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The 240s decade ran from January 1, 240, to December 31, 249.
- 1 Events
- 1.1 240
- 1.2 241
- 1.3 242
- 1.4 243
- 1.5 244
- 1.6 245
- 1.7 246
- 1.8 247
- 1.9 248
- 1.10 249
- 2 Significant people
- 3 Births
- 4 Deaths
- 5 References
- The Roman Empire is threatened on several fronts at the same time. Africa revolts and tribes in northwest Germania, under the name of the Franks, are raiding the Rhine frontier.
- April 12 – Shapur I becomes co-emperor of the Sasanian Empire with his father Ardashir I.
- Maharaja Sri-Gupta becomes Emperor of Gupta.
- Siege of Hatra (240-241) by the Sasanians
- The Kushan Empire falls.
- At the court of Ardashir I, Mani, a young mystic of Ctesiphon, proclaims himself a prophet and preaches his doctrine, Manichaeism, throughout the Persian Empire.
- Winter – Emperor Gordian III reaches Antioch and prepares with his army an offensive against the Persians.
- Timesitheus becomes Praetorian Prefect.
- Approximate date – The Dura-Europos church is converted from a house in Syria, the earliest surviving Christian church building.
- Shapur I succeeds his father Ardashir I as king of Persia.
- The ancient city of Bagram (Afghanistan) is abandoned.
- Shapur I annexes parts of the Kushan Empire.
- Fall of Hatra to Shapur I
- Emperor Gordian III begins a campaign against king Shapur I; the Greek philosopher Plotinus joins him and hopes to obtain first-hand knowledge of Persian and Indian philosophies.
- Gordian III evacuates the Cimmerian cities in the Bosphorus (Crimea), as the territory is now controlled by the Goths.
- Shapur I makes a pre-emptive attack on Antioch to drive out the Romans. Gordian's father-in-law, Timesitheus, leads a Roman army to defeat the Persians at Carrhae and Nisibis.
- Patriarch Titus succeeds Patriarch Eugenius I as Patriarch of Constantinople.
- Battle of Resaena: A Roman army under Timesitheus defeats the Persians at Resaena (Syria); King Shapur I is forced to flee to the Euphrates.
- Timesitheus becomes ill and dies under suspicious circumstances. Shapur I retreats to Persia, giving up all the territories he conquered.
- Emperor Gordian III appoints Philip the Arab as his new praetorian prefect and proceeds with his campaign in Mesopotamia.
- Cohors I Ubiorum, the garrison at castra Capidava in Scythia Minor, is replaced by Cohors I Germanorum civium romanorum until the end of the 3rd century AD.
- Between January 13 & March 14 – Battle of Misiche: King Shapur I of the Sasanian Empire delivers a counter-attack near Fallujah (Iraq) and defeats the Roman army upstream of the Euphrates.
- February 11 – Emperor Gordian III is murdered by mutinous soldiers in Zaitha (Mesopotamia). A mound is raised at Carchemish in his memory.
- Philip the Arab (Marcus Julius Philippus) declares himself co-emperor and makes a disgraceful peace with the Sasanian Empire, withdrawing from their territory and giving Shapur 500,000 gold pieces. The Sasanians occupy Armenia.
- Philip the Arab is recognized by the Roman Senate as new Roman Emperor with the honorific Augustus. He nominates his son Philippus, age 6, with the title of Caesar and heir to the throne; gives his brother Priscus supreme power (rector Orientis) in the Eastern provinces; and begins construction of the city of Shahba (Syria) in the province of his birth.
- The vassal Upper Mesopotamian kingdom of Osroene is absorbed into the Roman Empire, its last ruler being Abgar (XI) Farhat Bar Ma’nu.
- The Goguryeo–Wei War is fought between the Korean kingdom Goguryeo and the Chinese state Cao Wei.
- The Battle of Xingshi is fought between the Chinese states of Cao Wei and Shu Han.
Arts and sciences
- Plotinus, Greek philosopher, escapes the bloodshed that accompanies the murder of Gordianus III and makes his way to Antioch. Back in Rome he founds his Neoplatonist school and attracts disciples like Porphyry, Castricius Firmus and Eustochius of Alexandria.
- 244–249 – Bust of Philip the Arab (in Braccio Nuovo, Vatican Museums, Rome).
- The silver content of the Roman denarius falls to 0.5 percent under emperor Philippus I, down from 28 percent under Gordian III.
- 244–245 – Last phase of construction of the house-style Dura-Europos synagogue in Syria, one of the oldest to survive (wall-paintings in the National Museum of Damascus, Syria).
- Emperor Philip the Arab entrusts Trajan Decius with an important command on the Danube.
- In Britain many thousands of acres of modern-day Lincolnshire are inundated by a great flood.
- The philosopher Plotinus goes to live in Rome.
- Emperor Philip the Arab fights the Germans along the Danube.
- First of the two Councils of Arabia in the Roman Christian Church is held in Bostra, Arabia Petraea.
- Rome becomes 1,000 years old.
- Marcus Julius Philippus Augustus and his 10-year-old son Marcus Julius Philippus Caesar become Roman Consuls.
- The Goths appear on the lower Danube frontier; they invade the Ukraine and Romania.
- Emperor Philip the Arab marks the millennium of Rome by holding the Ludi Saeculares.
- The last of the two Councils of Arabia in the Roman Christian Church is held in Bostra, Arabia Petraea.
- Himiko of Yamataikoku, in Japan, begins a war against Himikoko, the King of Kunukoku.
- Cheomhae becomes king of the Korean kingdom of Silla.
- The revolts of Pacatianus in Moesia and Iotapianus in Syria are put down by senator Decius, by order of emperor Philip the Arab.
- The Roman Empire continues the celebration of the 1,000th anniversary of the city of Rome, with the ludi saeculares, organized by Philip the Arab.
- Cyprian becomes bishop of Carthage.
- Origen writes an eight-volume work criticizing the pagan writer Celsus.
- Trajan Decius puts down a revolt in Moesia and Pannonia. Loyal legionaries proclaim him emperor and he leads them into Italy. At the Battle of Verona, he defeats and kills Philip the Arab.
- Decius begins persecuting the Christians and others refusing to participate in Emperor worship.
- February 5 – Incident at Gaoping Tombs: In the Chinese state of Cao Wei, the regent Sima Yi, in a coup d'état, forces his co-regent Cao Shuang to relinquish his power after taking control of the capital city of Luoyang and issuing a memorial which listed out the various crimes he and his associates had committed.
- In Alexandria, the populace pillages the homes of Christians.
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- Publius Licinius Cornelius Saloninus Valerianus, better known as Saloninus. Born c. 242, he would eventually become a Roman emperor.
- Diocles, better known as Diocletian. Born c. 244, he would eventually become a Roman emperor.
This section needs expansion. You can help by adding to it. (March 2016)
- Gordian III, Roman emperor. Died in 244.
- Philip the Arab, Roman emperor. Died in 249.
- Philippus II, Roman emperor. Died in 249.
- Stratton, J. M. (1969). Agricultural Records. London: John Baker. ISBN 0-212-97022-4.
- Walker, Brett L. (2015). A Concise History of Japan. Cambridge University Press. p. 18. ISBN 9781107004184.
- "List of Rulers of Korea". www.metmuseum.org. Retrieved 21 April 2019.
- "List of Rulers of Korea". www.metmuseum.org. Retrieved 18 April 2019.