224th Brigade (United Kingdom)
224th Independent Infantry Brigade (Home)
10 October 1940 – 22 December 1941
|Role||Training and Home Defence|
|Durham and North Riding County Division insignia worn by the Brigade in the Second World War.|
- 224th Independent Infantry Brigade (Home), 224th Mixed Brigade and 4th Provisional Brigade (United Kingdom) redirect here
First World War
On the outbreak of World War I the Territorial Force (TF) immediately mobilised for home defence, but shortly afterwards (31 August 1914), its units were authorised to raise 2nd battalions formed from those men who had not volunteered for, or were not fit for, overseas service, together with new volunteers, while the 1st Line went overseas to supplement the Regulars. Early in 1915 the 2nd Line TF battalions were raised to full strength to form new divisions, and began to form Reserve (3rd Line) units to supply drafts. The remaining Home Service men were separated out in May 1915 to form brigades of Coast Defence Battalions (termed Provisional Battalions from June 1915). The 4th Provisional Brigade was formed mainly from details of regiments from Wales and North-West England, with the following composition:
Order of Battle
- 4th Provisional Yeomanry Squadron
- 4th Provisional Battery Royal Field Artillery
- 4th Provisional Brigade Ammunition Column (from CCXCVI (2/2nd North Midland) Brigade RFA)
- 4th Provisional Brigade Field Company Royal Engineers
- 46th Provisional Battalion (from 2/4th and 2/5th Bns Cheshire Regiment
- 47th Provisional Battalion
- 48th Provisional Battalion (from Monmouthshire Regiment and Herefordshire Regiment
- 49th Provisional Battalion (from South Lancashire Regiment)
- 50th Provisional Battalion (from the South Wales Borderers and the King's Shropshire Light Infantry; merged with 46th Provisional Battalion in 1916)
- 51st Provisional Battalion (from the Welsh Regiment)
- 52nd Provisional Battalion (from the Border Regiment)
- 4th Provisional Cyclist Company (from 9th (Cyclist) Battalion Hampshire) (disbanded April 1916)
- 4th Provisional Brigade Train Army Service Corps (from 58th (2/1st London) Division Train ASC) 
- 4th Provisional Field Ambulance Royal Army Medical Corps (from 2nd Welsh Field Ambulance)
In March 1916 the Provisional Brigades were concentrated along the South and East Coast of England. The units of the brigade moved from their home depots to Norfolk, where it was attached to 64th (2nd Highland) Division under the control of Northern Army of Central Force, with its battalions billeted across Norfolk as follows:
- Brigade Headquarters: North Walsham
- 46th Provisional Battalion Walcott
- 47th Provisional Battalion Mundesley
- 48th Provisional Battalion Cromer
- 49th Provisional Battalion Hemsby
224th Mixed Brigade
The Military Service Act 1916 swept away the Home/Foreign service distinction, and all TF soldiers became liable for overseas service, if medically fit. The Provisional Brigades thus became anomalous, and at the end of 1916 their units became numbered battalions of their parent units. Part of their role was physical conditioning to render men fit for drafting overseas. the 4th Provisional Brigade became the 224th Mixed Brigade in December 1916, with its units re-designated as shown below: In May 1918 each of the Mixed Brigades was called upon to provide a battalion (re-designated a Garrison Guard battalion) to reconstitute the 59th (2nd North Midland) Division, which had been virtually destroyed during the German Spring Offensive. The Brigade supplied the 23rd Cheshire Regiment to the 178th (2/1st Nottinghamshire and Derbyshire) Brigade and immediately raised a new 24th (Home Service) Battalion, Cheshires to take over its coast defence duties. The brigade remained with this composition until the end of the war, after which it was demobilised.
- 4th Provisional Battery became 1206th (East Anglia) Battery RFA
- 4th Provisional Field Company became 643rd (East Anglia) Field Company and 224th Mixed Brigade Signal Section RE
- 46th Provisional Battalion became 23rd Battalion, Cheshire Regiment
- 47th Provisional Battalion became 23rd Battalion, Royal Welch Fusiliers
- 48th Provisional Battalion became 4th Battalion, Monmouthshire Regiment
- 49th Provisional Battalion became 14th Battalion, South Lancashire Regiment
- 2/9th (Cyclist) Battalion, Hampshire Regiment, (joined April 1918)
- 4th Provisional Brigade Train became 836th Horse Transport Company ASC in 64th Division
- 4th Provisional Field Ambulance became 310th and 312th Field Ambulances RAMC
Second World War
Formation and Service
In 1940, during World War II, the brigade number was reactivated for the 224th Independent Infantry Brigade (Home), formed for service in the United Kingdom under the South Wales Area headquarters of Home Forces on 10 October 1940. It was commanded by Brigadier P. Gottwaltz, and comprised newly raised infantry battalions  After a brief spell attached to 59th (Staffordshire) Infantry Division, 224th Brigade became part of the Durham and North Riding County Division on 11 March 1941. The brigade was disbanded on 22 December 1941.
The composition of 224th Brigade was as follows:
- 7th Battalion, South Wales Borderers (10 October 1940 — 15 November 1941, converted that month to the 90th Light Anti-Aircraft Regiment, Royal Artillery)
- 19th Battalion, Welch Regiment (10 October 1940 — 12 May 1941, converted in January 1942 to 117th Light Anti-Aircraft Regiment, Royal Artillery)
- 9th Battalion, North Staffordshire Regiment (10 October 1940 — December 1941, converted the next year to the 154th Regiment Royal Armoured Corps)
- 8th Battalion, Royal Ulster Rifles (from 1 August 1941)
- 8th Battalion, East Yorkshire Regiment (from 25 November 1941)
The 224th Brigade number has never been reactivated.
- Becke, p. 6.
- Becke, pp. 6, 65.
- 4th Provisional Brigade War Diary, The National Archives, Kew file WO 95/5458.
- Distribution of Northern and Southern Armies (Home Defence), The National Archives file WO 33/765.
- Becke, p. 104.
- Joslen, p. 387.
- Joslen, pp. 110, 387.
- "90 Light AA Regiment RA (TA)". The Royal Artillery 1938-45 on web.archive.org. Retrieved 3 January 2017.
- "117 Light AA Regiment RA (TA)". The Royal Artillery 1938-45 on web.archive.org. Retrieved 3 January 2017.
- Forty p. 51
- Maj A.F. Becke,History of the Great War: Order of Battle of Divisions, Part 2b: The 2nd-Line Territorial Force Divisions (57th–69th), with the Home-Service Divisions (71st–74th) and 74th and 75th Divisions, London: HM Stationery Office, 1937/Uckfield: Naval & Military Press, 2007, ISBN 1-84734-739-8.
- George Forty, "British Army Handbook 1939-1945", Stroud: Sutton Publishing, 1998, ISBN 0-7509-1403-3.
- Lt-Col H.F. Joslen, Orders of Battle, United Kingdom and Colonial Formations and Units in the Second World War, 1939–1945, London: HM Stationery Office, 1960/Uckfield: Naval & Military, 2003, ISBN 1-84342-474-6.