23 October 1862 Revolution
The 23 October 1862 Revolution was a popular insurrection which led to the overthrow of King Otto of Greece. Starting on 18 October in Vonitsa, it soon spread to other cities and reached Athens on 22 October.
On 1 February 1862, the first insurrection broke out in Nafplio, led by Dimitrios Grivas, Petros A. Mavromichalis and Dimitrios Botsaris. Soon, the revolt started to spread to Santorini, Hydra, Tripoli and Messenia. However, the royal authorities quickly managed to restore control and the revolt was suppressed by 20 March.
On 16 October, King Otto and his queen left for a royal visit to Peloponnese in order to strengthen the bonds between the Greek people and the crown. However, a new insurrection erupted two days later in Vonitsa, on the Ambracian Gulf, led by Dimitrios Voulgaris, Konstantinos Kanaris and Benizelos Rouphos. Soon, the insurrection spread to Missolonghi and Patras. On 22 October, the insurrection reached the capital Athens and a provisional government was established, with Rouphos as the Prime Minister. On the following day, the revolutionaries proclaimed the deposition of the royal couple, and convened an assembly for the election of a new monarch.
The royal couple was then brought from Kalamata by the Minister of Police and placed under the protection of a British warship, HMS Scylla. At the same time, the property of the royal couple which remained in the Old Royal Palace was inventoried before being returned to their legitimate possessors. Advised by ambassadors of the Great Powers, Otto and his queen then abandoned Greece and went into exile. In spite of everything, the king refused to abdicate and did not envision his departure as being definitive.
- Driault and Lhéritier, 1926, p. 473-474
- Driault and Lhéritier 1926, p. 474
- Driault and Lhéritier 1926, p. 476-477
- Driault and Lhéritier 1926, p. 487
- Driault and Lhéritier 1926, p. 487-488
- Driault, Édouard; Lhéritier, Michel (1926). Histoire diplomatique de la Grèce de 1821 à nos jours [Diplomatic History of Greece from 1821 to today] (in French). II. Paris: PUF.