Air Education and Training Command Studies and Analysis Squadron

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Air Education and Training Command Studies and Analysis Squadron
Air Education and Training Command.png
Active1941–1943; 1944; 1944–1946; 1965–1973; 1973–1991; 1992–present
Country United States
Branch United States Air Force
RoleAdvanced planning
Part ofAir Education and Training Command
Garrison/HQJoint Base San Antonio - Randolph
Motto(s)Hit My Smoke (1964-1973) Truth Shall Be Found (1992-1994) Vincit Omnia Veritas Latin Truth Conquers All (2001-present)
EngagementsAmerican Theater Antisubmarine Campaign
Pacific Theater of Operations
Vietnam War
DecorationsDistinguished Unit Citation
Presidential Unit Citation
Air Force Outstanding Unit Award with Combat "V" Device
Air Force Organizational Excellence Award
Republic of Vietnam Gallantry Cross with Palm
Insignia
AETC Studies & Analysis Squadron emblem (approved 5 June 2001)[note 1]AETC Studies & Analysis Sq emblem.png
21st Tactical Air Support Squadron emblem[1] (approved 17 September 1990)21 Tactical Air Support Sq emblem (1990) (later 21 Test & Evaluation Sq).png
21st Tactical Air Support Squadron emblem (1970s)21 Tactical Air Support Sq emblem (1970s).png
Patch with unofficial 21st Tactical Air Support Squadron emblem (Vietnam)21tass.png
Unofficial 21st Bombardment Squadron (Heavy) emblem[2]21st Bombardment Squadron - Emblem.png

The Air Education and Training Command Studies and Analysis Squadron is a unit of the United States Air Force stationed at Randolph Air Force Base, Texas, where it reports directly to the headquarters of Air Education and Training Command, evaluating training programs and systems.

The squadron's first two predecessor units served in combat during World War II. The 21st Bombardment Squadron (Heavy) flew Consolidated B-24 Liberators in the Aleutian Campaign, where it participated in one of the earliest direct attacks against Japan. The 21st Bombardment Squadron, Very Heavy flew Boeing B-29 Superfortresses in the strategic bombing campaign against Japan, earning a Distinguished Unit Citation for attacks on the Japanese petroleum industry.

The squadron's other predecessor, the 21st Tactical Air Support Squadron served in combat in the Vietnam War from spring 1965 until the withdrawal of U.S. forces in 1973, earning several combat decorations. One squadron member, Captain Hilliard A. Wilbanks, was awarded the Medal of Honor for actions that helped rescue Vietnamese Rangers that had been ambushed by Viet Cong forces. The squadron served in the tactical air support role in the United States from 1973 through 1991. During this service, the three squadrons were consolidated as a single unit in September 1985.

The squadron assumed its current role in 1992, when, as the 21st Test and Evaluation Squadron, it replaced the 3307th Test and Evaluation Squadron at Randolph.

Mission[edit]

The Air Education and Training Command Studies and Analysis Squadron mission is to minimize training costs while meeting Air Force mission goals. It evaluates the long-term impact of changes to training or curriculum of courses offered by Air Education and Training Command (AETC) and predicts Air Force resource requirements for more than five years into the future. It uses analytics to enhance command decision making that impacts numbers or categories of personnel, combining essential modeling, optimization and scheduling environments.[3]


History[edit]

World War II[edit]

Antisubmarine and Alaskan service[edit]

The first predecessor of the squadron was activated at March Field, California in January 1941 as the 21st Bombardment Squadron (Heavy),one of the original squadrons of the 30th Bombardment Group. The 21st was equipped with a mix of Douglas B-18 Bolo, Boeing YB-17 Flying Fortress, and Lockheed A-29 Hudson aircraft. In May, the squadron moved to New Orleans Airport, where it continued training as a bomber unit.[4][5]

When the Japanese attacked Pearl Harbor, the squadron began antisubmarine patrols over the Gulf of Mexico and dispatched a detachment to Savannah Army Air Base, Georgia[note 2] to hunt for U-boats off the Atlantic Coast. By the end of the month, though, the squadron was patrolling the Pacific Coast with its Hudsons, the 30th Group having returned to March Field after a brief stay at Muroc Army Air Field, California. From May through June 1942, the squadron operated through detachments at McChord Field, Washington and Hamilton Field as well as at civilian airports in Southern California.[4][5]

21st Bomb Squadron B-24 Liberator at Amchitka in March 1943

in June 1942, the Japanese attacked Dutch Harbor, Alaska. The squadron's air echelon moved to Fort Glenn Army Air Base, on Umnak Island, Alaska to reinforce the 28th Composite Group in the Aleutian Islands, using the Consolidated B-24 Liberator and the LB-30 model of the Liberator. By September, the rest of the squadron had joined it in Alaska.[4] The squadron frequently operated from advanced bases in the Aleutian Chain. On 14 September, along with the 404th Bombardment Squadron of the 28th Group, it conducted the first raid from Adak Army Air Field, an attack on Japanese naval forces at Kiska. By February 1943, American forces had occupied Amchitka, and the squadron began operating from Amchitka Army Air Field. On 18 July, the squadron provided planes that, along with planes from the 36th and 404th Squadrons, attacked Shimushu and Paramushiru in the Kuril Islands. Although the attack caused little damage, it was the first attack on Japan itself after the Doolittle Raid.[6]

Although the squadron spent fifteen months operating under the control of the 28th Group in Alaska, it remained formally assigned to the 30th Group at March Field. By September 1943, when the Aleutian Campaign had ended and the squadron was released to return to the United States, the 30th Group and its remaining squadrons had departed for the Pacific, and the squadron was disbanded at Smoky Hill Army Air Field, Kansas on 1 November.[4][5][7]

Strategic bombing of Japan[edit]

501st Bombardment Group B-29 taking off from Northwest Field Guam

The second predecessor of the squadron was the 21st Bombardment Squadron, Very Heavy, which was activated at Dalhart Army Air Field, Texas as one of the original four squadrons of the 16th Bombardment Group. However, before the squadron could be manned or equipped, groups flying the Boeing B-29 Superfortress were reorganized from four to three bombardment squadrons[citation needed] and the squadron was inactivated on 10 May 1944.[8]

The squadron's inactivation lasted only three weeks, however, and on 1 June it was again activated at Dalhart, this time as a component of the 501st Bombardment Group. In August, the squadron moved to Harvard Army Air Field, Nebraska, where it trained for combat with the Superfortress. It left Harvard in March 1945 after completing its training and arrived at its combat station, Northwest Field (Guam) on 14 April. The squadron flew its first combat mission against Truk Island on 19 June, and eight days later made its first attack on Japan. The unit's missions focused on Japan's petroleum facilities on Honshu. In July 1945, it received a Distinguished Unit Citation for attacks on the Maruzen and Utsobo oil refineries and storage facilities at Kawasaki.[8][9]

After VJ Day, the squadron dropped food and supplies to prisoners of war in Japan, China, Korea and Manchuria. The squadron remained on Guam until it was inactivated in June 1946.[8][9]

Vietnam War[edit]

The 21st Tactical Air Support Squadron was organized at Pleiku Air Base, South Vietnam on 8 May 1965, as one of three squadrons activated to augment the 19th Tactical Air Support Squadron, which had been operating in the forward air control mission in South Vietnam since 1963.[10] It initially flew Cessna O-1 Bird Dog aircraft in the forward air control mission. However, it was not until August that the squadron became operational. The 21st operated primarily in the II Corps Area, with its aircraft dispersed to support United States Army, ARVN and Korean units.[11] While initially organizing, it directed air strikes during the Battle of Duc Co[12]

The squadron performed visual reconnaissance with light aircraft, flying slowly at low altitude. By patrolling the same area regularly, squadron forward air controllers grew familiar with the terrain and learned to detect changes that could indicate enemy forces hiding below. The controller called in fighter-bombers and marked targets with smoke grenades or white phosphorus rockets. After the attacks, controllers flew low over the target to assess the damage.[11] In September 1966, the 21st moved from the highlands of Pleiku to the coastal base of Nha Trang Air Base.[13]

21st Squadron Cessna O-2A

On 27 February 1967, Captain Hilliard A. Wilbanks, one of the squadron's forward air controllers, was flying visual reconnaissance in his Cessna O-1 ahead of a South Vietnamese ranger battalion. He located a well-concealed numerically superior Viet Cong (VC) force poised to ambush the rangers. The enemy immediately fired on his plane and advanced on the ranger force, which was pinned down by devastating fire. Capt. Wilbanks recognized that close air support would not be able to arrive soon enough to help the rangers to withstand the advancing enemy. Flying through withering fire at treetop level, he flew over the VC and inflicted many casualties by firing his rifle out the side window of his Bird Dog. Despite increasingly intense antiaircraft fire, he made repeated low passes over the VC. His tactics interrupted the VC's advance and allowed the rangers to withdraw to safety. During his final attack, Capt. Wilbanks was mortally wounded and his aircraft crashed between the opposing forces. He saved numerous friendly personnel from certain injury or death. For his action that day, he was awarded the Medal of Honor.[14]

The single engine of the O-1 Bird Dog made it particularly vulnerable to ground fire and it lacked radio equipment that would permit it to communicate with ground troops and attacking aircraft at the same time. Its low speed and endurance, in addition to making it more vulnerable, sometimes delayed its arrival in areas of operation and the time it could operate.[15] In 1968, the squadron began equipping with twin engined, faster Cessna O-2 Skymasters that had higher speed, greater endurance and better communications equipment, although the O-1 would not be completely phased out of squadron operations until 1971. The 21st moved to Cam Ranh Bay Air Base, South Vietnam in September 1969, and to Phan Rang Air Base two years later. As the United States withdrew forces from Vietnam, the squadron moved to Tan Son Nhut Air Base in January 1972 and was inactivated there on 21 February 1973.[13] Aircraft losses during the war included 41 O-1s, 16 O-2s and an OV-10, while 29 crewmembers lost their lives in combat.[12][16]

Cold War[edit]

Squadron OV-10 firing rockets during an exercise near Shaw AFB

The squadron was again activated at MacDill Air Force Base, Florida, at the end of August 1973.[17] At MacDill, it was equipped with the Cessna OT-37 Tweet and was assigned to the 68th Tactical Air Support Group, which was located at Shaw Air Force Base, South Carolina.[18][19] Little less than a year later, on 1 July 1974, it moved to Shaw, where it joined its parent 507th Tactical Air Control Group, which assumed the mission of the 68th Group when the 68th was inactivated in June 1974.[18][20] At Shaw, the squadron converted from the OT-37 to the OV-10 Bronco in 1988. It re-equipped with the Fairchild Republic OA-10 Thunderbolt II in 1991, shortly before being inactivated and transferring its mission, equipment and personnel to the 21st Tactical Fighter Squadron in November 1991.

Testing, evaluation and analysis[edit]

The squadron was redesignated the 21st Test and Evaluation Squadron and activated on 15 September 1992 at Randolph Air Force Base, where it was assigned to the 12th Operations Group. It absorbed the resources of the 3307th Test and Evaluation Squadron, which had been activated on 15 September 1991 and assigned to the 3300th Training Support Group, and which was simultaneously inactivated.[21][22] Air Training Command (ATC) had established the 3307th Squadron to perform tests and evaluations of new ATC systems including aircraft, simulators and software to determine if these acquisitions met operational requirements.

The squadron became the Air Education and Training Command Studies and Analysis Flight at the end of March 1994. In April 1997, it added the resources of the 602d Training Support Squadron at Edwards Air Force Base, California, which developed training programs for new weapons systems as they were acquired by the Air Force and became a squadron again.[13] Personnel at Edwards formed Detachment 1 of the squadron. The Edwards detachment later downgraded to Operating Location A in 2003, and its mission and personnel were absorbed by the squadron at Randolph in 2008. The squadron currently includes a technology innovation flight and a strategy analysis flight.

Lineage[edit]

21st Bombardment Squadron (Heavy)
  • Constituted as the 21st Bombardment Squadron (Heavy) on 20 November 1940
Activated on 15 January 1941
Disbanded on 1 November 1943[4]
Reconstituted on 19 September 1985 and consolidated with the 21st Bombardment Squadron, Very Heavy and the 21st Tactical Air Support Squadron as the 21st Tactical Air Support Squadron[13]
21st Bombardment Squadron, Very Heavy
  • Constituted as the 21st Bombardment Squadron, Very Heavy on 28 March 1944
Activated on 1 April 1944
Inactivated on 10 May 1944
  • Activated on 1 June 1944
Inactivated on 10 June 1946[8]
Consolidated with the 21st Bombardment Squadron (Heavy) and the 21st Tactical Air Support Squadron as the 21st Tactical Air Support Squadron on 19 September 1985[13]
Air Education Command Studies and Analysis Squadron
  • Constituted as the 21st Tactical Air Support Squadron (Light) on 26 April 1965 and activated (not organized)
Organized on 8 May 1965
Inactivated on 21 February 1973
  • Redesignated 21st Tactical Air Support Squadron on 17 July 1973
Activated on 31 August 1973
Consolidated with the 21st Bombardment Squadron (Heavy) and the 21st Bombardment Squadron, Heavy on 19 September 1985
Inactivated on 1 November 1991
  • Redesignated 21st Test and Evaluation Squadron on 1 September 1992
Activated 15 September 1992
Redesignated Air Education Command Studies and Analysis Flight on 31 March 1994
Redesignated Air Education Command Studies and Analysis Squadron on 1 April 1997[13]

Assignments[edit]

  • 30th Bombardment Group, 15 January 1941 (under operational control of 28th Composite Group, 9 January 1942–September 1943)
  • Second Air Force, 18 October 1943 – 1 November 1943
  • 16th Bombardment Group, 1 April 1944 – 10 May 1944
  • 501st Bombardment Group, 1 June 1944 – 10 June 1946[23]
  • Pacific Air Forces, 28 April 1965 (not organized)
  • 2d Air Division, 8 May 1965 (attached to Tactical Air Support Group 6250th, Provisional after 1 August 65)
  • 505th Tactical Control Group, 8 November 1965 (attached to Tactical Air Support Group, Provisional, 6250th 1–8 September 1966, Tactical Air Support Group, Provisional, 6253d after 9 September 1966)
  • 504th Tactical Air Support Group, 8 December 1966
  • 377th Air Base Wing, 15 November 1972 – 21 February 1973[note 3]
  • 68th Tactical Air Support Group, 31 August 1973[18]
  • 507th Tactical Air Control Group (later 507th Tactical Air Control Wing), 15 June 1974 – 1 November 1991
  • 12th Operations Group, 15 September 1992[22]
  • Air Education and Training Command, 31 March 1994 – present[13]

Stations[edit]

Aircraft[edit]

  • Douglas B-18 Bolo, 1941
  • Boeing YB-17 Flying Fortress, 1941
  • Lockheed A-29 Hudson, 1941-1942
  • Consolidated LB-30 Liberator, 1942
  • Consolidated B-24 Liberator, 1942-1943
  • Boeing B-29 Superfortress, 1944-1946
  • Cessna O-1 Bird Dog, 1965-1971
  • Cessna O-2 Skymaster, 1968-1973
  • North American OV-10 Bronco, 1971, 1973-1988, 1989-1991
  • Sikorsky CH-3, 1975-1977
  • Cessna OT-37 Dragonfly, 1986-1988
  • Fairchild Republic OA-10 Thunderbolt II, 1991[13]

Awards and campaigns[edit]

Award streamer Award Dates Notes
Streamer PUC Army.PNG Distinguished Unit Citation Japan, 6 July 1945-13 July 1945 21st Bombardment Squadron, Very Heavy[8]
Streamer PUC Army.PNG Presidential Unit Citation 8 August 1966-7 August 1967 21st Tactical Air Support Squadron[25]
Streamer PUC Army.PNG Presidential Unit Citation 8 August 1967-7 August 1968 21st Tactical Air Support Squadron[25]
Streamer PUC Army.PNG Presidential Unit Citation 1 August 1968-31 August 1969 21st Tactical Air Support Squadron[26]
Streamer PUC Army.PNG Presidential Unit Citation 1 January 1970-31 December 1970 21st Tactical Air Support Squadron[26]
Streamer PUC Army.PNG Presidential Unit Citation 30 January 1971-31 December 1971 21st Tactical Air Support Squadron[26]
AFOUA with Valor.jpg Air Force Outstanding Unit Award with Combat "V" Device 15 March 1972-21 February 1973 21st Tactical Air Support Squadron[26]
Air Force Outstanding Unit Award Streamer.jpg Air Force Outstanding Unit Award 16 Jun 1975-31 May 1977 21st Tactical Air Support Squadron[27]
Air Force Outstanding Unit Award Streamer.jpg Air Force Outstanding Unit Award 1 May 1981-30 April 1983 21st Tactical Air Support Squadron[27]
Air Force Outstanding Unit Award Streamer.jpg Air Force Outstanding Unit Award 1 May 1985-30 April 1987 21st Tactical Air Support Squadron[27]
Air Force Outstanding Unit Award Streamer.jpg Air Force Outstanding Unit Award 15 September 1992-30 June 1993 21st Test & Evaluation Squadron[27]
Air Force Outstanding Unit Award Streamer.jpg Air Force Outstanding Unit Award 1 July 1993-3 March 1994 21st Test & Evaluation Squadron[27]
AFOEA Streamer.jpg Air Force Organizational Excellence Award 1 January 2006-31 December 2007 AETC Studies & Analysis Squadron[28]
AFOEA Streamer.jpg Air Force Organizational Excellence Award 1 January 2013-31 December 2014 AETC Studies & Analysis Squadron[28]
VGCP Streamer.jpg Vietnamese Gallantry Cross with Palm 8 May 1965-21 February 1973 21st Tactical Air Support Squadron[26][27][note 4]
Campaign Streamer Campaign Dates Notes
American Campaign Streamer.png Antisubmarine 7 December 1941 – 7 June 1942 21st Bombardment Squadron (Heavy)[4]
Streamer APC.PNG Air Offensive, Japan 7 June 1942 – 19 September 1943
14 April 1945 – 2 September 1945
21st Bombardment Squadron (Heavy)[4]
21st Bombardment Squadron, Very Heavy[8]
Streamer APC.PNG Aleutian Islands 7 June 1942 – 24 August 1943 21st Bombardment Squadron (Heavy)[4]
Streamer APC.PNG Eastern Mandates 14 Apr 1945 21st Bombardment Squadron, Very Heavy[8]
Streamer APC.PNG Western Pacific 17 April 1945 – 2 September 1945 21st Bombardment Squadron, Very Heavy[8]
Streamer VS.PNG Vietnam Defensive 8 May 1965 – 30 January 1966 21st Tactical Air Support Squadron[25]
Streamer VS.PNG Vietnam Air 31 January 1966 – 28 June 1966 21st Tactical Air Support Squadron[26]
Streamer VS.PNG Vietnam Air Offensive 29 June 1966 – 8 March 1967 21st Tactical Air Support Squadron[26]
Streamer VS.PNG Vietnam Air Offensive, Phase II 9 March 1967 – 31 March 1968 21st Tactical Air Support Squadron[26]
Streamer VS.PNG Vietnam Air/Ground 22 January 1968 – 7 July 1968 21st Tactical Air Support Squadron[26]
Streamer VS.PNG Vietnam Air Offensive, Phase III 1 April 1968 – 31 October 1968 21st Tactical Air Support Squadron[26]
Streamer VS.PNG Vietnam Air Offensive, Phase IV 1 November 1968 – 22 February 1969 21st Tactical Air Support Squadron[26]
Streamer VS.PNG Tet 1969/Counteroffensive 23 February 1969 – 8 June 1969 21st Tactical Air Support Squadron[26]
Streamer VS.PNG Vietnam Summer-Fall 1969 9 June 1969 – 31 October 1969 21st Tactical Air Support Squadron[26]
Streamer VS.PNG Vietnam Winter-Spring 1970 3 November 1969 – 30 April 1970 21st Tactical Air Support Squadron[26]
Streamer VS.PNG Sanctuary Counteroffensive 1 May 1970 – 30 June 1970 21st Tactical Air Support Squadron[26]
Streamer VS.PNG Southwest Monsoon 1 July 1970 – 30 November 1970 21st Tactical Air Support Squadron[26]
Streamer VS.PNG Commando Hunt V 1 December 1970 – 14 May 1971 21st Tactical Air Support Squadron[26]
Streamer VS.PNG Commando Hunt VI 15 May 1971 – 31 July 1971 21st Tactical Air Support Squadron[26]
Streamer VS.PNG Commando Hunt VII 1 November 1971 – 29 March 1972 21st Tactical Air Support Squadron[26]
Streamer VS.PNG Vietnam Ceasefire Campaign 29 March 1972 – 28 January 1973 21st Tactical Air Support Squadron[26]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

Notes[edit]

Explanatory notes
  1. ^ The emblem is described: Per fess azure and vert, in fess a mountain range gules overall rising out of sinister base a demi-raven, wings elevated and displayed proper, with an eye of the third (gules) radiating two electronics flashes sable, one terminating infront of a billet at nombril point celeste, the other terminates at a sword of the like hafted gules, extending point downwards from the sinister wing. The dexter wing points to a red triangle in dexter flank, in dexter chief, four light blue flight symbols descending bendwise sinister in tactical formation one, two and one, all within a narrow bordure yellow.
  2. ^ Rickard implies that the Savannah detachment conducted the squadron's first mission against submarines.
  3. ^ Ravenstein indicates this assignment started on 15 March 1972. Ravenstein, p. 202
  4. ^ AF Pamphlet 900-2 lists four awards, the AFPC web site lists a single award.
Citations
  1. ^ "Approved insignia for: 21 Tactical Air Support Squadron". National Archives Catalog. Retrieved July 10, 2018.
  2. ^ Watkins, p. 74. No approved emblem. Maurer, Combat Squadrons, p. 110
  3. ^ "US Air Force Trains for Long-Term Goals: Air Education and Training Command maximizes resources with SAS". SAS. Archived from the original on January 6, 2012. Retrieved July 15, 2018.
  4. ^ a b c d e f g h Maurer, Combat Squadrons, p. 110
  5. ^ a b c Maurer, Combat Units, pp. 82-83
  6. ^ Rickard, J. (July 16, 2008). "21st Bombardment Squadron". historyofwar.org. Retrieved July 10, 2018.
  7. ^ Maurer, Combat Units, pp. 80-81
  8. ^ a b c d e f g h Maurer, Combat Squadrons, pp. 110-111
  9. ^ a b Maurer, Combat Units, p. 367
  10. ^ Endicott, Judy G. (January 4, 2008). "Factsheet 19 Weapons Squadron (ACC)". Air Force Historical Research Agency. Retrieved July 13, 2018.
  11. ^ a b No byline (May 18, 2015). "FAC in SEA: South Vietnam - "In-Country"". National Museum of the U.S. Air Force. Retrieved July 12, 2018.
  12. ^ a b Initial Historical Report, 505th Tactical Control Group, reprinted at Dixon, Lee (2007). "505th Tactical Control Group". squawk-flash.org. Archived from the original on May 12, 2014. Retrieved July 12, 2018.
  13. ^ a b c d e f g h i Haulman, Daniel L., Lineage and Honors History of the Air Education and Training Command Studies and Analysis Squadron (AETC), Air Force Historical Research Agency. January 6, 1998
  14. ^ "Vietnam War Medal of Honor Recipients (M - Z)". Center for Military History. August 26, 2013. Retrieved July 11, 2018.
  15. ^ Walton, pp. 37-39
  16. ^ Hobson, pp. 51, 60, 73, 81, 87, 89, 93, 97, 117, 128, 133, 141, 149, 152, 167, 191, 205, 208, 212, 218, 225, 230, 237.
  17. ^ a b Mueller, p. 354
  18. ^ a b c Robertson, Patsy (July 26, 2010). "Factsheet 368 Expeditionary Air Support Operations Group (ACC)". Air Force Historical Research Agency. Retrieved September 11, 2017.
  19. ^ "21st Tactical Air Support Squadron" (PDF). usafunithistory.com. August 22, 2011. Retrieved July 10, 2018.
  20. ^ a b Mueller, p. 533
  21. ^ 12th Flying Training Wing History, p. 39
  22. ^ a b Robertson, Patsy (June 26, 2017). "Factsheet 12 Operations Group (AETC)". Air Force Historical Research Agency. Retrieved July 11, 2018.
  23. ^ a b Assignments and stations through 1946 in Maurer, Combat Squadrons, pp. 110-111
  24. ^ Lester, p. 117
  25. ^ a b c AF Pamphlet 900-2, Vol. I, p. 138
  26. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t AF Pamphlet 900-2, Vol. 2, p. 20
  27. ^ a b c d e f "Air Force Personnel Services: Unit Awards". Air Force Personnel Center. Retrieved July 12, 2018. (search)
  28. ^ a b "Air Force Personnel Services: Unit Awards". Air Force Personnel Center. Retrieved July 13, 2018. (search)

Bibliography[edit]

 This article incorporates public domain material from the Air Force Historical Research Agency website http://www.afhra.af.mil/.

External links[edit]