22nd Congress of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union
The 22nd Congress of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union (Russian: XXII съезд КПСС) was held from 17 to 31 October 1961. In fourteen days of sessions (22 October was a day off), 4,413 delegates, in addition to delegates from 83 foreign Communist parties, listened to Nikita Khrushchev and others review policy issues. At the Congress, the Sino-Soviet split hardened, especially due to Soviet de-Stalinization efforts, and it was the last Congress to be attended by the Chinese Communist Party. The Congress elected the 22nd Central Committee.
Speeches, splits and plans
Other than Sino-Soviet disputes, matters dealt with at the Congress included accepting the CPSU's Third Program and statute, and the opening of the Volgograd Hydroelectric Plant, the largest in Europe or Russia at the time. The Soviets also tested the world's most powerful thermonuclear bomb ("Tsar Bomba") in Novaya Zemlya in the Arctic Circle, creating the largest man-made explosion in history. They also accepted the removal of Stalin's remains from the Lenin Mausoleum, the renaming of several cities named after Stalin and other Stalin-era politicians, and Khrushchev's declaration and plans to build communism in 20 years. Historian Archie Brown wrote that the program was "the last authoritative document produced by the Communist Party of the Soviet Union to take entirely seriously the building of a communist society." Nikita Khrushchev also proposed to revise CPSU's statutes and implement a "systematic renewal of cadres" that would limit terms of individuals in elected party posts and rules for turnover in other Party bodies, worrying that "a gradual freezing of personnel policy would block up the system, and stagnation would occur." However, the proposal was opposed by other Party members. It is believed that Khrushchev's proposal contributed to his later oust from power.
- Anthony Trawick (1973). "Is the Cold War Over?: A New Look at Communist Imperialism". Capitol Hill Press.
- Evans, Charles T. "Notes on the Sino-Soviet Split". novaonline.nvcc.edu. Retrieved 17 August 2017.
- "Tsar Bomba". Atomic Heritage Foundation. Retrieved 17 August 2017.
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- "Stalin's body removed from Lenin's tomb - Oct 31, 1961 - HISTORY.com". HISTORY.com. Retrieved 17 August 2017.
- "Volgograd renamed Stalingrad for day as the Second World War battle remembered". Telegraph.co.uk. Retrieved 17 August 2017.
- Brown, Archie (2009). The Rise and Fall of Communism. Ecco. p. 256.
- Svolik, Milan. The Politics of Authoritarian Rule. Cambridge University Press. p. 174-175.
- The Road to Communism: Documents of the 22nd Congress of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union, October 17-31, 1961
- Open Source Archives - "In Connection with the 22nd Congress of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union"[permanent dead link]
- Documents of the 22nd Congress of the CPSU; Vol I
- Documents of the 22nd Congress of the CPSU; Vol II
- Program of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union. With a special pref. to the American ed. by N. S. Khrushchev.
- Twenty-Second Congress of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union in the Great Soviet Encyclopedia, 3rd Edition (1970-1979).