|238 by topic|
|Ab urbe condita||991|
|Balinese saka calendar||159–160|
|Chinese calendar||丁巳年 (Fire Snake)|
2934 or 2874
— to —
戊午年 (Earth Horse)
2935 or 2875
|Coptic calendar||−46 – −45|
|- Vikram Samvat||294–295|
|- Shaka Samvat||159–160|
|- Kali Yuga||3338–3339|
|Iranian calendar||384 BP – 383 BP|
|Islamic calendar||396 BH – 395 BH|
|Minguo calendar||1674 before ROC|
|Seleucid era||549/550 AG|
|Thai solar calendar||780–781|
364 or −17 or −789
— to —
365 or −16 or −788
Year 238 (CCXXXVIII) was a common year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar) of the Julian calendar. At the time, it was known as the Year of the Consulship of Pius and Pontianus (or, less frequently, year 991 Ab urbe condita). The denomination 238 for this year has been used since the early medieval period, when the Anno Domini calendar era became the prevalent method in Europe for naming years.
- Emperor Maximinus Thrax campaigns against the Carpians on the Danube in Moesia (Balkans). In spite of the payment of a tribute, the Romans fail to persuade the Goths and the Germanic tribes.
- c. March – Roman subjects in Africa revolt against Maximinus. The elderly Gordian yields to public demand that he succeed Maximinus and rules jointly with his 46-year-old son Gordian II.
- c. April – Battle of Carthage: Numidian forces loyal to Maximinus invade Africa with support of Legio III Augusta. Gordian II is killed and after a siege, Gordian I commits suicide by hanging himself with his belt.
- c. May – The Senate outlaws Maximinus for his bloodthirsty proscriptions in Ancient Rome and nominates two of its members, Pupienus and Balbinus, to the throne.
- Maximinus advances to the town Aquileia in northern Italy; his army suffers from famine and disease, while the city is besieged. Soldiers of Legio II Parthica kill him in his tent, along with his son Maximinus (who is appointed co-emperor). Their corpses are decapitated and their heads carried to Rome.
- c. August – The Praetorian Guard storms the palace and captures Pupienus and Balbinus. They are dragged naked through the streets of Rome and executed. On the same day Gordian III, age 13, is proclaimed the new emperor. Timesitheus becomes his tutor and advisor.
- Future Emperor Valerian becomes princeps senatus.
- The Colosseum is restored after being damaged.
- The Goths, coming from Ukraine, cross the Danube and devastate the Roman Empire up to the border with Anatolia.
- In North Africa, Legio III Augusta is dissolved. Until its reconstitution in 253, Africa is defended by auxiliary forces only.
- Sima Yi, a Chinese general of the Cao Wei state, destroys the outlying northeastern warlord Gongsun Yuan in the Liaodong campaign.
- The silver content of the Roman denarius falls to 28 percent under Emperor Gordian III, down from 35 percent under Alexander Severus.
- April 10 – Han Ji (or Gongzhi), Chinese politician
- April 12
- July 29
- Bu Lianshi, Chinese noblewoman and concubine
- Gongsun Yuan (or Wenyi), Chinese warlord
- Maximinus Thrax, Roman emperor (b. 173)
- Maximinus the Younger, Roman emperor
- Zhu Huan (or Xiumu), Chinese general (b. 177)