2023 in public domain

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When a work's copyright expires, it enters the public domain. The following is a list of works that enter the public domain in 2023. Since laws vary globally, the copyright status of some works are not uniform.

Countries with life + 70 years[edit]

With the exception of Belarus (Life + 50 years) and Spain (which has a copyright term of Life + 80 years for creators that died before 1987), a work enters the public domain in Europe 70 years after the creator's death, if it was published during the creator's lifetime. For previously unpublished material, those who publish it first will have the publication rights for 25 years. The list is sorted alphabetically and includes a notable work of the creator.

Names Country Birth Death Occupation Notable work
Youssef Aftimus  Lebanon 25 November 1866 10 September 1952 Architect Beirut City Hall
August Alle  Estonia 31 August 1890 8 July 1952 Writer
Paul Hastings Allen  United States 28 November 1883 28 September 1952 Composer
Aziza Amir  Egypt 17 December 1901 28 February 1952 Screenwriter, actress A Girl from Palestine
Charles Ancliffe  United Kingdom 1880 20 December 1952 Composer
Céline Arnauld  France 20 September 1885 23 December 1952 Writer
Yury Artsybushev  Russia 1877 1952 Painter
Alice Austen  United States 17 March 1866 9 June 1952 Photographer
Frederic Austin  United Kingdom 30 March 1872 10 April 1952 Composer, singer List of compositions by Frederic Austin
Nat Ayer  United States 5 August 1887 19 September 1952 Composer The Bing Boys Are Here, Yes, Uncle!
Mariano Azuela  Mexico 1 January 1873 1 March 1952 Writer The Underdogs
Adivi Baapiraju  India 1895 1952 Writer
Ferdinand Bac  France 15 August 1859 18 November 1952 Writer, artist
Bruno Barilli  Italy 14 December 1880 15 April 1952 Composer
Antonieta de Barros  Brazil 11 July 1901 28 March 1952 Journalist, politician
Rudolf Hans Bartsch  Austria 11 February 1873 7 February 1952 Writer
Gaston Baty  France 26 May 1885 13 October 1952 Playwright
Nicolae Constantin Batzaria  Romania 20 November 1874 28 January 1952 Writer, politician
Nikolai Bayev  Armenia 6 October 1875 5 August 1952 Architect Azerbaijan State Academic Opera and Ballet Theater
John Hay Beith  United Kingdom 17 April 1876 22 September 1952 Writer Pip
Zeev Ben-Zvi  Israel 1904 1952 Sculptor
David Bergelson  Soviet Union 12 August 1884 12 August 1952 Writer
Joseph Berlin  Israel 1877 1952 Architect Lodzia House
Gino Boccasile  Italy 14 July 1901 10 May 1952 Illustrator
Waldemar Bonsels  Germany 21 February 1880 31 July 1952 Writer Maya the Bee
Giuseppe Antonio Borgese  Italy 12 November 1882 4 December 1952 Writer
Henriëtte Bosmans  Netherlands 6 December 1895 2 July 1952 Composer
Erma Bossi  Germany 9 June 1875 14 April 1952 Painter
Sergei Bortkiewicz  Ukraine 28 February 1877 25 October 1952 Composer List of compositions by Sergei Bortkiewicz
Marjorie Bowen  United Kingdom 1 November 1885 23 December 1952 Writer
Bertram Bracken  United States 10 August 1879 1 November 1952 Film director, screenwriter
Émile Bréhier  France 12 April 1876 3 February 1952 Philosopher
Margaret Wise Brown  United States 23 May 1910 13 November 1952 Writer Goodnight Moon, The Runaway Bunny
Delfina Bunge  Argentina 24 December 1881 30 March 1952 Writer
Adolf Busch  Germany 8 August 1891 9 June 1952 Musician, composer
Brun Campbell  United States 26 March 1884 23 November 1952 Composer
Adolf Černý  Czech Republic 19 August 1864 27 December 1952 Poet
Theo Champion  Germany 5 February 1887 20 September 1952 Painter
Howard Chandler Christy  United States 10 January 1872 3 March 1952 Painter, illustrator
Max Clarenbach  Germany 19 May 1880 9 July 1952 Painter
Frederick de Jersey Clere  New Zealand 7 January 1856 13 August 1952 Architect St Mary of the Angels, Wellington
Marie Closset  Belgium 16 August 1873 20 July 1952 Poet
Archie Frederick Collins  United States 8 January 1869 3 January 1952 Inventor, writer The Radio Amateur's Handbook
Jack Conway  United States 17 July 1887 11 October 1952 Film director, actor A Tale of Two Cities
Romain Coolus  France 25 May 1868 9 September 1952 Playwright
André Corthis  France 15 April 1882 8 August 1952 Writer
Annie Sophie Cory  United Kingdom 1 October 1868 2 August 1952 Writer Anna Lombard
Benedetto Croce  Italy 25 February 1866 20 November 1952 Philosopher, historian Manifesto of the Anti-Fascist Intellectuals
Edward S. Curtis  United States 19 February 1868 19 October 1952 Photographer, ethnologist
Sebastião da Gama  Portugal 10 April 1924 7 February 1952 Poet
Surendranath Dasgupta  India 8 October 1887 18 December 1952 Philosopher
Jo Davidson  United States 30 March 1883 2 January 1952 Sculptor
Eugenio de Liguoro  Italy 15 March 1899 30 June 1952 Film director, actor
John Dewey  United States 20 October 1859 1 June 1952 Philosopher John Dewey bibliography
Mikhail Doller  Soviet Union 1889 15 March 1952 Film director, screenwriter The End of St. Petersburg
Norman Douglas  United Kingdom 8 December 1868 7 February 1952 Writer South Wind
Henry Edwards  United Kingdom 18 September 1882 2 November 1952 Film director, actor
Raymond B. Egan  Canada 14 November 1890 13 October 1952 Songwriter "The Japanese Sandman"
Richard Eichberg  Germany 27 October 1888 8 May 1952 Film director The Tiger of Eschnapur, The Indian Tomb
Alfred Einstein  Germany 30 December 1880 13 February 1952 Musicologist
Otto Eis  Austria 19 March 1903 14 January 1952 Screenwriter
George Grant Elmslie  United States 20 February 1869 23 April 1952 Architect Harold C. Bradley House
Paul Éluard  France 14 December 1895 18 November 1952 Poet
Philip G. Epstein  United States 22 August 1909 7 February 1952 Screenwriter Casablanca
Lucien Fabre  France 14 February 1889 26 November 1952 Writer
Ludwig Fahrenkrog  Germany 20 October 1867 27 October 1952 Painter
Jeffery Farnol  United Kingdom 10 February 1878 9 August 1952 Writer The Broad Highway
Arthur Farwell  United States 23 March 1872 20 January 1952 Composer
Itzik Feffer  Soviet Union 10 September 1900 12 August 1952 Poet
Macedonio Fernández  Argentina 1 June 1874 10 February 1952 Writer The Museum of Eterna's Novel
John Flanagan  United States 4 April 1865 28 March 1952 Sculptor
Ernest Florman  Sweden 20 September 1863 15 September 1952 Film director
Hugh Ford  United States 5 February 1868 1952 Film director, screenwriter
Elena Fortún  Spain 17 November 1886 8 May 1952 Writer Celia, lo que dice
Charles K. French  United States 17 January 1860 2 August 1952 Actor, film director, screenwriter
Carl Friedemann  Germany 29 April 1862 9 April 1952 Composer "Kaiser Friedrich Marsch"
Svend Gade  Denmark 1877 1852 Film director, screenwriter
Leonhard Gall  Germany 24 August 1884 20 January 1952 Architect Führerbau
Sawai Gandharva  India 19 January 1886 12 September 1952 Singer, teacher
C. P. H. Gilbert  United States 29 August 1861 25 October 1952 Architect
Charles Ginner  United Kingdom 4 March 1878 6 January 1952 Painter
Percy Gray  United States 3 October 1869 10 October 1952 Painter
Sammy Gronemann  Germany 21 March 1875 6 March 1952 Writer
René Grousset  France 5 September 1885 12 September 1952 Historian The Empire of the Steppes
Ernst Haiger  Germany 10 June 1874 15 March 1952 Architect
Halfdan M. Hanson  Norway 30 November 1884 12 September 1952 Architect Our Lady of Good Voyage Church
Cicely Hamilton  United Kingdom 15 June 1872 6 December 1952 Writer
Knut Hamsun  Norway 4 August 1859 19 February 1952 Writer, poet Growth of the Soil
Sven Hedin  Sweden 19 February 1865 26 November 1952 Geographer, travel writer Through Asia Volume 1
Aaro Hellaakoski  Finland 22 June 1893 23 November 1952 Poet
Fletcher Henderson  United States 18 December 1897 29 December 1952 Musician, composer A Study in Frustration
David Hofstein  Soviet Union 12 June 1889 12 August 1952 Poet
Hilda Hongell  Finland 16 January 1867 10 June 1952 Architect
Curly Howard  United States 22 October 1903 18 January 1952 Actor
Felix Huch  United States 6 September 1880 6 July 1952 Writer
Myron Hunt  United States 27 February 1868 26 May 1952 Architect Bridges Hall of Music
Harold Innis  Canada 5 November 1894 9 November 1952 Economist
Horace Jackson  United States 29 March 1898 26 January 1952 Screenwriter
Frederick Jacobi  United States 4 May 1891 24 October 1952 Composer
Rashid Jahan  India 25 August 1905 29 July 1952 Writer Angarey
Alan James  United States 23 March 1890 30 December 1952 Film director, screenwriter
Enrique Jardiel Poncela  Spain 15 October 1901 18 February 1952 Writer, playwright We Thieves Are Honourable
Frances Benjamin Johnston  United States 15 January 1864 16 May 1952 Photographer
Owen Johnson  United States 27 August 1878 27 January 1952 Writer Stover at Yale
Eugene Jolas  United States 26 October 1894 26 May 1952 Writer
Herbert Juttke  Germany 1897 1952 Screenwriter
David Kakabadze  Georgia 20 August 1889 10 May 1952 Painter
Fabjan Kaliterna  Croatia 20 January 1886 30 January 1952 Architect
Ariake Kambara  Japan 15 March 1876 3 February 1952 Writer
Aleksandr Kamenskij [ru]  Russia 12 December 1900 7 November 1952 Composer
Artur Kapp  Estonia 28 February 1878 14 January 1952 Composer
Bernard Karfiol  United States 6 May 1886 16 August 1952 Painter
Otto Katz  Czech Republic 27 May 1895 3 December 1952 Agent, writer
Frederic G. Kenyon  United Kingdom 15 January 1863 23 August 1952 Historian
Rollin Kirby  United States 4 September 1875 8 May 1952 Cartoonist
Alexandra Kollontai  Russia 31 March 1872 9 March 1952 Politician, writer Red Love
Sadie Koninsky  United States 1872 2 January 1952 Composer
Kosugi Tengai  Japan 7 November 1865 1 September 1952 Writer
Vasyl Krychevsky  Ukraine 12 January 1873 15 November 1952 Painter, architect Coat of arms of Ukraine
Masao Kume  Japan 23 November 1891 1 March 1952 Writer
Leib Kvitko  Soviet Union 15 October 1890 12 August 1952 Poet
Gregory La Cava  United States 10 March 1892 1 March 1952 Film director My Man Godfrey
Max Laeuger  Germany 30 September 1864 12 December 1952 Architect, ceramicist
Alfred La Liberté  Canada 10 February 1882 7 May 1952 Composer
Karel Lamač  Czech Republic 27 January 1897 2 August 1952 Film director
William F. Lamb  United States 21 November 1883 8 September 1952 Architect Empire State Building
Rued Langgaard  Denmark 28 July 1893 10 July 1952 Composer Music of the Spheres
Carlos Alberto Leumann  Argentina 1886 1952 Poet
Heinrich Lilienfein  Germany 20 November 1879 20 December 1952 Writer
Yrjö Lindegren  Finland 13 August 1900 12 November 1952 Architect Helsinki Olympic Stadium
Percy Lindsay  Australia 17 September 1870 21 September 1952 Painter
Jessie Lipscomb  United Kingdom 13 June 1861 12 January 1952 Sculptor
William J. Long  United States 3 April 1867 1952 Writer
Ferdinand Lot  France 20 September 1866 20 July 1952 Historian
Andrés Luna de San Pedro  Philippines 9 September 1887 22 January 1952 Architect First United Building
Desmond MacCarthy  United Kingdom 20 May 1877 7 June 1952 Writer
J. Farrell MacDonald  United States 6 June 1875 2 August 1952 Film director, actor
Edward Madden  United States 17 July 1878 11 March 1952 Songwriter
Mahjoor  India 1887 9 April 1952 Poet
Hakob Manandian  Armenia 10 November 1873 4 February 1952 Historian
Anna Margolin  United States 1887 1952 Poet
Peretz Markish  Soviet Union 7 December 1895 12 August 1952 Poet
Enrique González Martínez  Mexico 13 April 1871 19 February 1952 Poet
H. J. Massingham  United Kingdom 25 March 1888 22 August 1952 Writer, poet
Charles Maurras  France 20 April 1868 16 November 1952 Writer
Achille Mauzan  France 1883 1952 Illustrator
William Sutherland Maxwell  Canada 14 November 1874 25 March 1952 Architect Shrine of the Báb
J. P. McGowan  United States 24 February 1880 26 March 1952 Film director, actor
Robert Minor  United States 15 July 1884 26 January 1952 Cartoonist
Mir-Jam  Serbia 22 April 1887 22 December 1952 Writer
Ferenc Molnár  Hungary 12 January 1878 1 April 1952 Writer, playwright The Paul Street Boys, Liliom
Montéhus  France 9 July 1872 1952 Songwriter
Italo Montemezzi  Italy 4 August 1875 15 May 1952 Composer L'amore dei tre re
Maria Montessori  Italy 31 August 1870 6 May 1952 Educator
Irving Morrow  United States 22 September 1884 28 October 1952 Architect Golden Gate Bridge
Lodewijk Mortelmans  Belgium 5 February 1868 24 June 1952 Composer
Willy Mullens  Netherlands 4 October 1880 21 April 1952 Film director
Matija Murko  Slovenia 10 February 1861 11 February 1952 Literary historian
Herbert Murrill  United Kingdom 11 May 1909 25 July 1952 Composer
Bangalore Nagarathnamma  India 3 November 1878 19 May 1952 Singer, writer
Ghulam Bhik Nairang  Pakistan 26 September 1876 16 October 1952 Poet, politician
Shinpei Nakayama  Japan 22 March 1887 30 December 1952 Songwriter "Katyusha's song"
Alfred Neumann  Germany 15 October 1895 3 October 1952 Writer
Ivan Olbracht  Czech Republic 6 January 1882 20 December 1952 Writer Nikola Šuhaj loupežník
Herbert Arnould Olivier  United Kingdom 9 September 1861 2 March 1952 Painter
Paul Ondrusch  Germany 4 June 1875 29 September 1952 Sculptor
Vittorio Emanuele Orlando  Italy 19 May 1860 1 December 1952 Politician
Henry Otto  United States 8 August 1877 3 August 1952 Film director, actor
Fulton Oursler  United States 22 January 1893 24 May 1952 Writer The Greatest Story Ever Told
Russell Owen  United States 8 January 1889 3 April 1952 Journalist South of the Sun
Frances Theodora Parsons  United States 5 December 1861 10 June 1952 Naturalist, writer
Jack Parsons  United States 2 October 1914 17 June 1952 Engineer, occultist
Teixeira de Pascoaes  Portugal 2 November 1877 14 December 1952 Writer
Raymond Pech  France 4 February 1876 3 July 1952 Writer
Constant Permeke  Belgium 31 July 1886 4 January 1952 Painter, sculptor
Paul Pierné  France 30 June 1874 24 March 1952 Composer
Ladislaus Pilars de Pilar  Poland 3 March 1874 22 November 1952 Poet
Arthur Pink  United Kingdom 1 April 1886 15 July 1952 Writer
Charles Plisnier  Belgium 13 December 1896 17 July 1952 Writer Faux passeports
Jovan Popović  Serbia 18 November 1905 13 February 1952 Writer
Pedro Prado  Chile 8 October 1886 31 January 1952 Writer
Hugo Raudsepp  Estonia 13 December 1896 17 July 1952 Writer, politician
Karl Ludvig Reichelt  Norway 1 September 1877 13 March 1952 Writer
Elizabeth Robins  United States 6 August 1862 8 May 1952 Writer
Henriette Roland Holst  Netherlands 24 December 1869 21 November 1952 Poet
Joan Rubió  Spain 24 April 1870 30 November 1952 Architect
Wadia Sabra  Lebanon 23 February 1876 11 April 1952 Composer
Olaf Saile  Germany 27 August 1901 29 June 1952 Writer
George Santayana  Spain 16 December 1863 26 September 1952 Philosopher, witer The Life of Reason
Garimella Satyanarayana  India 14 July 1893 18 December 1952 Poet
Fred Sauer  Austria 14 December 1886 17 September 1952 Film director, screenwriter
Jurgis Savickis  Lithuania 4 May 1890 22 December 1952 Writer
Alberto Savinio  Italy 25 August 1891 5 May 1952 Writer, composer
Wilhelm Schäfer  Germany 20 January 1868 19 January 1952 Writer
Georg Schumann  Germany 25 October 1866 23 May 1952 Composer
Vincent Scotto  France 21 April 1874 15 November 1952 Composer
Philip Walsingham Sergeant  United Kingdom 27 January 1872 20 October 1952 Writer Modern Chess Openings
Franz Seitz Sr.  Germany 14 April 1887 7 March 1952 Film director, screenwriter
Carlo Sforza  Italy 24 January 1872 4 September 1952 Politician
Ilya Shatrov  Russia 1 April 1879 2 May 1952 Composer "On the Hills of Manchuria"
Tatiana Shchepkina-Kupernik  Russia 24 January 1874 27 July 1952 Writer, translator
Vladimir Shcherbachov  Soviet Union 24 January 1889 5 March 1952 Composer
Maria Shkapskaya  Soviet Union 15 October 1891 7 September 1952 Writer
Rudolf Sieczyński  Austria 23 February 1879 5 May 1952 Composer "Vienna, City of My Dreams"
Renato Simoni  Italy 5 September 1875 5 July 1952 Playwright Turandot
Leo Smith  United Kingdom 26 November 1881 18 April 1952 Composer
Herman Sörgel  Germany 2 April 1885 25 December 1952 Architect
Niles Spencer  United States 16 May 1893 15 May 1952 Painter
Jaap Speyer  Netherlands 1891 1952 Film director
Fráňa Šrámek  Czech Republic 19 January 1877 1 July 1952 Writer
Malcolm St. Clair  United States 17 May 1897 1 June 1952 Film director
Władysław Strzemiński  Poland 21 November 1893 26 December 1952 Painter
Ray Taylor  United States 1 December 1888 15 February 1952 Film director
Giovanni Tebaldini  Italy 7 September 1864 11 May 1952 Composer
Teffi  Russia 21 May 1872 6 October 1952 Writer
Josephine Tey  United Kingdom 25 July 1896 13 February 1952 Writer The Daughter of Time
Jean Tharaud  France 9 May 1877 8 April 1952 Writer
Anna-Lisa Thomson  Sweden 20 September 1905 12 February 1952 Ceramist
Lamar Trotti  United States 18 October 1900 28 August 1952 Screenwriter
Josef Thorak  Austria 7 February 1889 26 February 1952 Sculptor
Uncle Dave Macon  United States 7 October 1870 22 March 1952 Singer-songwriter
Fartein Valen  Norway 25 August 1887 14 December 1952 Composer
Antonio María Valencia  Colombia 10 November 1902 22 July 1952 Composer
Lodewijk van Deyssel  Netherlands 22 September 1864 26 January 1952 Writer
Johan van Hell  Netherlands 28 February 1889 31 December 1952 Artist
Louis Valtat  France 8 August 1869 2 January 1952 Painter
Louis Verneuil  France 14 May 1893 3 November 1952 Playwright
Clara Viebig  Germany 17 July 1860 31 July 1952 Writer
Roger Vitrac  France 17 November 1899 22 January 1952 Playwright, poet
Ellen Roosval von Hallwyl  Sweden 1867 1952 Artist
Karl Wach  Germany 7 January 1878 21 June 1952 Architect
Lars Israel Wahlman  Sweden 17 April 1870 18 September 1952 Architect Tjolöholm Castle
H. T. Webster  United States 21 September 1885 22 September 1952 Cartoonist Caspar Milquetoast
Percy Wenrich  United States 21 September 1885 22 September 1952 Composer "Sail Along, Silv'ry Moon"
Roland West  United States 20 February 1885 31 March 1952 Film director
Alberto Williams  Argentina 23 November 1862 17 June 1952 Composer Poema del Iguazú
Hans Wittwer   Switzerland 4 February 1894 19 March 1952 Architect ADGB Trade Union School
Paramahansa Yogananda  India 5 January 1893 7 March 1952 Yogi, writer Autobiography of a Yogi
Ernst Zahn   Switzerland 24 January 1867 12 February 1952 Writer Frau Sixta

Countries with life + 50 years[edit]

In most countries of Africa and Asia, as well as Belarus, Bolivia, Canada, New Zealand, Egypt and Uruguay; a work enters the public domain 50 years after the creator's death.

Names Country Birth Death Occupation Notable work
Fatin Abdel Wahab  Egypt 22 November 1913 12 May 1972 Director
Fernando Amorsolo  Philippines 30 May 1892 24 April 1972 Artist
James K. Baxter New Zealand New Zealand 29 June 1926 22 October 1972 Poet, playwright Beyond the Palisade, Blow, Wind of Fruitfulness
Sidney Clare  United States 15 August 1982 29 August 1972 Songwriter "On the Good Ship Lollipop"
M. C. Escher  Netherlands 17 June 1898 27 March 1972 Artist
Rudolf Friml  Czech Republic 7 December 1879 12 November 1972 Composer Rose-Marie, The Vagabond King
Ferde Grofé  United States 27 March 1892 3 April 1972 Composer Grand Canyon Suite
A. M. Klein  Canada 14 February 1909 20 August 1972 Poet The Second Scroll
Yasunari Kawabata  Japan 11 June 1899 16 April 1972 Writer
Laurence Manning  Canada 20 July 1899 10 April 1972 Writer The Man Who Awoke
Ronald Hugh Morrieson New Zealand New Zealand 29 January 1922 26 December 1972 Writer The Scarecrow, Came A Hot Friday
John Pascoe (mountaineer) New Zealand New Zealand 26 September 1908 20 October 1972 Mountaineer, writer Unclimbed New Zealand
Ezra Pound  United States 30 October 1885 1 November 1972 Poet The Cantos
Kamel el-Telmissany  Egypt 15 May 1915 1 March 1972 Director
Ramón Valera  Philippines 31 August 1912 25 May 1972 Fashion designer
Ismail Yassin  Egypt 15 September 1912 24 May 1972 Musician

Countries with life + 60 years[edit]

Names Country Birth Death Occupation Notable work
Tod Browning  United States 12 July 1880 6 October 1962 Film director Dracula, Freaks
Harry Carroll  United States 28 November 1892 26 December 1962 Songwriter
E. E. Cummings  United States 14 October 1894 3 September 1962 Poet
Hanns Eisler  Austria 6 July 1898 6 September 1962 Composer "Auferstanden aus Ruinen"
William Faulkner  United States 25 September 1897 6 July 1962 Writer William Faulkner bibliography
Hermann Hesse  Germany 2 July 1877 9 August 1962 Writer Steppenwolf
Maceo Pinkard  United States 27 June 1897 21 July 1962 Composer "Sweet Georgia Brown"

Countries with life + 80 years[edit]

Spain has a copyright term of life + 80 years for creators that died before 1987. The list is sorted alphabetically and includes a notable work of the creator.

Names Country Birth Death Occupation Notable work
Gaspar Camps [es]  Spain 29 December 1874 11 April 1942 Painter, illustrator
Luisa Casagemas  Spain 13 December 1873 1942 Composer
Miguel Hernández  Spain 30 October 1910 28 March 1942 Poet, playwright
Pablo Luna  Spain 21 May 1879 28 January 1942 Composer
Joan Montseny  Spain 1864 1942 Writer
Joan Peiró  Spain 18 February 1887 24 July 1942 Writer
Irene Polo  Spain 27 November 1909 3 April 1942 Journalist

Australia[edit]

In 2004 copyright in Australia changed from a "plus 50" law to a "plus 70" law, in line with America and the European Union. But the change was not made retroactive (unlike the 1995 change in the European Union which bought some e.g. British authors back into copyright, especially those who died from 1925 to 1944). Hence the work of an author who died before 1955 is normally in the public domain in Australia; but the copyright of authors was extended to 70 years after death for those who died in 1955 or later, and no more Australian authors will come out of copyright until 1 January 2026 (those who died in 1955).[1]

United States[edit]

London After Midnight will enter the public domain in this year, after being lost for 58 years in the 1965 MGM vault fire. Only a handful of production stills survive, making it the most sought-after lost film in human history.

Under the Copyright Term Extension Act, books published in 1927, films released in 1927, and other works published in 1927, enter the public domain in 2023.[2] Sound recordings that were published in 1923 will enter the public domain.[3]

Unpublished works whose authors died in 1952 will enter the public domain.

Published works that will enter the public domain include the first feature talkie, The Jazz Singer, first Academy Award for Best Picture winner Wings, Metropolis, Putting Pants on Philip and the first group of Laurel and Hardy team's films, To the Lighthouse by Virginia Woolf, Steppenwolf by Hermann Hesse, The Bridge of San Luis Rey by Thornton Wilder, Show Boat by Oscar Hammerstein II and Jerome Kern, and the original versions of the first three books of The Hardy Boys.

The last two short stories in the Canon of Sherlock Holmes, written by Arthur Conan Doyle and subject to a copyright dispute by his estate, and H. Rider Haggard's final book about Allan Quatermain, Allan and the Ice-gods, enter the public domain in 2023.

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ "How long does copyright last? | National Library of Australia". www.nla.gov.au. Retrieved 10 June 2020.
  2. ^ "Copyright and the Public Domain". Public Domain Information Project. Archived from the original on 2014-08-01. Retrieved 2019-01-23.
  3. ^ Hirtle, Peter B. (3 January 2020). "Copyright Term and the Public Domain in the United States". Cornell University Library Copyright Information Center. Retrieved 17 December 2020.

External links[edit]