21 cm Mörser 18
|21 cm Mörser 18|
|Place of origin||Germany|
|Used by||Nazi Germany|
|Wars||World War II|
|Weight||16,700 kg (36,817 lbs)|
|Barrel length||6.51 m (21 ft 4 in) L/30|
|Shell||separate-loading cased ammunition (6 charges)|
|Shell weight||113 kg (249 lb) (HE)|
|Caliber||211 mm (8.30 in)|
|Breech||horizontal sliding block|
|Elevation||-6° to +70°|
|Traverse||16° on wheels
360° on platform
|Muzzle velocity||550 m/s (1,804 ft/s)|
|Effective firing range||14,500 m (15,857 yds)|
The 21 cm Mörser 18 (21 cm Mrs 18), or 21 cm Mörser M 18/L31, was a German heavy howitzer used in the Second World War by independent artillery battalions and batteries. A number were also used by coast defense artillery units.
Design & History
The Mrs 18 was designed to replace the obsolescent World War I-era 21 cm Mörser 16. While the gun design itself was nothing innovative, the same cannot be said for the carriage. It was one of the first weapons, if not the first in quantity production, that used the interesting dual-recoil system. The barrel recoiled normally in its cradle, but, in addition, the whole top carriage, which carried the barrel and its cradle, recoiled across the main part of the carriage. This system damped out the recoil forces and made for a very steady firing platform. This carriage was also used for the 17 cm Kanone 18 in Mörserlafette and the 15 cm Schnelladekanone C/28 in Mörserlafette.
The Mrs 18 was an enormous weapon that was transported in two pieces, as was common for such large weapons. For travel the barrel was slid on to a separate trailer. The carriage carried an integral firing platform that was lowered to the ground when em-placing the howitzer. The wheels were then cranked up off the ground and it was now ready for firing. A rear castor-wheel jack was used to raise the rear spade off the ground if the gun needed to be traversed more than the 16° allowed by the mount proper.
The Mrs 18 entered production at a low rate in 1939 shortly before the war began. The Germans cancelled production in 1942 in lieu of its smaller brother, the 17 cm Kanone 18 in Mörserlafette, which could fire almost twice as far, but resumed production in 1943.
Beginning in 1942, the 21 cm M 18 was one of a pair of weapons to have been mounted on production Geschützwagen Tiger SPGs. A prototype was under test at the end of WWII and was captured by American forces.
- Scheibert, Horst; Engelmann, Joachim (1974). Deutsche Artillerie 1934-1945: Eine Dokumentation in Text, Skizzen und Bildern: Ausrüstung, Gliederung, Ausbildung, Führung, Einsatz (in German). Limburg/Lahn, Germany: C. A. Starke.
- Hogg, Ian V. (2002). German artillery of World War II (New ed.). London: Greenhill. ISBN 1-85367-480-X.
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