2069 Hubble

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
2069 Hubble
Discovery [1]
Discovered byIndiana University
(Indiana Asteroid Program)
Discovery siteGoethe Link Obs.
Discovery date29 March 1955
(2069) Hubble
Named after
Edwin Hubble (astronomer)[2]
1955 FT · 1953 VN1
1969 TB1 · 1970 WA1
1975 TT3
main-belt · (outer)[3]
Orbital characteristics[1]
Epoch 4 September 2017 (JD 2458000.5)
Uncertainty parameter 0
Observation arc62.22 yr (22,727 days)
Aphelion3.7484 AU
Perihelion2.5729 AU
3.1606 AU
5.62 yr (2,052 days)
0° 10m 31.44s / day
Physical characteristics
Dimensions34.44 km (derived)[3]
34.53±2.3 km[4]
38.471±0.151 km[5]
39.54±10.25 km[6]
40.10±0.84 km[7]
40.615±0.281 km[8]
45.82±12.40 km[9]
46.92±16.56 km[10]
32.52±0.02 h[11]
0.0410 (derived)[3]
11.1[4][7][8] · 11.27±0.20[12] · 11.30[6] · 11.32[10] · 11.4[1][3] · 11.48[9]

2069 Hubble, provisional designation 1955 FT, is a carbonaceous asteroid from the outer region of the asteroid belt, approximately 40 kilometers in diameter. It was discovered on 29 March 1955, by the Indiana Asteroid Program at Goethe Link Observatory, United States, and named after American astronomer Edwin Hubble.[2][13]


Hubble orbits the Sun in the outer main-belt at a distance of 2.6–3.7 AU once every 5 years and 7 months (2,052 days). Its orbit has an eccentricity of 0.19 and an inclination of 9° with respect to the ecliptic.[1] Its first unused observations, 1953 VN1, was made at Goethe Link in 1953. The body's observation arc begins at NAOJ's Mitaka Campus, 8 days prior to its official discovery observation at Goethe Link.[13]

Physical characteristics[edit]


In January 2005, American astronomer Brian Warner obtained a rotational lightcurve of Hubble from photometric observations taken at his Palmer Divide Observatory in Colorado. Lightcurve analysis showed an unusual tri-modal lightcurve with a rotation period of 32.52 hours and a brightness variation of 0.10 in magnitude.[11][a] While not being a slow rotator, Hubble has a longer than average spin rate, as the vast majority of asteroids rotate between 2.2 and 20 hours once around their axis.

Diameter and albedo[edit]

According to the surveys carried out by the Infrared Astronomical Satellite IRAS, the Japanese Akari satellite, and NASA's Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer with its subsequent NEOWISE mission, Hubble measures between 34.53 and 46.92 kilometers in diameter, and its surface has an albedo between 0.024 and 0.0538.[4][5][6][7][8][9][10] The Collaborative Asteroid Lightcurve Link classifies it as a carbonaceous C-type asteroid, derives an albedo of 0.041 and a shorter diameter of 34.44 kilometers with an absolute magnitude of 11.4.[3]


This minor planet was named after the famous American astronomer Edwin Hubble (1889–1953). He pioneered in the exploration of the Universe beyond the Milky Way galaxy and established a self-consistent distance scale as far as the 100-inch Hooker Telescope at Mount Wilson Observatory could reach. Hubble's law and the discovery of the expanding Universe were his greatest achievements. His classification scheme for galaxies, the Hubble sequence, is still the standard and often called the Hubble tuning-fork. Hubble also discovered the minor planet 1373 Cincinnati, his only asteroid discovery. The lunar crater Hubble is also named after him.[2] The approved naming citation was published by the Minor Planet Center on 20 December 1983 (M.P.C. 8403).[14]


  1. ^ Warner (2005) Lightcurve plot of 2069 Hubble with a rotation period 32.52±0.02 hours with a brightness amplitude of 0.10 magnitude


  1. ^ a b c d "JPL Small-Body Database Browser: 2069 Hubble (1955 FT)" (2017-06-05 last obs.). Jet Propulsion Laboratory. Retrieved 3 July 2017.
  2. ^ a b c Schmadel, Lutz D. (2007). "(2069) Hubble". Dictionary of Minor Planet Names – (2069) Hubble. Springer Berlin Heidelberg. pp. 167–168. doi:10.1007/978-3-540-29925-7_2070. ISBN 978-3-540-00238-3.
  3. ^ a b c d e f "LCDB Data for (2069) Hubble". Asteroid Lightcurve Database (LCDB). Retrieved 29 March 2017.
  4. ^ a b c d Tedesco, E. F.; Noah, P. V.; Noah, M.; Price, S. D. (October 2004). "IRAS Minor Planet Survey V6.0". NASA Planetary Data System. 12: IRAS-A-FPA-3-RDR-IMPS-V6.0. Bibcode:2004PDSS...12.....T. Retrieved 22 October 2019.
  5. ^ a b Masiero, Joseph R.; Grav, T.; Mainzer, A. K.; Nugent, C. R.; Bauer, J. M.; Stevenson, R.; et al. (August 2014). "Main-belt Asteroids with WISE/NEOWISE: Near-infrared Albedos". The Astrophysical Journal. 791 (2): 11. arXiv:1406.6645. Bibcode:2014ApJ...791..121M. doi:10.1088/0004-637X/791/2/121. Retrieved 29 March 2017.
  6. ^ a b c d Nugent, C. R.; Mainzer, A.; Masiero, J.; Bauer, J.; Cutri, R. M.; Grav, T.; et al. (December 2015). "NEOWISE Reactivation Mission Year One: Preliminary Asteroid Diameters and Albedos". The Astrophysical Journal. 814 (2): 13. arXiv:1509.02522. Bibcode:2015ApJ...814..117N. doi:10.1088/0004-637X/814/2/117. Retrieved 29 March 2017.
  7. ^ a b c d Usui, Fumihiko; Kuroda, Daisuke; Müller, Thomas G.; Hasegawa, Sunao; Ishiguro, Masateru; Ootsubo, Takafumi; et al. (October 2011). "Asteroid Catalog Using Akari: AKARI/IRC Mid-Infrared Asteroid Survey". Publications of the Astronomical Society of Japan. 63 (5): 1117–1138. Bibcode:2011PASJ...63.1117U. doi:10.1093/pasj/63.5.1117. (online, AcuA catalog p. 153)
  8. ^ a b c d Mainzer, A.; Grav, T.; Masiero, J.; Hand, E.; Bauer, J.; Tholen, D.; et al. (November 2011). "NEOWISE Studies of Spectrophotometrically Classified Asteroids: Preliminary Results". The Astrophysical Journal. 741 (2): 25. arXiv:1109.6407. Bibcode:2011ApJ...741...90M. doi:10.1088/0004-637X/741/2/90.
  9. ^ a b c d Nugent, C. R.; Mainzer, A.; Bauer, J.; Cutri, R. M.; Kramer, E. A.; Grav, T.; et al. (September 2016). "NEOWISE Reactivation Mission Year Two: Asteroid Diameters and Albedos". The Astronomical Journal. 152 (3): 12. arXiv:1606.08923. Bibcode:2016AJ....152...63N. doi:10.3847/0004-6256/152/3/63. Retrieved 29 March 2017.
  10. ^ a b c d Masiero, Joseph R.; Mainzer, A. K.; Grav, T.; Bauer, J. M.; Cutri, R. M.; Nugent, C.; et al. (November 2012). "Preliminary Analysis of WISE/NEOWISE 3-Band Cryogenic and Post-cryogenic Observations of Main Belt Asteroids". The Astrophysical Journal Letters. 759 (1): 5. arXiv:1209.5794. Bibcode:2012ApJ...759L...8M. doi:10.1088/2041-8205/759/1/L8. Retrieved 29 March 2017.
  11. ^ a b Warner, Brian D. (September 2005). "Asteroid lightcurve analysis at the Palmer Divide Observatory - winter 2004-2005". The Minor Planet Bulletin. 32 (3): 54–58. Bibcode:2005MPBu...32...54W. ISSN 1052-8091. Retrieved 29 March 2017.
  12. ^ Veres, Peter; Jedicke, Robert; Fitzsimmons, Alan; Denneau, Larry; Granvik, Mikael; Bolin, Bryce; et al. (November 2015). "Absolute magnitudes and slope parameters for 250,000 asteroids observed by Pan-STARRS PS1 - Preliminary results". Icarus. 261: 34–47. arXiv:1506.00762. Bibcode:2015Icar..261...34V. doi:10.1016/j.icarus.2015.08.007. Retrieved 29 March 2017.
  13. ^ a b "2069 Hubble (1955 FT)". Minor Planet Center. Retrieved 29 March 2017.
  14. ^ "MPC/MPO/MPS Archive". Minor Planet Center. Retrieved 29 March 2017.

External links[edit]