|Millennium:||1st millennium BC|
|Centuries:||2nd century BC – 1st century BC – 1st century|
|Decades:||50s BC 40s BC 30s BC – 20s BC – 10s BC 0s BC 0s|
|Years:||23 BC 22 BC 21 BC – 20 BC – 19 BC 18 BC 17 BC|
|20 BC by topic|
|Gregorian calendar||20 BC
|Ab urbe condita||734|
|Ancient Greek era||190th Olympiad (victor)¹|
|Chinese calendar||庚子年 (Metal Rat)
2677 or 2617
— to —
辛丑年 (Metal Ox)
2678 or 2618
|Coptic calendar||−303 – −302|
|Ethiopian calendar||−27 – −26|
|- Vikram Samvat||37–38|
|- Shaka Samvat||N/A|
|- Kali Yuga||3082–3083|
|Iranian calendar||641 BP – 640 BP|
|Islamic calendar||661 BH – 660 BH|
|Julian calendar||20 BC
|Minguo calendar||1931 before ROC
|Seleucid era||292/293 AG|
|Thai solar calendar||523–524|
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to 20 BC.|
Year 20 BC was either a common year starting on Wednesday or Thursday or a leap year starting on Tuesday, Wednesday or Thursday (link will display the full calendar) of the Julian calendar (the sources differ, see leap year error for further information) and a common year starting on Tuesday of the Proleptic Julian calendar. At the time, it was known as the Year of the Consulship of Appuleius and Nerva (or, less frequently, year 734 Ab urbe condita). The denomination 20 BC for this year has been used since the early medieval period, when the Anno Domini calendar era became the prevalent method in Europe for naming years.
- 12 May – Peace treaty between Rome and Parthia, in which the captured eagles of Marcus Licinius Crassus and Mark Antony are returned.
- Based on the scenes and the style of the work, the Portland Vase is believed to have been made in Alexandria some time between this year and AD 100.
- King Herod the Great begins renovation of the Temple in Jerusalem.
- Maison Carrée, Nîmes, France, is built (approximate date).
- Marcus Verrius Flaccus' De verborum significatu is published. It is one of the first great dictionaries in history
- Gaius Caesar, grandson of Augustus Caesar (d. AD 4)
- Philo, the philosopher (approximate date) (d. AD 50)
- Sejanus, future advisor to Emperor Tiberius (d. AD 31)