21 cm Mörser 18

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to navigation Jump to search
21 cm Mörser 18
21cmMörser18FortSillRear2005.jpg
TypeHeavy howitzer
Place of originGermany
Service history
In service1939–45
Used byNazi Germany
WarsWorld War II
Production history
DesignerKrupp
ManufacturerKrupp
Produced1939–45
No. built711+
Specifications
Weight16,700 kg (36,817 lbs)
Barrel length6.51 m (21 ft 4 in) L/30

Shellseparate-loading cased ammunition (6 charges)
Shell weight113 kg (249 lb) (HE)
Caliber211 mm (8.30 in)
Breechhorizontal sliding-block
Recoildual-recoil hydro-pneumatic
Carriagebox trail
Elevation-6° to +70°
Traverse16° on wheels
360° on platform
Muzzle velocity550 m/s (1,804 ft/s)
Effective firing range14,500 m (15,857 yds)

The 21 cm Mörser 18 (21 cm Mrs 18), or 21 cm Mörser M 18/L31,[1] was a German heavy howitzer used in the Second World War by independent artillery battalions and batteries. A number were also used by coastal artillery units.

Design and service[edit]

A Mrs 18 deployed in Norwegian Lappland

The Mörser 18 was designed to replace the obsolescent World War I-era 21 cm Mörser 16. While the gun design itself was nothing innovative, the same cannot be said for the carriage. It was one of the first artillery pieces that incorporated a dual-recoil system.[2] The barrel recoiled normally in its cradle, but, in addition, the whole top carriage, which carried the barrel and its cradle, recoiled across the main part of the carriage. This system damped out the recoil forces and made for a very steady firing platform. This carriage was also used for the 17 cm Kanone 18 in Mörserlafette and the 15 cm Schnelladekanone C/28 in Mörserlafette.

The Mrs 18 was an enormous weapon that was transported in two pieces, as was common for such large weapons. For travel the barrel was slid on to a separate trailer. The carriage carried an integral firing platform that was lowered to the ground when em-placing the howitzer. The wheels were then cranked up off the ground and it was now ready for firing. A rear castor-wheel jack was used to raise the rear spade off the ground if the gun needed to be traversed more than the 16° allowed by the mount proper.

The Mrs 18 entered production at a low rate in 1939 shortly before the war began. The Germans cancelled production in 1942 in lieu of its smaller brother, the 17 cm Kanone 18 in Mörserlafette, which could fire almost twice as far, but resumed production in 1943.

Beginning in 1942, the 21 cm M 18 was one of a pair of weapons to have been mounted on production Geschützwagen Tiger self-propelled guns. A prototype was under test at the end of the war and was captured by American forces.[1]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b Engelmann, Joachim (1991). German heavy mortars. West Chester, PA: Schiffer. ISBN 088740-322-0.
  2. ^ Hogg, Ian V. (2013). German Artillery of World War Two (Paperback ed.). Barnsley, United Kingdom: Frontline Books. p. 91. ISBN 978-1-84832-725-2. Retrieved 8 October 2017.

Further reading[edit]

  • Scheibert, Horst; Engelmann, Joachim (1974). Deutsche Artillerie 1934-1945: Eine Dokumentation in Text, Skizzen und Bildern: Ausrüstung, Gliederung, Ausbildung, Führung, Einsatz (in German). Limburg/Lahn, Germany: C. A. Starke.
  • Hogg, Ian V. (2002). German artillery of World War II (New ed.). London: Greenhill. ISBN 1-85367-480-X.