over land, Ian emerged off the north coast of Cuba into the Gulf of Mexico, still a major hurricane – though a slightly weaker one.[166]

While in the early stages of developing, the system brought gusty winds and heavy rain to Trinidad and Tobago,[167][168] the ABC Islands and to the northern coast of South America on September 21–22.[159]

Current storm information[edit]

As of 2:00 p.m. EDT (18:00 UTC) September 27, Hurricane Ian is located within 15 nautical miles of 23°30′N 83°18′W / 23.5°N 83.3°W / 23.5; -83.3 (Ian), about 265 miles (425 km) south of Sarasota, Florida and about 85 mi (135 km) south-southwest of the Dry Tortugas. Maximum sustained winds are about 105 knots (120 mph; 195 km/h) with gusts up to 120 knots (140 mph; 220 km/h). The minimum barometric pressure is 955 mbar (28.20 inHg), and the system is moving north at 9 knots (10 mph; 17 km/h). Hurricane-force winds extend outward up to 35 miles (56 km) from the center of Ian, and tropical-storm-force winds extend outward up to 140 miles (230 km).

For the latest official information, see:

Watches and warnings[edit]

Hurricane Warning
Hurricane conditions
expected within 36 hours.
Hurricane Watch
Hurricane conditions
possible within 48 hours.
Tropical Storm Warning
Tropical storm conditions expected within 36 hours.
Tropical Storm Watch
Tropical storm conditions possible within 48 hours.
Storm Surge Warning
Life-threatening inundation from storm surge possible within 36 hours.
Storm Surge Watch
Life-threatening inundation from storm surge possible within 48 hours.

Tropical Storm Hermine[edit]

Tropical storm (SSHWS)
Hermine 2022-09-23 1455Z.jpg Hermine 2022 track.png
DurationSeptember 23 – September 25
Peak intensity40 mph (65 km/h) (1-min) 1002 mbar (hPa)

On September 22, a tropical wave being monitored by the NHC emerged off the coast of West Africa into the tropical Atlantic east of Cabo Verde.[159] It quickly organized, becoming Tropical Depression Ten at 15:00 UTC on September 23,[169] and then strengthened into Tropical Storm Hermine six hours later.[170] It is one of few tropical cyclones on record (going back to 1851) to form this far east, and to track between the Cabo Verde Islands and the coast of Africa.[159] Development beyond a weak tropical storm was stymied by southwesterly shear into the next day, as it moved northward. On account of the shear, Hermine weakened into a tropical depression at 21:00 UTC on September 24,[171] and then degenerated into a post-tropical low the next day.[172]

Hermine brought heavy rainfall to the Canary Islands, causing localized flooding and downed trees. More than 140 flights were cancelled across the archipelago.[173]

Other systems[edit]

Potential Tropical Cyclone Four off the northeastern coast of Mexico on August 20

On August 15, the NHC first noted the potential for tropical cyclone development in the southwestern Gulf of Mexico from a tropical wave that was located over the central Caribbean Sea.[174] The low emerged over the Gulf early on August 19 producing disorganized showers.[175] Due to the threat the developing system posed to northeastern Mexico and South Texas, the NHC initiated advisories on it as Potential Tropical Cyclone Four at 21:00 UTC that same day.[176] As the disturbance moved northwestward toward the Gulf coast of Mexico on August 20, a Hurricane Hunters mission found that it was still a surface trough.[177] Later that day, it moved inland, striking the coast about 60 mi (95 km) southwest of the mouth of the Rio Grande.[178] With that, the window of opportunity for tropical development closed, and the NHC issued its last advisory on the system at 03:00 UTC on August 21.[179] The disturbance brought heavy rain to coastal Tamaulipas and coastal South Texas.[178]

Storm names[edit]

The following list of names will be used for named storms that form in the North Atlantic in 2022. Retired names, if any, will be announced by the World Meteorological Organization in the spring of 2023. The names not retired from this list will be used again in the 2028 season.[180] This is the same list used in the 2016 season, with the exceptions of Martin and Owen, which replaced Matthew and Otto, respectively.[181]

  • Hermine
  • Ian (active)
  • Julia (unused)
  • Karl (unused)
  • Lisa (unused)
  • Martin (unused)
  • Nicole (unused)
  • Owen (unused)
  • Paula (unused)
  • Richard (unused)
  • Shary (unused)
  • Tobias (unused)
  • Virginie (unused)
  • Walter (unused)

Season effects[edit]

This is a table of all of the storms that have formed in the 2022 Atlantic hurricane season. It includes their duration, names, landfall(s)–denoted by bold location names – damages, and death totals. Deaths in parentheses are additional and indirect (an example of an indirect death would be a traffic accident), but were still related to that storm. Damage and deaths include totals while the storm was extratropical, a wave, or a low, and all of the damage figures are in 2022 USD.

Saffir–Simpson scale
TD TS C1 C2 C3 C4 C5
2022 North Atlantic tropical cyclone season statistics
Storm
name
Dates active Storm category
at peak intensity
Max 1-min
wind
mph (km/h)
Min.
press.
(mbar)
Areas affected Damage
(USD)
Deaths Ref(s)
Alex June 5–6 Tropical storm 70 (110) 984 Yucatán Peninsula, Western Cuba, Florida, Northern Bahamas, Bermuda, Southern Iceland, Northern Scotland, Faroe Islands, Central Norway Minimal 4 [52]
Bonnie July 1–2 Tropical storm 50 (85) 997 Trinidad and Tobago, Grenada, Colombia, Venezuela, ABC Islands, Central America (before crossover) Minimal 4 [68]
Colin July 2–3 Tropical storm 40 (65) 1011 South Atlantic United States Minimal 1 [78]
Danielle September 1–8 Category 1 hurricane 90 (150) 972 Western Iberian Peninsula Unknown None
Earl September 3–10 Category 2 hurricane 105 (165) 954 Northern Leeward Islands, Puerto Rico, Bermuda, Newfoundland Minimal 2 [104][107]
[108]
Fiona September 14–24 Category 4 hurricane 130 (215) 932 Lesser Antilles, Puerto Rico, Dominican Republic, Eastern Lucayan Archipelago, Bermuda, Eastern Canada ≥$400 million 27 [121][132]
[133][134]
Gaston September 20–26 Tropical storm 65 (100) 995 Azores Unknown None
Ian September 23–present Category 3 hurricane 125 (205) 950 Venezuela, Colombia, ABC islands, Jamaica, Cayman Islands, Cuba, Florida Unknown None
Hermine September 23–25 Tropical storm 40 (65) 1002 Senegal, Mauritania, Canary Islands Minimal None
Season aggregates
9 systems June 5 – Season ongoing   130 (215) 932 ≥$400 million 38  

See also[edit]

Notes[edit]

References[edit]

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