2022 Philippine presidential election

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2022 Philippine presidential election

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2022 Philippine presidential election by province.png
Map showing which city and provincial certificates of canvass will be canvassed by Congress. General Santos and Mandaue will have its results canvassed separately from South Cotabato and Cebu respectively for the first time. Metro Manila is shown at the inset in the upper right.

Incumbent President

Rodrigo Duterte
PDP–Laban



The 2022 Philippine presidential and vice-presidential elections is scheduled to be held on Monday, May 9, 2022, as part of that year's general election. This will be the 17th direct presidential election and 16th vice presidential election in the Philippines since 1935, and the seventh sextennial presidential and vice presidential election since 1986.

Incumbent president Rodrigo Duterte is ineligible for re-election as he is limited to a single term, under the 1987 Philippine Constitution. The position of president and vice president are elected separately; the two winning candidates could thus come from different political parties.

Electoral system[edit]

According to the Constitution of the Philippines of 1987, the election is held every six years after 1992, on the second Monday of May. The incumbent president is term-limited. The incumbent vice president may run for two consecutive terms. The first-past-the-post voting system is used to determine the winner: the candidate with the highest number of votes, whether or not one has a majority, wins the presidency. The vice-presidential election is a separate election, is held on the same rules, and voters may split their ticket. If two or more candidates get the most votes for either position, Congress shall vote from among them which shall be president or vice president, as the case may be. Both winners will serve six-year terms commencing at noon on June 30, 2022, and ending on the same day six years later.[1]

Background[edit]

2016–18: Duterte appoints Robredo to Cabinet post[edit]

The 2022 election will decide the successor of both President Rodrigo Duterte and Vice President Leni Robredo. In this photo, Duterte is inducting Robredo to head the HUDCC.

In the 2016 presidential and vice presidential elections, Davao City mayor Rodrigo Duterte of Partido Demokratiko Pilipino-Lakas ng Bayan (transl. Philippine Democratic Party-People Power; PDP–Laban) won the presidency against four other candidates, while House representative from Camarines Sur Leni Robredo of the Liberal Party won against Senator Bongbong Marcos and four others in the vice presidential election that is the closest margin since 1965. Marcos put the result under protest in the Presidential Electoral Tribunal.[2]

In July 2016, Vice President Robredo was appointed to head the Housing and Urban Development Coordinating Council (HUDCC),[3] but later resigned in December 2016 after she was told to stop attending all cabinet meetings, amid her criticism of the administration's bloody war on drugs.[4] Duterte's allies afterwards attempted to impeach her, but the president called on them to end the effort.[5]

In the 17th Congress, the representative from Davao del Norte, Pantaleon Alvarez, was elected Speaker of the House of Representatives in July 2016.[6] Faced with reports of destabilization, Duterte in October 2017 said that he will declare revolutionary government, where it is understood that all positions in government are declared vacant, in order to prevent chaos. The president listed the Communist Party of the Philippines, the elites, and the U.S. Central Intelligence Agency as the organizations that had a hand in efforts to destabilize the government.[7]

Midway the legislative term, former president Gloria Macapagal Arroyo, who was the representative from Pampanga, ousted Alvarez from the speakership. The president's allies said that the ouster was due to a squabble between Alvarez and Davao City Mayor Sara Duterte, the president's daughter, who the latter branded the former as from the opposition when she launched the Hugpong ng Pagbabago (transl. Faction of Change; HNP), a regional political party in the Davao Region where both Davao del Norte and Davao City are a part of.[8]

2019: Midterm election and the rise of Hugpong[edit]

In the 2019 midterm Senate election, the opposition fielded the Otso Diretso (transl. Straight Eight) coalition,[9] while the administration fielded their slate under the Hugpong ng Pagbabago banner.[10] Hugpong won 9 of the 12 seats contested, while Otso Diretso won no seats. Cynthia Villar, wife of defeated 2010 presidential candidate Manuel Villar, topped the election, while 2013's Senate election topnotcher and 2016 defeated presidential candidate Grace Poe finished second.[11] While Sara Duterte's Hugpong won in the Davao Region, they notably failed to unseat Alvarez, and PDP–Laban defeated Hugpong's candidate for governor of Davao del Norte, and won the province's both seats in the House of Representatives.[12]

In the House of Representatives, the pro-Duterte parties won, but there was a squabble on who should be Speaker. President Duterte negotiated a term-sharing agreement with Alan Peter Cayetano and Lord Allan Velasco, with the former serving the first 15 months of the term, while Velasco will serve out the final 18 months.[13] Meanwhile, Tito Sotto was comfortably re-elected as Senate President.[14]

On Marcos's electoral protest against Robredo, the Presidential Electoral Tribunal released in October 2019 the report on Marcos's pilot provinces of Camarines Sur, Iloilo and Negros Oriental, and showed that Robredo increased her lead by 15,742 votes. The tribunal voted to defer on deciding on the protest and instead proceeded with Marcos's plea to nullify the votes from the Autonomous Region in Muslim Mindanao (ARMM) provinces of Basilan, Lanao del Sur and Maguindanao. Those who dissented to the decision said that the protest should have been dismissed, as Marcos failed to recover votes from his 3 pilot provinces, citing the rules of the tribunal; they were overruled when the others said that Marcos's plea on the ARMM provinces should also be resolved.[15]

A couple of weeks later, the president challenged Robredo to co-chair the Inter-Agency Committee on Anti-Illegal Drugs (ICAD), the office that oversees the war on drugs, along with the Philippine Drug Enforcement Agency chief, which she accepted.[16] A week later, Duterte said that he will fire Robredo if she shares state secrets about the drug war.[17] Several days later, Duterte said he cannot trust Robredo after she asked the government for a list of high-value targets in the drug war.[18] Robredo replied that "He should tell me straight if he wants me out."[19] Senator Francis Pangilinan of the Liberal Party said that Duterte could have fired Robredo instead of belittling her.[20] A day later, Duterte fired Robredo as co-chair of the ICAD, with Presidential Spokesman Salvador Panelo shared that she spoke with foreigners, was asking for the scope of her powers and was among those daring the President to fire her, along with Senator Francis Pangilinan.[21]

2020: COVID-19 pandemic and aftermath[edit]

After remarks by an actress Sharon Cuneta, wife of Senator Francis Pangilinan, in July 2020 saying she hopes Robredo will succeed Duterte in 2022 so that "decency" will be restored in the country, Robredo said that she has no plans yet of running in 2022.[22]

Robredo had a televised speech in August claiming that the government had no plans on how to resolve the COVID-19 pandemic. She then shared 10 recommendations on how to resolve it.[23] Duterte himself, in a separate speech days later, asked Robredo not to "add fuel to the fire", and that even if he dies, the problems of the country won't be solved.[24] This comes as suggestions of a "revolutionary government" replacing the current constitutional government were put forward by the Mayor Rodrigo Roa Duterte – National Executive Coordinating Committee (MRRD-NECC). Archie Gamboa, the chief of the Philippine National Police, said that he received an invitation from the group, but did not act on it.[25] Duterte, in the same speech where he answered Robredo's suggestions, said that he does not know the people pushing for the revolutionary government and that he has nothing to do with it.[26] After being disowned by Duterte, the MRRD-NECC offered Robredo a part in the plot; Robredo rejected the offer.[27] Duterte then said that he wants the concept to be discussed in public.[28]

A leadership crisis erupted in the House of Representatives when Speaker Alan Peter Cayetano refused to give way to Lord Allan Velasco when the supposed term-sharing agreement was to take effect. Cayetano instigated a vote of no confidence against himself on early October 2020, which he easily won.[13] A few days later, a picture surfaced of Velasco and Davao City mayor Sara Duterte, with Velasco's allies saying that she supports him.[29] Later that week, pro-Velasco congressmen met at the Celebrity Sports Plaza, some kilometers away from the Batasang Pambansa Complex; this is where they elected Velasco as Speaker.[30] The next day, Velasco was elected Speaker, this time in the Batasang Pambansa, while Cayetano resigned from the speakership while the election was taking place via Facebook Live.[31]

In November 2020, Typhoon Ulysses ravaged the country. At the height of the onslaught, #NasaanAngPangulo (transl. where is the president?) hashtag trended on Twitter. On one of his weekly broadcasts, Duterte accused Robredo of starting the hashtag, and that she merely made phone calls to the Armed Forces of the Philippines, and did not order them herself, but him, two to three days before. Robredo denied starting the hashtag, nor did she ask "Where is the president?", accusing Presidential Legal Counsel Salvador Panelo for "peddling fake news".[32] Panelo and National Defense Secretary Delfin Lorenzana later apologized to Robredo over the claim that she used government assets to conduct relief operations, and with Lorenzana stating that only relief goods from Robredo's office were transported.[33]

January–June 2021: "Run, Sara, run" and 1Sambayan[edit]

Pulse Asia released its survey for the top two positions on 31 December 2020. Davao City mayor Sara Duterte led in the presidential race with 26%, with Bongbong Marcos, Senator Grace Poe, Manila mayor Isko Moreno and Senator Manny Pacquiao in second place. Robredo followed those four, with 8%. For the vice presidential election, mayors Moreno and Duterte and Senate President Tito Sotto were statistically tied for first.[34] By the new year, President Duterte said that the presidency "is not for women", and that his daughter is not running.[35] Presidential Legal Counsel Salvador Panelo on his TV show Counterpoint then later said that Mayor Duterte has the qualities of being president, adding that there is a need of "continuity of the Duterte leadership." Mayor Duterte herself rejected running.[36] Mayor Duterte said that she will be open in running for president in 2034.[37] By January 2021, calendars began appearing in Quezon City urging Mayor Duterte to run.[38]

The Presidential Electoral Tribunal dismissed Marcos's election protest against Robredo in February 2021. The decision was unanimous, with seven justices fully concurring, while eight others concurred.[39] Robredo herself said that while she is open to running for president, she prefers local politics, where she feels she'd be "happier."[40] Meanwhile, "Run, Sara, run" billboards have sprouted all over the country. Duterte replied that "For now there is no chance that I will change my mind," and "I am pleading to them to please allow me to run for President in 2034."[41]

In March 2021, former Supreme Court Associate Justice Antonio Carpio launched "1Sambayan" (read as "isambayan", which means "one nation"), a coalition that will put up one lone candidate against Duterte's handpicked successor.[42] Carpio is aiming not to split the vote, pointing out that Duterte won over Mar Roxas and Grace Poe in 2016 as those who were against him were not united. Lawyer Howard Calleja, in an argument against accusations that the coalition is acting "holier-than-thou", stated that "What is clear is this administration is bad. In fact, it is super bad. We are not saying we are good. What we are saying is that there is nothing perfect, but we are giving the Filipinos a better alternative than what we have today."[43]

1Sambayan is considering one among Robredo, Moreno, Poe, and Senator Nancy Binay as candidates.[44] Moreno said that "I don’t want to entertain any politics for now."[45] Pacquiao, who was left out in 1Sambayan's list, said that it is "not the best time to talk about these political line-ups."[46] Mayor Duterte, for her part, said "They sound authoritarian to me." Carpio said that both Pacquiao and Mayor Duterte won't be considered due to their ties to President Duterte.[47] Former senator Antonio Trillanes IV said that there was never an offer from 1Sambayan for him to run, but if Robredo won't seek the presidency in 2022, he'll entertain entering the presidential race; as for the vice presidency, he said that 1Sambayan put upon their presidential candidate the choice on who would be the running mate, so he can't comment on that for now.[48]

Pacquiao, PDP–Laban interim president, released a statement against President Duterte's handling of the South China Sea dispute in May 2021.[49] Later that month, Alfonso Cusi, secretary of Energy and party vice chairman, authorized a meeting that released a resolution urging President Duterte to run for vice president.[50] By June, Duterte replied that Pacquiao should "study first" before commenting on the president's foreign policy.[51] On July 17, in a party general assembly, Cusi was elected party president, thereby removing Pacquiao from his office as party interim president, and Pacquiao ally Koko Pimentel was ousted as party executive vice chairman.[52]

Tito Sotto and Panfilo Lacson, who were also not initially chosen by 1Sambayan, were eyed as a tandem. Sotto said both of them are yet to be convinced on this, and when asked if he'd run for higher office in 2022, he said that he hadn't made a decision yet.[53] Lacson later declined the offer from 1Sambayan in a letter to Justice Carpio, in which he cited his principal sponsorship of the Anti-Terrorism Law as "inconsistent and incongruent" to the goals of the coalition.[54]

On June 12, 2021, 1Sambayan announced six initial nominees who will go through the coalition's selection process for a presidential and vice-presidential tandem. The nominees (who members of the coalition may vote for as their candidate for either post) include: senator Poe, vice president Robredo, former senator Trillanes, human rights lawyer and former senatorial candidate Chel Diokno, incumbent house deputy speaker Vilma Santos-Recto, and CIBAC representative and house deputy speaker Eddie Villanueva.[55] Justice Carpio later explained that, while initially interested, Mayor Moreno, along with Senator Binay, personally declined their received offers to run under 1Sambayan.[56] Soon after, Senator Poe and Representative Santos also withdrew their names from contention, noting that they instead wanted to focus their separate energies on the ongoing pandemic.[57][58] At the same time, Vice President Robredo, former Senator Trillanes, and Representative Villanueva expressed their support for unity in 2022 under 1Sambayan.[59]

July–December 2021: Dispute in PDP–Laban, filing of candidacies[edit]

Lacson and Sotto announced their candidacies on July, with their campaign to be launched in August.[60] Lacson was later sworn in as a member of the Partido para sa Demokratikong Reporma (transl. Party for Democratic Reforms; Reporma), the party of former secretary of Defense Renato de Villa who lost the 1998 presidential election.[61]

On his final State of the Nation Address, President Duterte said that "Today is my last State of the Nation Address, and this is by no means my swan song."[62] A week later, the PDP–Laban faction led by Cusi announced that their national executive committee is endorsing Senator Bong Go, a long-time aide of the president and now senator, for president, and President Duterte for vice president.[63]

Meanwhile, Manila mayor Isko Moreno was reportedly to take his oath as member of Aksyon Demokratiko (transl. Democratic Action), the party founded by Senator Raul Roco.[64] This was after he resigned from the National Unity Party.[65] However, this did not happen as an unexpectedly large number of people turned up on vaccination sites, particularly in Manila, on that morning, causing some vaccination sites to cancel the scheduled inoculation.[66] Moreno was subsequently elected party president a week later.[67]

Later that month, Go declined the offer to run for president.[68] Meanwhile, the PDP–Laban faction led by Manny Pacquiao ousted President Duterte as party chairman, replacing him with Koko Pimentel, while Lutgardo Barbo, former governor of Eastern Samar, was named party vice-chairman, ousting Cusi, who held that position before the party split.[69]

On September 8, Lacson and Sotto formally launched their tandem via social media, in a taped production in an undisclosed studio.[70] Later that day, the Cusi faction of PDP–Laban held its national convention in Pampanga to nominate Senator Go and President Duterte for president and vice president, respectively.[71]

On September 19, Senator Manny Pacquiao has accepted the nomination of his PDP-Laban-faction led by Koko Pimentel for president.[72] A day later, the Cusi faction of the PDP-Laban party would declare the nomination of Pacquiao as "Illegal" as they believe that their faction has the right to nominate the party's presidential nominee as the sole legal PDP-Laban party.[73] With the approaching election campaign, declared candidates Isko Moreno, Ping Lacson and Tito Sotto expressed their criticism against the Duterte government.[74][75]

Candidates[edit]

Official candidates[edit]

The Commission on Elections is expected to publish a tentative list of candidates by late October 2021.[76] By the start of the election period itself in early January 2022, the commission would have finalized a list of candidates that would appear on the ballot.

Filed certificates of candidacies[edit]

A total of 97 individuals manifested their intention to run for president, while 29 did so for vice president.[77]

The following have filed certificates of candidacies, formally notifying the commission that they are running.

For president[edit]

October 1

These people filed on October 1.[78]

  • Dave Aguila (Independent)
  • Jose Montemayor (DPP)
  • Ley Ordenes (Independent)
  • Manny Pacquiao (PROMDI), incumbent senator
    Boxing promoter Bob Arum said in June 2020 that Pacquiao told him that he'd run for president instead of defending his Senate seat in 2022.[79] A few days later, Pacquiao denied talking to Arum about politics.[80] A year after that, sports official and former Bacolod mayor and representative Monico Puentebella said that Pacquiao is running for president, and that he was authorized by the latter to talk about politics.[81] In September 2021, Pacquiao said that he only have three options in politics: run for president, run for reelection in the Senate, or retire from politics altogether.[82] On September 19, he accepted the nomination of the PDP-Laban faction led by senator Koko Pimentel.[83] On October 1, 2021, Pacquiao filed his certificate of candidacy for the presidency under PROMDI, the party founded by the late Cebu governor Lito Osmeña.[84]
  • Edmundo Rubi (Independent)
  • Laurencio Yulaga (PGRP)
October 2

These people filed on October 2.[85]

October 3

These people filed on October 3.[86]

October 4

These people filed on October 4.[87]

  • Sonny Boy Andrade (Independent)
  • Delia Aniñon (Independent)
  • Leo Cadion (PGRP)
  • Winston Kayanan (Independent)
  • Gabriela Larot (Independent)
  • Faisal Mangondato (Katipunan ng Kamalayang Kayumanggi)
  • Isko Moreno (Aksyon), incumbent mayor of Manila[88][89]
    At the start of 2021, pollster Pulse Asia published an opinion poll showing Moreno in second place for president, and statistically tied for first with President Duterte in the vice presidential race.[90] The 1Sambayan convenors group then included Moreno as one of the people they are choosing to run for president.[44] Moreno begged off, as he was concentrating on his mayoral duties.[91] By June, Moreno informed them that they are declining their offer.[56] On September, Moreno was named president of Aksyon Demokratiko, the party founded by the late Raul Roco.[67] Moreno announced his candidacy on September 22; his running mate will be Dr. Willie Ong.[92]
  • Maria Mercedes Pesigan (Independent)
  • Melchor Puno (Independent)
  • Alfredo Respuesto (Independent)
  • Juanita Trocenio (Independent)
  • Renato Jose Valera (Independent)
October 5

These people filed on October 5[93]

October 6

These people filed on October 6.[94]

  • Ramon Asuelo (Independent)
  • Leody de Guzman (PLM), current chairman of Bukluran ng Manggagawang Pilipino and founding member of Partido ng Manggagawa[95]
  • Rudy Flores (Independent)
  • Edencio Fronda (Independent)
  • Norberto Gonzales (PDSP), former Secretary of National Defense
    On September 30, 2021, the Philippine Democratic Socialist Party announced the candidacy of their party chairman in the 2022 elections.[96]
  • Panfilo Lacson (Reporma), incumbent senator
    In July 2021, Senate President Tito Sotto confirmed that Lacson will run for president in a tandem with him.[97][98] On September 8, the duo announced their candidacies for the upcoming election.[99]
  • Happy Lubarbio (Independent)
  • Bongbong Marcos (PFP), former senator
    By January 2020, Marcos confirmed that he is running "for a national position" in 2022, although he did not specify which position.[100] By September 2020, Marcos's sister Imee said that her brother was still noncommittal to which position he'd run for.[101] A year later, Marcos himself confirmed that "The presidency is not taken off the table."[102] On September 21, the Partido Federal ng Pilipinas (PFP; transl. Federal Party of the Philippines) nominated Marcos to run for president. If Marcos accepts, he will be inducted as a member of the party and be made its chairman.[103] During the national convention of the Kilusang Bagong Lipunan (KBL; transl. New Society Movement) in Binangonan, the party founded by his father, he was nominated as the party's candidate for president. Marcos, who remained a member of the Nacionalista Party, thanked KBL for the nomination, but said that he will announce his plans "when the time comes."[104] On October 5, Marcos announced his presidential candidacy.[105] Marcos then resigned from the Nacionalistas and was sworn in at the PFP chairman.[106] Marcos ultimately filed his presidential candidacy under the PFP.[107]
  • Dante Martirez (Federal Eastern Maharlika)
  • Dolores Quirao (Independent)
  • Luzviminda Raval (Independent)
  • Benjamin Rivera (Independent)
  • Sahiron Salim (Independent)
  • Jimmy Torres (KBL)
  • Danilo Villanueva (Independent)
October 7

These filed on October 7.[108]

October 8

These people filed on October 8.[115]

For vice president[edit]

October 1

These people filed on October 1.[78]

October 2

These people filed on October 2.[85]

  • Bong Go (PDP–Laban), incumbent senator
    On August 30, 2021, Go officially declined the endorsement of PDP–Laban to run for president.[120] Over a week later, The PDP–Laban faction led by Energy Secretary Alfonso Cusi formally nominated Go to run for president on their convention anyway.[121] Cusi said that Go did not close the door on himself running for president, but told him that "make him the last option."[122] On October 2, Go filed his candidacy for vice president after president Duterte announced his retirement from politics.[123]
October 4

No one filed for vice president on October 3.[86] These people filed on October 4.[87]

  • Princess Sunshine Amirah Magdangal (PGRP)
  • Willie Ong (Aksyon), public health advocate and former Department of Health consultant
    Ong will be the running mate of Moreno; their ticket was officially announced on September 22, 2021.[124]
  • Carlos Serapio (Katipunan ng Kamalayang Kayumanggi)
October 5

There was one person who filed on October 5.[93]

October 6

There was one person who filed on October 6.[94]

October 7

These people filed on October 7.[108]

October 8

These people filed on October 8.[115]

  • Francis Pangilinan (Liberal), incumbent senator
    In June 2021, Pangilinan announced that he was seeking reelection to the Senate.[126] After Vice President Robredo announced her presidential candidacy, several sources from the Liberal Party indicated that the senator would be her running mate for her presidential bid.[127][128] Pangilinan did file his candidacy for vice president a day after Robredo.[129]
  • Arlene Josephine Butay (Independent)
  • Abdullatief Pumbaya (Independent)
  • Elpidio Rosales Jr. (Maharlika People's Party)
  • Rey Anthony Bereber (Independent)
  • Rizalito David (DPP), disqualified in 2016
  • Nerrisa Navarro (KBL)
  • Emmanuel Lopez (WPP)
  • Lyle Fernando Uy (Lakas)
  • Benedicto Jose (PDDS)
  • Diego Palomares Jr. (Independent)
  • Joel Sison (KBL)
Substitutes

These people filed after the filing of candidacies as substitutes, after withdrawals from the original candidates:

  • Walden Bello (PLM), former representative for Akbayan
    The Laban ng Masa (transl. Struggle of the Masses) coalition launched a campaign to collect 300,000 signatures to urge activist and former party-list lawmaker Walden Bello to run for president in the 2022 elections. In a statement, Laban ng Masa said it wants to "push for an ambitious platform that focuses on the poor, prioritizes the neglected, and fights for the rights of ordinary Filipinos."[130] Bello's group sought talks with Vice President Robredo's backers for three months but were ignored. This caused them to support Leody de Guzman's presidential candidacy, instead.[131]
    Later in October 20, Bello decided to run for the vice-presidency, substituting Raquel Castillo who is supposed to be de Guzman's running mate.[132]

Candidates who withdrew[edit]

These are candidates who withdrew after the filing of candidacies. For individuals who declined to file candidacies, see people who declined to run.

For vice president[edit]

Opinion polling[edit]

Opinion polling, commonly known as "surveys" in the Philippines, is conducted by Social Weather Stations (SWS), Pulse Asia, and other pollsters.

For president[edit]

For vice president[edit]

Issues[edit]

Experts have warned against voting for candidates backed by the government of China in the 2022 elections, amidst territorial conflicts between China and the Philippines.[134] Duterte's government continued to maintain high approval ratings despite criticism for its handling of the COVID-19 pandemic, during which his approval ratings climbed to a record high level of 91%.[135]

References[edit]

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