|Millennium:||1st millennium BC|
|207 BC by topic|
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Year 207 BC was a year of the pre-Julian Roman calendar. At the time it was known as the Year of the Consulship of Nero and Salinator (or, less frequently, year 547 Ab urbe condita). The denomination 207 BC for this year has been used since the early medieval period, when the Anno Domini calendar era became the prevalent method in Europe for naming years.
- The Roman general Gaius Claudius Nero fights an indecisive battle with the Carthaginian general Hannibal at Grumentum. Nero is unable to stop Hannibal's advance into Canusium. Nevertheless, he rapidly marches the elite parts of his army some one hundred kilometres north to reinforce the army of Marcus Livius Salinator.
- The Battle of the Metaurus, fought near the Metaurus River in Umbria, is a pivotal battle during the Second Punic War between Rome and Carthage. The Carthaginians are led by Hannibal's brother Hasdrubal Barca, and the Roman armies are led by the consuls Marcus Livius Salinator and Gaius Claudius Nero. The Carthaginian army is defeated by the Romans and Hasdrubal is killed in the battle. This major loss by the Carthaginians ends Hannibal's hopes of success in Italy.
- The general leading the Achaean League, Philopoemen, introduces heavier Macedonian armour and phalanx tactics. His army then crushes the Spartans under the Spartan regent and general, Machanidas, in the battle of Mantinea. Machanidas is killed by Philopoemen during the battle.
- Nabis, a Syrian sold into slavery, rises to power in Sparta and becomes regent of the young Spartan king, Pelops, following the death of Machanidas. Nabis soon overthrows Pelops, claiming to be a descendent of the Eurypontid Spartan king Demaratus. Nabis then starts a social revolution which will lead to the freeing of all the helots, the destruction of the ruling oligarchy, the redistribution of land and the cancelling of debts.
- When king An Dương Vương dies, so does his dynasty and the Triệu Dynasty and the kingdom of Nam Việt are established.
- Emperor Qin Er Shi of the Qin Dynasty is assassinated by his chief eunuch Zhao Gao. He is replaced by his nephew Ziying, who in turn assassinates Zhao Gao.
- Hasdrubal Barca, Carthaginian general who has unsuccessfully attempted to sustain Carthage's military ascendancy on the Spanish peninsula in the face of Roman attacks (b. 245 BC)
- Chrysippus, Greek philosopher from Soloi who was the principal systematiser of Stoic philosophy (b. c. 280 BC)
- Machanidas, Spartan general and regent (killed in the battle of Mantinea)
- Qin Er Shi, Emperor of the Qin Dynasty of China (assassinated) (b. 229 BC)
- Zhao Gao, Chief eunuch in the service of the Emperors of the Qin Dynasty of China (assassinated)
- Simuka, Indian king from 230 BC and the founder of the Satavahana dynasty (b. 230 BC)
- An Dương Vương, King of Việt Nam since 257 BC