From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
|This article needs additional citations for verification. (January 2017) (Learn how and when to remove this template message)|
- 1 Events
- 1.1 210
- 1.2 211
- 1.3 212
- 1.4 213
- 1.5 214
- 1.6 215
- 1.7 216
- 1.8 217
- 1.9 218
- 1.10 219
- 2 Significant people
- 3 Births
- 4 Deaths
- 5 References
- Having suffered heavy losses since invading Scotland in 208, emperor Septimius Severus sends his son Caracalla to systematically wipe out and torture the Scots into submission.
- February 4 – Emperor Septimius Severus, having fallen ill, dies in Eboracum (modern-day York) while on campaign in Britain after an 18-year reign. He is later deified by the Senate. His sons Caracalla and Geta succeed him as joint Roman Emperors.
- December 19 – Geta is lured to come without his bodyguards to meet Caracalla, to discuss a possible reconciliation. When he arrives the Praetorian Guard murders him and he dies in the arms of his mother Julia Domna.
- Eboracum becomes the capital of Britannia Inferior, a northern province of the Roman Empire.
- January – Cao Cao writes Ràng Xiàn Zì Míng Běn Zhì Lìng (讓縣自明本志令)
- March – September: Cao Cao defeats Ma Chao at the Battle of Tong Pass.
- Ardashir I becomes king of part of Persia.
- Baths of Caracalla construction begins (approximate date).
- The edict of emperor Caracalla (Constitutio Antoniniana) extends Roman citizenship to all free inhabitants of the Roman Empire with the exception of a limited group that may include Egyptians. The Jewish people are among those who receive citizenship. All free women in the Empire are given the same rights as Roman women.
- Roman jurist Aemilius Papinianus, one of the famous jurists who flourished during the reign of the late emperor Septimius Severus, refuses to write a legal defence for the murder of Caracalla's brother, Publius Septimius Geta. He is beheaded in Rome, in Caracalla's presence.
- Caracalla quiets the objections of the Roman army to Geta's murder by huge donations.
- Construction begins on the Baths of Caracalla in Rome.
- Edessa in Mesopotamia becomes a Roman province.
- Marcus Aurelius Antoninus Augustus (Caracalla) and Decimus Caelius Calvinus Balbinus become Roman Consuls.
- Emperor Caracalla leaves Rome and expels some German marauders from Gaul. He defends the northern Rhine frontier against the Alamanni and the Chatti. Caracalla wins a victory over the German tribes on the banks of the River Main, and gives himself the title "Germanicus". It is probably while campaigning in Germania that he takes a liking to the caracalla, a Celtic or German tunic from which he acquires the name by which he is known.
- Cao Cao, the prime minister of the Han dynasty, is titled Wei Gong (Duke of Wei) and given a fief of ten cities under his domain. This later becomes the Kingdom of Wei.
- The kingdom of Osroene becomes a province of the Roman Empire.
- Caracalla's victories in Germany ensure his popularity within the Roman army.
- The defences of Rhaetia are reinforced, in the form of an uninterrupted stone wall.
- The Korean kingdom of Baekje attacks the Mohe tribes.
- Battle of Xiaoyao Ford: Zhang Liao under the command of Cao Cao beats back Sun Quan at Hefei.
- Liu Bei takes Yi Province (益州) from his clansman Liu Zhang, forming the later basis for Shu Han during the Three Kingdoms period.
- Pang Tong dies in the hands of the enemy in an ambush at the Valley of the Fallen Phoenix.
- Caracalla's troops massacre the population of Alexandria, Egypt, beginning with the leading citizens. The emperor is angry about a satire, produced in Alexandria, mocking his claim that he killed Geta in self-defense.
- Caracalla introduces a new coin, the Antoninianus. The weight of this coin is a mere 1/50 of a pound. Copper disappears gradually, and by the middle of the third century, with Rome's economy in crisis, the Antonianus will be the only official currency.
- Zhang Liao holds off Sun Quan's invasion force at the siege of Xiaoyao Ford in Hefei.
- Vachagan I becomes king of Caucasian Albania.
- The Baths of Caracalla in Rome are completed with public baths (Thermae), reading rooms, auditoriums, running tracks, and public gardens that cover 20 acres.
- Emperor Caracalla tricks the Parthians by accepting a marriage proposal. He slaughters his bride and the wedding guests after the celebrations.
- Caracalla provokes a war with Artabanus V (of Parthia) to imitate his idol Alexander the Great. He crosses the Tigris, destroys towns and spoils the tombs of Arbela. The Roman army annexes Armenia.
- The basilica of Leptis Magna, ordered by Septimius Severus, is completed.
- Mithraism, which had begun in Persia, is on course to be adopted by many Roman soldiers serving in Asia.
- April 8 – Caracalla is assassinated by his soldiers near Edessa. Marcus Opellius Macrinus head of the Praetorian Guard, declares himself Roman emperor.
- Summer – Battle of Nisibis: A Roman army, under the command of Macrinus, is defeated in a three days' battle by the Parthians at Nisibis, in the province of Mesopotamia.
- King Artabanus V signs a peace treaty with Rome after he received 200 million sesterces, for the rebuilding of towns destroyed during the war in Parthia.
- Macrinus, of Mauritania, becomes the first equestrian Roman emperor.
- Empress Julia, wife of Septimius Severus and mother of Caracalla and Geta, commits suicide.
- The Colosseum is badly damaged by fire (lightning) which destroys the wooden upper levels of the amphitheater.
- December 20 – The papacy of Zephyrinus ends. Callixtus I is elected as the sixteenth pope, but is opposed by the theologian Hippolytus who accuses him of laxity and of being a Modalist, one who denies any distinction between the three persons of the Trinity.
- Hippolytus begins his "pontificate" as antipope and sets up a breakaway church for Christian followers.
- Ciriacus succeeds Philadelphus as Patriarch of Constantinople.
- According to a tradition noted by 19th century historian Stephen Glover, the earliest recorded game of association football (soccer) took place in Derby, England as a celebration on Shrove Tuesday, the day before commencement of the Lent season on Ash Wednesday, and 47 days before Easter Sunday  
- May 16 – Julia Maesa, an aunt of the assassinated Caracalla, is banished to her home in Syria by the self-proclaimed emperor Macrinus and declares her grandson Elagabalus, age 14, emperor of Rome.
- June 8 – Battle of Antioch: Elagabalus defeats with support of the Syrian legions the forces of Macrinus. Macrinus flees, but is captured near Chalcedon and later executed in Cappadocia.
- Diadumenianus, son of Macrinus, escapes to the Parthian court, but is captured at Zeugma and also put to death.
- The silver content of the Roman denarius falls to 43 percent under emperor Elagabalus, down from 50 percent under Septimius Severus, as he empties the treasury with his excesses while his grandmother, Julia Maesa, rules the Empire.
- Imperator Marcus Aurelius Antoninus Augustus (Elagabalus) and Quintus Tineius Sacerdos become Roman Consuls.
- Julia Maesa arranges for her grandson Elagabalus a marriage with Julia Paula. The wedding is a lavish ceremony and Paula is given the honorific title of Augusta.
- Legions III Gallica and IV Scythica are disbanded by Elagabalus after their leaders, Verus and Gellius Maximus, rebel.
- Emperor Elagabalus, age 15, is initiated into the worship of the Phrygian gods Cybele and Attis.
- The reign of Pulona, Satavahana king of Andhra, begins in India.
- The Battle of Mount Dingjun ends with Liu Bei emerging victorious. He declares himself king of Hanzhong afterwards.
- Guan Yu, great general of Shu, floods the city of Fancheng in the Battle of Fancheng, while Lü Meng of Eastern Wu captures his home base. Guan Yu retreats and is defeated at Battle of Maicheng.
- General Cao Cao controls the Yellow River basin and north of the country. General Sun Quan seizes southernmost China. Liu Bei controls the province of Sichuan.
- Tuoba Liwei becomes the first chieftain of the Tuoba clan of the Xianbei people.
|This section is empty. You can help by adding to it. (March 2016)|
|This section needs expansion. You can help by adding to it. (March 2016)|
- Marcus Aurelius Valerius Claudius, better known as Claudius Gothicus. Born in 210, he would eventually become a Roman emperor.
- Marcus Aurelius Claudius Quintillus, better known as Quintillus. Born c. 212, he would eventually become a Roman emperor.
- Marcus Aemilius Aemilianus, better known as Aemilianus. Born c. 207 or c. 213 (the primary sources on the subject are contradictory to each other), he would eventually become a Roman emperor.
- Lucius Domitius Aurelianus, better known as Aurelian. Born in 214 or 215, he would eventually become a Roman emperor.
- Publius Licinius Egnatius Gallienus, better known as Gallienus. Born c. 218, he would eventually become a Roman emperor.
|This section needs expansion. You can help by adding to it. (March 2016)|
- Septimius Severus, Roman emperor. Died in 211.
- Publius Septimius Geta, Roman emperor. Died in 211.
- Caracalla, Roman emperor. Died in 217.
- Macrinus, Roman emperor. Died in 218.
- Diadumenian, Roman emperor. Died in 218.
- p41 Foot-Ball: Its History for Five Centuries, by Montague Shearman and James E. Vincent (Field & Tuer, 1885) p41
- Marion von Adlerstein, The Penguin Book Of Etiquette (Penguin UK, 2007)