2022 World Junior Ice Hockey Championships

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to navigation Jump to search
2022 IIHF World U20 Championship
2022 World Junior Ice Hockey Championships Logo.png
Tournament details
Host country Canada
DatesAugust 9–20, 2022[1]
Teams10
Venue(s)Rogers Place[2]
2021
2023

The 2022 World Junior Ice Hockey Championships is the 46th edition of the IIHF World Junior Championship, being played August 9–20, 2022 at Rogers Place in Edmonton, Alberta, Canada.

The tournament was originally scheduled to be held from December 26, 2021 through January 5, 2022 in Edmonton and Red Deer —the host cities originally awarded the 2021 tournament before it was moved behind closed doors in Edmonton only due to the COVID-19 pandemic. Due to COVID-19 positive tests on multiple teams, the tournament was curtailed and cancelled on December 29.

In February 2022, it was announced that the tournament would be restarted from scratch at a later date, with all statistics and results from the first playing annulled. Once again, the tournament is being held exclusively in Edmonton. Due to the Russian invasion of Ukraine, Russia was suspended from international ice hockey and replaced by Latvia.

Background[edit]

Preparations[edit]

On March 14, 2019, it was announced that Gothenburg would be the host city.[3] It was to be the first time that Gothenburg has hosted the tournament (having previously hosted the Senior Ice Hockey World Championships twice in 1981 and 2002), and the seventh time that Sweden had hosted the tournament.

On September 17, 2020, the IIHF announced that the 2022 tournament would instead be hosted by Edmonton and Red Deer, Alberta as compensation for the 2021 tournament (which was originally to be hosted by both cities) being held behind closed doors exclusively in Edmonton due to the COVID-19 pandemic. It became the 15th time that Canada has hosted the tournament, the fourth time Edmonton has hosted the tournament, and the second time games have been hosted in Red Deer, following the 1995 edition. Gothenburg was re-assigned the 2024 tournament.[4][5]

On December 18, 2021, citing the "changing epidemiological situation" involving COVID-19 and Omicron variant, and consultation with the IIHF and Alberta Health Services, Hockey Canada announced that the schedule of pre-tournament games (which was to feature each team playing at least two exhibition games) would be reduced, and moved to December 23.[6] Organizers stated that their goal was to hold a "safe and successful event," and that 90% of tickets had been sold.[7] There were no stated plans to reduce spectator capacity.[7]

As a participant in the provincial "Restrictions Exemption Program" (REP), Rogers Place was allowed to operate at full capacity, but all spectators were required to present proof of COVID-19 vaccinations.[8] On December 21, as part of public health orders to control Omicron variant, the Alberta provincial government ordered all large venues participating in REP to restrict their capacity to 50% effective December 24. Food and drink consumption was prohibited when seated and during intermissions.[9][10]

Cancellation and rescheduling of tournament due to COVID-19[edit]

Teams were required to quarantine if any one member tested positive for COVID-19, resulting in three games being forfeited by December 29.[11][12][13] Citing the health and safety of participants, and that the competitive integrity of the tournament had been compromised by the aforementioned forfeits, the IIHF announced that the remainder of the tournament had been abandoned.[11][14] However, IIHF president Luc Tardif stated during a press conference that a committee would meet in January to discuss the feasibility of resuming the tournament at a later date, and that "we want to take the next month to think about it and maybe come with a good surprise."[15][16]

On February 17, 2022, Tardif announced that the tournament would be rescheduled to mid-August 2022, following the U18 Hlinka Gretzky Cup also being hosted in Edmonton and Red Deer. The tournament will be replayed from the beginning, with all results and statistics from the first attempt thrown out. Rosters from the first playing of the tournament will be grandfathered.[17] The following month, it was announced that the tournament replay had been scheduled for August 9–20, 2022, and that it will be hosted exclusively by Edmonton for the second year in a row. Those who had purchased tickets for the first running of the 2022 tournament, or the 2021 tournament, were given priority access to tickets.[18]

In condemnation of the 2022 Russian invasion of Ukraine, Russia was suspended from international ice hockey by the IIHF. It was announced that Latvia—who were promoted to the top division for 2023 after finishing second in the Division IA tournament—would replace Russia for the tournament replay. Division IA winner Belarus was also banned from international ice hockey for their support of the invasion.[19]

Due to the Hockey Canada sexual assault scandal, a number of major companies have suspended their sponsorships and support of Hockey Canada since June 2022, including BDO, Canadian Tire, Imperial Oil, Recipe Unlimited, Scotiabank, Telus, and Tim Hortons. These suspensions have included their withdrawal of sponsorship for the tournament.[20][21][22] Besides a placement for IIHF sponsor Tissot and advertisements for the IIHF's mobile app, the boards contain no sponsor logos at all.[23][24] Sportsnet suggested that sponsors may had been given the option to refund their commitments after the first playing of the tournament was cancelled.[24]

On the eve of the tournament, it was also reported that "thousands" of tickets were still unsold, including tickets for games involving Canada—which had typically been a major draw during editions of the tournament hosted by Canada. The summer scheduling of the tournament, high ticket prices, the Hockey Canada scandals, and the removal of Russia, were cited by the press as potential factors.[23][24] The first day of the tournament saw minuscule crowds, with its first three games having an announced attendance of 430, 376, and 829 respectively. However, this was based on tickets sold, and the actual number of spectators in attendance was believed to be much lower.[24][25]

Group A (December 2021)[edit]

Group A results (annulled)
Pos Team Pld W OTW OTL L GF GA GD Pts Qualification
1  Finland 3 3 0 0 0 11 2 +9 9 Advance to Quarterfinals
2  Canada (H) 2 2 0 0 0 17 5 +12 6
3  Germany 2 0 1 0 1 3 4 −1 2
4  Czechia 3 0 0 1 2 4 9 −5 1
5  Austria 2 0 0 0 2 3 18 −15 0
Updated to match(es) played on December 28, 2021. Source: IIHF
(H) Host
December 26, 2021
12:00
Finland 3–1
(1–0, 1–1, 1–0)
 GermanyRogers Place, Edmonton
Attendance: 1,793
December 26, 2021
17:00
Czechia 3–6
(3–3, 0–2, 0–1)
 CanadaRogers Place, Edmonton
Attendance: 4,526

December 27, 2021
12:00
Austria 1–7
(0–2, 1–2, 0–3)
 FinlandRogers Place, Edmonton
Attendance: 1,901
December 27, 2021
17:00
Germany 2–1 OT
(0–0, 1–1, 0–0)
(OT: 1–0)
 CzechiaRogers Place, Edmonton
Attendance: 2,582

December 28, 2021
17:00
Austria 2–11
(0–5, 1–1, 1–5)
 CanadaRogers Place, Edmonton
Attendance: 3,862

December 29, 2021
12:00
Finland 1–0 CzechiaRogers Place, Edmonton
Attendance: 0
Win awarded via forfeit due to COVID-19 positives within the Czechia team.[26]
December 29, 2021
17:00
Canada Cancelled GermanyRogers Place, Edmonton

December 30, 2021
14:30
Czechia Cancelled AustriaRogers Place, Edmonton

December 31, 2021
12:00
Germany Cancelled AustriaRogers Place, Edmonton
December 31, 2021
17:00
Canada Cancelled FinlandRogers Place, Edmonton

Group B (December 2021)[edit]

Group B results (annulled)
Pos Team Pld W OTW OTL L GF GA GD Pts Qualification
1  Sweden 2 2 0 0 0 9 3 +6 6 Advance to Quarterfinals
2  United States 2 1 0 0 1 3 3 0 3
3  Russia 3 1 0 0 2 7 9 −2 3
4   Switzerland 2 1 0 0 1 3 4 −1 3
5  Slovakia 3 1 0 0 2 3 6 −3 3
Updated to match(es) played on December 28, 2021. Source: IIHF
December 26, 2021
14:30
Russia 3–6
(0–1, 1–2, 2–3)
 SwedenPeavey Mart Centrium, Red Deer
Attendance: 2,337
December 26, 2021
19:30
United States 3–2
(2–0, 1–0, 0–2)
 SlovakiaPeavey Mart Centrium, Red Deer
Attendance: 1,613

December 27, 2021
14:30
Russia 4–2
(3–1, 0–0, 1–1)
  SwitzerlandPeavey Mart Centrium, Red Deer
Attendance: 1,934
December 27, 2021
19:30
Sweden 3–0
(1–0, 1–0, 1–0)
 SlovakiaPeavey Mart Centrium, Red Deer
Attendance: 1,706

December 28, 2021
14:30
Switzerland  1–0 United StatesPeavey Mart Centrium, Red Deer
Attendance: 0
Win awarded via forfeit due to COVID-19 positives within the U.S. team.[27]

December 29, 2021
14:30
Slovakia 1–0 RussiaPeavey Mart Centrium, Red Deer
Attendance: 0
Win awarded via forfeit due to COVID-19 positives within the Russia team.
December 29, 2021
19:30
Sweden Cancelled United StatesPeavey Mart Centrium, Red Deer

December 30, 2021
17:00
Slovakia Cancelled  SwitzerlandPeavey Mart Centrium, Red Deer

December 31, 2021
14:30
Switzerland  Cancelled SwedenPeavey Mart Centrium, Red Deer
December 31, 2021
19:30
United States Cancelled RussiaPeavey Mart Centrium, Red Deer

Top division[edit]

Venue[edit]

Rogers Place
Capacity: 18,347
Rogers Place Arena.jpg
Edmonton

Officials[edit]

The following officials were assigned by the International Ice Hockey Federation to officiate the 2022 World Junior Championships.[28][needs update]

Rosters[edit]

Teams[edit]

Preliminary round[edit]

All times are local (UTC-7).

Group A[edit]

Pos Team Pld W OTW OTL L GF GA GD Pts Qualification
1  Canada (H, A) 2 2 0 0 0 16 3 +13 6 Advance to Quarterfinals
2  Finland 2 1 1 0 0 10 4 +6 5
3  Czechia 2 1 0 1 0 8 8 0 4
4  Slovakia 2 0 0 0 2 5 16 −11 0
5  Latvia 2 0 0 0 2 3 11 −8 0
Updated to match(es) played on 11 August 2022. Source: IIHF
(A) Advances to a further round; (H) Host
August 9, 2022
12:00
Czechia 5–4
(0–2, 3–0, 2–2)
 SlovakiaRogers Place, Edmonton
Attendance: 430
August 9, 2022
16:00
Latvia 1–6
(0–2, 0–2, 1–2)
 FinlandRogers Place, Edmonton
Attendance: 376

August 10, 2022
16:00
Latvia 2–5
(1–1, 0–3, 1–1)
 CanadaRogers Place, Edmonton
Attendance: 2,779

August 11, 2022
12:00
Finland 4–3 GWS
(1–2, 1–0, 1–1)
(OT: 0–0)
(SO: 2–1)
 CzechiaRogers Place, Edmonton
August 11, 2022
16:00
Slovakia 1–11
(0–4, 1–4, 0–3)
 CanadaRogers Place, Edmonton

August 12, 2022
16:00
Slovakia v LatviaRogers Place, Edmonton

August 13, 2022
16:00
Canada v CzechiaRogers Place, Edmonton

August 14, 2022
12:00
Finland v SlovakiaRogers Place, Edmonton
August 14, 2022
16:00
Czechia v LatviaRogers Place, Edmonton

August 15, 2022
16:00
Canada v FinlandRogers Place, Edmonton

Group B[edit]

Pos Team Pld W OTW OTL L GF GA GD Pts Qualification
1  United States 1 1 0 0 0 5 1 +4 3 Advance to Quarterfinals
2  Sweden 1 1 0 0 0 3 2 +1 3
3  Germany 2 1 0 0 1 5 7 −2 3
4   Switzerland 1 0 0 0 1 2 3 −1 0
5  Austria 1 0 0 0 1 2 4 −2 0
Updated to match(es) played on 10 August 2022. Source: IIHF
August 9, 2022
20:00
United States 5–1
(2–0, 3–0, 0–1)
 GermanyRogers Place, Edmonton
Attendance: 829

August 10, 2022
12:00
Sweden 3–2
(0–0, 1–0, 2–2)
  SwitzerlandRogers Place, Edmonton
Attendance: 453
August 10, 2022
20:00
Germany 4–2
(1–1, 3–1, 0–0)
 AustriaRogers Place, Edmonton
Attendance: 473

August 11, 2022
20:00
Switzerland  v United StatesRogers Place, Edmonton

August 12, 2022
12:00
Austria v SwedenRogers Place, Edmonton

August 13, 2022
12:00
Austria v United StatesRogers Place, Edmonton
August 13, 2022
20:00
Germany v  SwitzerlandRogers Place, Edmonton

August 14, 2022
20:00
United States v SwedenRogers Place, Edmonton

August 15, 2022
12:00
Switzerland  v AustriaRogers Place, Edmonton
August 15, 2022
20:00
Sweden v GermanyRogers Place, Edmonton

Playoff round[edit]

Winning teams will be reseeded for the semi-finals in accordance with the following ranking:[29]

  1. higher position in the group
  2. higher number of points
  3. better goal difference
  4. higher number of goals scored for
  5. better seeding coming into the tournament (final placement at the 2021 World Junior Ice Hockey Championships).
Rank Team Group Pos Pts GD GF Seed
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8

Quarterfinals[edit]

August 17, 2022
10:00
vRogers Place, Edmonton
August 17, 2022
13:30
vRogers Place, Edmonton
August 17, 2022
17:00
vRogers Place, Edmonton
August 17, 2022
20:30
vRogers Place, Edmonton

Semifinals[edit]

August 19, 2022
14:00
vRogers Place, Edmonton
August 19, 2022
18:00
vRogers Place, Edmonton

Bronze medal game[edit]

August 20, 2022
14:00
vRogers Place, Edmonton

Gold medal game[edit]

August 20, 2022
18:00
vRogers Place, Edmonton

Statistics[edit]

Scoring leaders[edit]

Pos Player Country GP G A Pts +/− PIM
1 Alexander Blank  Germany 2 3 1 4 0 0
2 Joakim Kemell  Finland 1 2 2 4 +4 0
3 Aatu Räty  Finland 1 1 3 4 +4 0
4 Roni Hirvonen  Finland 1 1 2 3 +4 0
5 Matej Kaslik  Slovakia 1 2 0 2 +2 0
5 Jan Myšák  Czech Republic 1 2 0 2 +1 0
5 Daniel Torgersson  Sweden 1 2 0 2 +1 0

GP = Games played; G = Goals; A = Assists; Pts = Points; +/− = Plus–minus; PIM = Penalties In Minutes
Source: IIHF.com

Division I[edit]

Group A[edit]

The tournament was held in Hørsholm, Denmark, from 12 to 18 December 2021.

Pos Team Pld W OTW OTL L GF GA GD Pts Qualification
1  Belarus[a] 5 5 0 0 0 26 8 +18 15 Suspended from IIHF competitions
2  Latvia[b] (P) 5 4 0 0 1 19 10 +9 12 Promoted to 2022 and 2023 Top Division
3  Norway 5 3 0 0 2 20 13 +7 9
4  Kazakhstan 5 2 0 0 3 12 14 −2 6
5  Denmark (H) 5 1 0 0 4 13 24 −11 3
6  Hungary 5 0 0 0 5 5 26 −21 0
Source: IIHF
Rules for classification: 1) points; 2) head-to-head points; 3) head-to-head goal difference; 4) head-to-head number of goals scored; 5) result against closest best-ranked team outside tied teams; 6) result against second-best ranked team outside tied teams; 7) seeding before tournament.
(H) Host; (P) Promoted
Notes:
  1. ^ Belarus were suspended from all IIHF competitions in May 2022 due to the country's support of the Russian invasion of Ukraine
  2. ^ Latvia were promoted to replace Russia in the Top Division after the latter were also suspended from all IIHF competitions

Group B[edit]

The tournament was held in Tallinn, Estonia, from 12 to 18 December 2021.

Pos Team Pld W OTW OTL L GF GA GD Pts Qualification
1  France (P) 5 4 0 1 0 23 15 +8 13 Promoted to Division I A
2  Slovenia (P) 5 4 0 0 1 28 13 +15 12
3  Japan 5 3 0 0 2 22 17 +5 9
4  Ukraine 5 2 1 0 2 23 20 +3 8
5  Estonia (H) 5 0 1 0 4 9 25 −16 2
6  Poland 5 0 0 1 4 9 24 −15 1
Source: IIHF
Rules for classification: 1) points; 2) head-to-head points; 3) head-to-head goal difference; 4) head-to-head number of goals scored; 5) result against closest best-ranked team outside tied teams; 6) result against second-best ranked team outside tied teams; 7) seeding before tournament.
(H) Host; (P) Promoted

Division II[edit]

Group A[edit]

The tournament was held in Brașov, Romania, from 13 to 19 December 2021.

Pos Team Pld W OTW OTL L GF GA GD Pts Qualification
1  Italy (P) 5 5 0 0 0 22 4 +18 15 Promoted to Division I B
2  South Korea (P) 5 2 2 0 1 17 13 +4 10
3  Great Britain 5 2 0 1 2 21 17 +4 7[a]
4  Spain 5 2 0 1 2 7 12 −5 7[a]
5  Lithuania 5 1 0 0 4 12 22 −10 3[b]
6  Romania (H) 5 1 0 0 4 8 19 −11 3[b]
Source: IIHF
Rules for classification: 1) points; 2) head-to-head points; 3) head-to-head goal difference; 4) head-to-head number of goals scored; 5) result against closest best-ranked team outside tied teams; 6) result against second-best ranked team outside tied teams; 7) seeding before tournament.
(H) Host; (P) Promoted
Notes:
  1. ^ a b Great Britain 7–2 Spain
  2. ^ a b Lithuania 6–3 Romania

Group B[edit]

The tournament would have been held in Belgrade, Serbia, from 10 to 16 January 2022, but was cancelled due to the COVID-19 pandemic. It is now planned to take place from 12 to 18 September 2022.[30]

Division III[edit]

The tournament would have been held in Querétaro, Mexico, from January 6 to 16, 2022, but was cancelled due to the COVID-19 pandemic.[31] It was rescheduled and it's being played from 22 to 30 July 2022.[30] Bulgaria withdrew from the July tournament and was replaced by Australia.

Group A[edit]

Pos Team Pld W OTW OTL L GF GA GD Pts Qualification
1  Chinese Taipei 3 1 1 0 1 13 12 +1 5[a] Advance to Quarterfinals
2  Israel 3 1 1 0 1 15 9 +6 5[a]
3  Mexico (H) 3 1 0 2 0 11 10 +1 5[a]
4  Kyrgyzstan 3 1 0 0 2 5 13 −8 3
Updated to match(es) played on 25 July 2022. Source: IIHF
(H) Host
Notes:
  1. ^ a b c Chinese Taipei 5 Pts, Israel 2 Pts, Mexico 2 Pts, Israel 3–2 Mexico

Group B[edit]

Pos Team Pld W OTW OTL L GF GA GD Pts Qualification
1  Australia 3 3 0 0 0 33 3 +30 9 Advance to Quarterfinals
2  Turkey 3 2 0 0 1 15 14 +1 6
3  Bosnia and Herzegovina 3 0 1 0 2 10 22 −12 2
4  South Africa 3 0 0 1 2 7 26 −19 1
Updated to match(es) played on 25 July 2022. Source: IIHF

Playoff round[edit]

All teams enter the Quarterfinals, Semifinals are to be re-seeded.

 
QuarterfinalsSemifinalsGold Medal Game
 
          
 
27 July
 
 
1A
 Chinese Taipei
7
 
29 July
 
4B
 South Africa
2
 
1
 Australia
2
 
27 July
 
5
 Mexico
3
 
2A
 Israel
7
 
30 July
 
3B
 Bosnia and Herzegovina
3
 
2
 Chinese Taipei
5
 
27 July
 
5
 Mexico
4
 
1B
 Australia
5
 
29 July
 
4A
 Kyrgyzstan
1
 
2
 Chinese Taipei
6
 
27 July
 
3
 Israel
5 Bronze Medal Game
 
2B
 Turkey
2
 
30 July
 
3A
 Mexico
5
 
1
 Australia
1
 
 
3
 Israel
0
 

References[edit]

  1. ^ Games played from December 26–29, 2021 were not counted in the standings.
  2. ^ Peavey Mart Centrium in Red Deer was also a venue in the first attempt at the tournament in December 2021.
  3. ^ "World Juniors in Gothenburg". IIHF. March 14, 2019. Retrieved November 14, 2019.
  4. ^ "World Juniors will be hosted in an Edmonton bubble: TSN". Edmonton. 2020-09-17. Retrieved 2020-09-17.
  5. ^ "IIHF announces 2021 world juniors will be played in Edmonton bubble - Sportsnet.ca". Sportsnet.ca. Retrieved 2020-09-17.
  6. ^ "Lordco Road to the World Juniors schedule updated". www.hockeycanada.ca. Retrieved 2021-12-21.
  7. ^ a b "World Juniors pre-tournament schedule reduced, ticket sales paused". CTV News Edmonton. 2021-12-18. Archived from the original on 2021-12-18. Retrieved 2021-12-19.
  8. ^ "Vaccinated fans permitted to attend at IIHF World Junior Championship". www.insidethegames.biz. Archived from the original on 2021-12-07. Retrieved 2021-12-14.
  9. ^ "Alberta reduces attendance at large venues to avoid COVID-19 superspreaders, opens boosters to all adults". CTV News Edmonton. 2021-12-21. Archived from the original on 2021-12-21. Retrieved 2021-12-21.
  10. ^ "Alberta opens COVID-19 booster shots to all Albertans over 18". CBC News. 2021-12-21. Archived from the original on 2021-12-21. Retrieved 2021-12-21.
  11. ^ a b "World Juniors cancelled". International Ice Hockey Federation. 2021-12-29. Archived from the original on 2021-12-29. Retrieved 2021-12-29. Cite error: The named reference ":1" was defined multiple times with different content (see the help page).
  12. ^ "Report: IIHF cancels remainder of 2022 world juniors due to COVID-19". Sportsnet. Archived from the original on 2021-12-29. Retrieved 2021-12-29.
  13. ^ "Remainder of World Juniors set to be cancelled". TSN. 2022-12-29. Archived from the original on 2021-12-29. Retrieved 2021-12-29.
  14. ^ "IIHF cancels remainder of 2022 world juniors due to COVID-19". Sportsnet. 2021-12-29. Archived from the original on 2021-12-29. Retrieved 2021-12-29.
  15. ^ "IIHF cancels rest of '22 World Juniors hockey". ESPN.com. 2021-12-29. Retrieved 2021-12-30.
  16. ^ "IIHF says it hopes to hold World Juniors later in 2022 - Sportsnet.ca". Sportsnet. Archived from the original on 2021-12-30. Retrieved 2021-12-30.
  17. ^ "2022 World Juniors to be played in August, was postponed due to COVID-19". NHL.com. February 17, 2022. Retrieved February 17, 2022.
  18. ^ "Further IIHF event updates". IIHF.COM. March 19, 2022. Retrieved April 6, 2022.
  19. ^ "IIHF - Tournament updates". IIHF International Ice Hockey Federation. Retrieved 2022-05-05.
  20. ^ Robertson, Susan Krashinsky; Klinkenberg, Marty (2022-06-29). "Tim Hortons suspending World Juniors sponsorship over Hockey Canada's response to sexual assault allegations". The Globe and Mail. Retrieved 2022-08-08.
  21. ^ "'I was appalled': Major sponsors distance themselves from Hockey Canada amid allegations". Atlantic. 2022-06-29. Retrieved 2022-08-08.
  22. ^ "After Scotiabank pauses Hockey Canada sponsorship, list of companies following suit grows". Sportsnet.ca. Retrieved 2022-08-08.
  23. ^ a b "Unsold tickets. Empty ad spots. World junior hockey championship opens under a cloud". Toronto Star. 2022-08-08. Retrieved 2022-08-08.
  24. ^ a b c d "What do sponsorship, funding freezes, small crowds mean for World Juniors and Hockey Canada?". Sportsnet.ca. Retrieved 2022-08-11.
  25. ^ "Hundreds, not thousands, showed up for first World Juniors games in Edmonton | Offside". dailyhive.com. Retrieved 2022-08-11.
  26. ^ "Team Czechia placed in quarantine, to miss game". IIHF. Retrieved 2021-12-29.
  27. ^ "Team USA placed in quarantine, to miss game". IIHF. Retrieved 2021-12-28.
  28. ^ "Competition officials". IIHF. 19 December 2021. Retrieved 20 December 2021.
  29. ^ "Tournament Format". IIHF. Retrieved October 20, 2020.
  30. ^ a b "IIHF - Tournaments - World Championships - World Men U20". IIHF International Ice Hockey Federation. Retrieved 2022-04-06.
  31. ^ "IIHF – January tournaments cancelled". International Ice Hockey Federation. Retrieved 24 December 2021.

External links[edit]