25-NB

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25I-NBOMe, the most well-known 25-NB derivative.

The 25-NB (25x-NBx) series, sometimes alternatively referred to as the NBOMe compounds, is a family of serotonergic psychedelics.[1] They are substituted phenethylamines and were derived from the 2C family.[1] They act as selective agonists of the serotonin 5-HT2A receptor.[2][3][4][5][6][7][8] The 25-NB family is unique relative to other classes of psychedelics in that they are, generally speaking, extremely potent and relatively highly selective for the 5-HT2A receptor.[1]

Chemical structure[edit]

The 25-NB compounds are mostly N-benzylphenethylamines,[1] though in some cases the phenyl ring of the N-benzyl group is replaced by other heterocycles such as thiophene, pyridine, furan, tetrahydrofuran, benzodioxole or naphthalene, among others.[9][10]

Generally speaking, they have methoxy groups at the 2 and 5 positions of the phenyl ring, a substitution such as a halogen or alkyl group at the 4 position of the phenyl ring, and a methoxy or other substitution (e.g., hydroxyl, fluoro) at the 2 position of the N-benzyl ring.[1] More rarely, other substitution patterns may be present [11][12] (see e.g. NBOMe-mescaline, 25G-NBOMe, 2CBFly-NBOMe, 25C-NB3OMe). They differ from the 2C series by the presence of the N-benzyl moiety.[1]

Rarely an alpha-methyl group is present making them N-benzyl amphetamines rather than N-benzyl phenethylamines, but this greatly reduces potency and activity. However in some cases where a side chain methyl group is cyclised back to the ring (e.g. in 2CBCB-NBOMe) or links the two alpha positions (e.g. in DMBMPP), this can improve selectivity for the 5-HT2A receptor subtype.[13]

List of 25-NB derivatives[edit]

General structure of 25-NB derivatives, where R is usually 2,5-dimethoxy-4-(alkyl or halogen), R1 is usually H but rarely methyl, and Cyc is usually 2-substituted phenyl but can be other heterocycles

This list includes notable compounds representative of most of the structural variations that have been explored in this series, but is by no means exhaustive. Many derivatives invented for scientific study into the structure-activity relationships of 5-HT2 receptor agonists have never appeared as designer drugs, while conversely some derivatives that have appeared as designer drugs are structurally novel and of unknown pharmacological activity (e.g. C30-NBOMe, 5-APB-NBOMe).

Common name Chemical name CAS number R R1 Cyc
25B-NB N-benzyl-1-(2,5-dimethoxy-4-bromophenyl)-2-aminoethane 155639-26-2 2,5-dimethoxy-4-bromo H phenyl
25C-NB N-benzyl-1-(2,5-dimethoxy-4-chlorophenyl)-2-aminoethane 1391487-65-2 2,5-dimethoxy-4-chloro H phenyl
25I-NB N-benzyl-1-(2,5-dimethoxy-4-iodophenyl)-2-aminoethane 919797-18-5 2,5-dimethoxy-4-iodo H phenyl
25I-NMeTh N-[(thiophen-2-yl)methyl]-1-(2,5-dimethoxy-4-iodophenyl)-2-aminoethane 1391499-03-8 2,5-dimethoxy-4-iodo H thiophen-2-yl
25B-NMePyr N-[(pyridin-2-yl)methyl]-1-(2,5-dimethoxy-4-bromophenyl)-2-aminoethane 1391499-21-0 2,5-dimethoxy-4-bromo H pyridin-2-yl
25I-NMeFur N-[(furan-2-yl)methyl]-1-(2,5-dimethoxy-4-iodophenyl)-2-aminoethane 1391498-93-3 2,5-dimethoxy-4-iodo H furan-2-yl
25I-NMeTHF N-[(tetrahydrofuran-2-yl)methyl]-1-(2,5-dimethoxy-4-iodophenyl)-2-aminoethane 2,5-dimethoxy-4-iodo H tetrahydrofuran-2-yl
25B-NBF N-(2-fluorobenzyl)-1-(2,5-dimethoxy-4-bromophenyl)-2-aminoethane 1539266-17-5 2,5-dimethoxy-4-bromo H 2-fluorophenyl
25B-NBOH N-(2-hydroxybenzyl)-1-(2,5-dimethoxy-4-bromophenyl)-2-aminoethane 1335331-46-8 2,5-dimethoxy-4-bromo H 2-hydroxyphenyl
25B-NBOMe N-(2-methoxybenzyl)-1-(2,5-dimethoxy-4-bromophenyl)-2-aminoethane 1026511-90-9 2,5-dimethoxy-4-bromo H 2-methoxyphenyl
25B-NB23DM N-(2,3-dimethoxybenzyl)-1-(2,5-dimethoxy-4-bromophenyl)-2-aminoethane 1391493-68-7 2,5-dimethoxy-4-bromo H 2,3-dimethoxyphenyl
25B-NB25DM N-(2,5-dimethoxybenzyl)-1-(2,5-dimethoxy-4-bromophenyl)-2-aminoethane 2,5-dimethoxy-4-bromo H 2,5-dimethoxyphenyl
25B-NMe7BF N-[(benzofuran-7-yl)methyl]-1-(2,5-dimethoxy-4-bromophenyl)-2-aminoethane 1391492-46-8 2,5-dimethoxy-4-bromo H benzofuran-7-yl
25B-NMe7Ind N-[(indol-7-yl)methyl]-1-(2,5-dimethoxy-4-bromophenyl)-2-aminoethane 1391498-28-4 2,5-dimethoxy-4-bromo H indol-7-yl
FECIMBI-36 N-[(2-fluoroethoxy)benzyl]-1-(2,5-dimethoxy-4-bromophenyl)-2-aminoethane 2,5-dimethoxy-4-bromo H 2-(2-fluoroethoxy)phenyl
DOB-NBOMe N-(2-methoxybenzyl)-1-(2,5-dimethoxy-4-bromophenyl)-2-aminopropane 2,5-dimethoxy-4-bromo methyl 2-methoxyphenyl
25C-NB3OMe N-(3-methoxybenzyl)-1-(2,5-dimethoxy-4-chlorophenyl)-2-aminoethane 1566571-34-3 2,5-dimethoxy-4-chloro H 3-methoxyphenyl
25C-NB4OMe N-(4-methoxybenzyl)-1-(2,5-dimethoxy-4-chlorophenyl)-2-aminoethane 1566571-35-4 2,5-dimethoxy-4-chloro H 4-methoxyphenyl
C30-NBOMe N-(3,4,5-trimethoxybenzyl)-1-(2,5-dimethoxy-4-chlorophenyl)-2-aminoethane 1445574-98-0 2,5-dimethoxy-4-chloro H 3,4,5-trimethoxyphenyl
25C-NBF N-(2-fluorobenzyl)-1-(2,5-dimethoxy-4-chlorophenyl)-2-aminoethane 1539266-21-1 2,5-dimethoxy-4-chloro H 2-fluorophenyl
25C-NBCl N-(2-chlorobenzyl)-1-(2,5-dimethoxy-4-chlorophenyl)-2-aminoethane 2,5-dimethoxy-4-chloro H 2-chlorophenyl
25C-NBOH N-(2-hydroxybenzyl)-1-(2,5-dimethoxy-4-chlorophenyl)-2-aminoethane 1391488-16-6 2,5-dimethoxy-4-chloro H 2-hydroxyphenyl
25C-NBOMe N-(2-methoxybenzyl)-1-(2,5-dimethoxy-4-chlorophenyl)-2-aminoethane 1227608-02-7 2,5-dimethoxy-4-chloro H 2-methoxyphenyl
25C-NBOEt N-(2-ethoxybenzyl)-1-(2,5-dimethoxy-4-chlorophenyl)-2-aminoethane 2,5-dimethoxy-4-chloro H 2-ethoxyphenyl
25C-NBOiPr N-(2-isopropoxybenzyl)-1-(2,5-dimethoxy-4-chlorophenyl)-2-aminoethane 2,5-dimethoxy-4-chloro H 2-isopropoxyphenyl
25F-NBOMe N-(2-methoxybenzyl)-1-(2,5-dimethoxy-4-fluorophenyl)-2-aminoethane 1373917-84-0 2,5-dimethoxy-4-fluoro H 2-methoxyphenyl
25CN-NBOH N-(2-hydroxybenzyl)-1-(2,5-dimethoxy-4-cyanophenyl)-2-aminoethane 1539266-32-4 2,5-dimethoxy-4-cyano H 2-hydroxyphenyl
25CN-NBOMe N-(2-methoxybenzyl)-1-(2,5-dimethoxy-4-cyanophenyl)-2-aminoethane 1354632-16-8 2,5-dimethoxy-4-cyano H 2-methoxyphenyl
25D-NBOMe N-(2-methoxybenzyl)-1-(2,5-dimethoxy-4-methylphenyl)-2-aminoethane 1354632-02-2 2,5-dimethoxy-4-methyl H 2-methoxyphenyl
25D-NBOH N-(2-hydroxybenzyl)-1-(2,5-dimethoxy-4-methylphenyl)-2-aminoethane 1391488-44-0 2,5-dimethoxy-4-methyl H 2-hydroxyphenyl
25E-NBOMe N-(2-methoxybenzyl)-1-(2,5-dimethoxy-4-ethylphenyl)-2-aminoethane 1354632-14-6 2,5-dimethoxy-4-ethyl H 2-methoxyphenyl
25E-NBOH N-(2-hydroxybenzyl)-1-(2,5-dimethoxy-4-ethylphenyl)-2-aminoethane 1391489-79-4 2,5-dimethoxy-4-ethyl H 2-hydroxyphenyl
25G-NBOMe N-(2-methoxybenzyl)-1-(2,5-dimethoxy-3,4-dimethylphenyl)-2-aminoethane 1354632-65-7 2,5-dimethoxy-3,4-dimethyl H 2-methoxyphenyl
25H-NBOMe N-(2-methoxybenzyl)-1-(2,5-dimethoxyphenyl)-2-aminoethane 1566571-52-5 2,5-dimethoxy H 2-methoxyphenyl
25I-NB34MD N-(3,4-methylenedioxybenzyl)-1-(2,5-dimethoxy-4-iodophenyl)-2-aminoethane 1391497-81-6 2,5-dimethoxy-4-iodo H 3,4-methylenedioxyphenyl
25I-NB3OMe N-(3-methoxybenzyl)-1-(2,5-dimethoxy-4-iodophenyl)-2-aminoethane 1566571-40-1 2,5-dimethoxy-4-iodo H 3-methoxyphenyl
25I-NB4OMe N-(4-methoxybenzyl)-1-(2,5-dimethoxy-4-iodophenyl)-2-aminoethane 1566571-41-2 2,5-dimethoxy-4-iodo H 4-methoxyphenyl
25I-NBF N-(2-fluorobenzyl)-1-(2,5-dimethoxy-4-iodophenyl)-2-aminoethane 919797-21-0 2,5-dimethoxy-4-iodo H 2-fluorophenyl
25I-NBBr N-(2-bromobenzyl)-1-(2,5-dimethoxy-4-iodophenyl)-2-aminoethane 1648649-98-2 2,5-dimethoxy-4-iodo H 2-bromophenyl
25I-NBTFM N-[2-(trifluoromethyl)benzyl]-1-(2,5-dimethoxy-4-iodophenyl)-2-aminoethane 2,5-dimethoxy-4-iodo H 2-(trifluoromethyl)phenyl
25I-NBMD N-(2,3-methylenedioxybenzyl)-1-(2,5-dimethoxy-4-iodophenyl)-2-aminoethane 919797-25-4 2,5-dimethoxy-4-iodo H 2,3-methylenedioxyphenyl
25B-NBMD N-(2,3-methylenedioxybenzyl)-1-(2,5-dimethoxy-4-bromophenyl)-2-aminoethane 1354632-19-1 2,5-dimethoxy-4-bromo H 2,3-methylenedioxyphenyl
25C-NBMD N-(2,3-methylenedioxybenzyl)-1-(2,5-dimethoxy-4-chlorophenyl)-2-aminoethane 1373879-26-5 2,5-dimethoxy-4-chloro H 2,3-methylenedioxyphenyl
25D-NBMD N-(2,3-methylenedioxybenzyl)-1-(2,5-dimethoxy-4-methylphenyl)-2-aminoethane 1391488-97-3 2,5-dimethoxy-4-methyl H 2,3-methylenedioxyphenyl
25I-NBOH N-(2-hydroxybenzyl)-1-(2,5-dimethoxy-4-iodophenyl)-2-aminoethane 919797-20-9 2,5-dimethoxy-4-iodo H 2-hydroxyphenyl
25I-NBOMe N-(2-methoxybenzyl)-1-(2,5-dimethoxy-4-iodophenyl)-2-aminoethane 919797-19-6 2,5-dimethoxy-4-iodo H 2-methoxyphenyl
DOI-NBOMe N-(2-methoxybenzyl)-1-(2,5-dimethoxy-4-iodophenyl)-2-aminopropane 2,5-dimethoxy-4-iodo methyl 2-methoxyphenyl
25I-NBMeOH N-[2-(hydroxymethyl)benzyl]-1-(2,5-dimethoxy-4-iodophenyl)-2-aminoethane 1391494-71-5 2,5-dimethoxy-4-iodo H 2-(hydroxymethyl)phenyl
25I-NBAm N-[2-(carbamoyl)benzyl]-1-(2,5-dimethoxy-4-iodophenyl)-2-aminoethane 1391494-85-1 2,5-dimethoxy-4-iodo H 2-(carbamoyl)phenyl
25I-NMe7DHBF N-[(2,3-dihydrobenzofuran-7-yl)methyl]-1-(2,5-dimethoxy-4-iodophenyl)-2-aminoethane 2,5-dimethoxy-4-iodo H 2,3-dihydrobenzofuran-7-yl
25I-N2Nap1OH N-[(1-hydroxynaphthalen-2-yl)methyl]-1-(2,5-dimethoxy-4-iodophenyl)-2-aminoethane 2,5-dimethoxy-4-iodo H 1-hydroxynaphthalen-2-yl
25I-N3MT2M N-[(3-methoxythiophen-2-yl)methyl]-1-(2,5-dimethoxy-4-iodophenyl)-2-aminoethane 1354632-66-8 2,5-dimethoxy-4-iodo H 3-methoxythiophen-2-yl
25I-N4MT3M N-[(4-methoxythiophen-3-yl)methyl]-1-(2,5-dimethoxy-4-iodophenyl)-2-aminoethane 1354632-73-7 2,5-dimethoxy-4-iodo H 4-methoxythiophen-3-yl
25iP-NBOMe N-(2-methoxybenzyl)-1-(2,5-dimethoxy-4-isopropylphenyl)-2-aminoethane 1391487-83-4 2,5-dimethoxy-4-isopropyl H 2-methoxyphenyl
25N-NBOMe N-(2-methoxybenzyl)-1-(2,5-dimethoxy-4-nitrophenyl)-2-aminoethane 1354632-03-3 2,5-dimethoxy-4-nitro H 2-methoxyphenyl
25P-NBOMe N-(2-methoxybenzyl)-1-(2,5-dimethoxy-4-propylphenyl)-2-aminoethane 1391489-07-8 2,5-dimethoxy-4-propyl H 2-methoxyphenyl
25P-NBOH N-(2-hydroxybenzyl)-1-(2,5-dimethoxy-4-propylphenyl)-2-aminoethane 1391490-34-8 2,5-dimethoxy-4-propyl H 2-hydroxyphenyl
25TFM-NBOMe N-(2-methoxybenzyl)-1-[2,5-dimethoxy-4-(trifluoromethyl)phenyl]-2-aminoethane 1027161-33-6 2,5-dimethoxy-4-(trifluoromethyl) H 2-methoxyphenyl
25T-NBOMe N-(2-methoxybenzyl)-1-[2,5-dimethoxy-4-(methylthio)phenyl]-2-aminoethane 1539266-47-1 2,5-dimethoxy-4-(methylthio) H 2-methoxyphenyl
25T2-NBOMe N-(2-methoxybenzyl)-1-[2,5-dimethoxy-4-(ethylthio)phenyl]-2-aminoethane 2,5-dimethoxy-4-(ethylthio) H 2-methoxyphenyl
25T4-NBOMe N-(2-methoxybenzyl)-1-[2,5-dimethoxy-4-(isopropylthio)phenyl]-2-aminoethane 1354632-17-9 2,5-dimethoxy-4-(isopropylthio) H 2-methoxyphenyl
25T7-NBOMe N-(2-methoxybenzyl)-1-[2,5-dimethoxy-4-(propylthio)phenyl]-2-aminoethane 1539266-55-1 2,5-dimethoxy-4-(propylthio) H 2-methoxyphenyl
25T7-NBOH N-(2-hydroxybenzyl)-1-[2,5-dimethoxy-4-(propylthio)phenyl]-2-aminoethane 1354632-41-9 2,5-dimethoxy-4-(propylthio) H 2-hydroxyphenyl
NBOMe-mescaline N-(2-methoxybenzyl)-1-(3,4,5-trimethoxyphenyl)-2-aminoethane 1354632-01-1 3,4,5-trimethoxy H 2-methoxyphenyl
NBOMe-escaline N-(2-methoxybenzyl)-1-(3,5-dimethoxy-4-ethoxyphenyl)-2-aminoethane 3,5-dimethoxy-4-ethoxy H 2-methoxyphenyl
MDPEA-NBOMe N-(2-methoxybenzyl)-1-(3,4-methylenedioxyphenyl)-2-aminoethane 3,4-methylenedioxy H 2-methoxyphenyl
Clobenzorex N-(2-chlorobenzyl)-1-phenyl-2-aminopropane 13364-32-4 H methyl 2-chlorophenyl
4-EA-NBOMe N-(2-methoxybenzyl)-1-(4-ethylphenyl)-2-aminopropane 4-ethyl methyl 2-methoxyphenyl
5-APB-NBOMe N-(2-methoxybenzyl)-1-(benzofuran-5-yl)-2-aminopropane benzofuran-5-yl instead of phenyl methyl 2-methoxyphenyl


Derivatives with atypical structures include:

Legality[edit]

United Kingdom[edit]

A large number of substances in the 25-NB class are Class A drugs in the United Kingdom as a result of the N-benzylphenethylamine catch-all clause in the Misuse of Drugs Act 1971[14] or are otherwise covered by the Psychoactive Substances Act 2016.[15]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b c d e f Halberstadt AL (2017). "Pharmacology and Toxicology of N-Benzylphenethylamine ("NBOMe") Hallucinogens". Curr Top Behav Neurosci. 32: 283–311. doi:10.1007/7854_2016_64. PMID 28097528.
  2. ^ Pertz, HH; Rheineck, A; Elz, S (1999-01-01). "N-Benzylated derivatives of the hallucinogenic drugs mescaline and escaline as partial agonists at rat vascular 5-HT2A receptors". Naunyn-Schmiedeberg's Archives of Pharmacology. 359: R29.
  3. ^ Heim R (February 28, 2010). "Synthese und Pharmakologie potenter 5-HT2A-Rezeptoragonisten mit N-2-Methoxybenzyl-Partialstruktur. Entwicklung eines neuen Struktur-Wirkungskonzepts" (in German). diss.fu-berlin.de. Retrieved 2013-05-10.
  4. ^ Silva M (2009). Theoretical study of the interaction of agonists with the 5-HT2A receptor (Ph.D. thesis). Universität Regensburg.
  5. ^ Hansen M (2011). Design and Synthesis of Selective Serotonin Receptor Agonists for Positron Emission Tomography Imaging of the Brain (Ph.D. thesis). University of Copenhagen.
  6. ^ Silva ME, Heim R, Strasser A, Elz S, Dove S (January 2011). "Theoretical studies on the interaction of partial agonists with the 5-HT(2A) receptor". Journal of Computer-aided Molecular Design. 25 (1): 51–66. CiteSeerX 10.1.1.688.2670. doi:10.1007/s10822-010-9400-2. PMID 21088982.
  7. ^ Rickli A, Luethi D, Reinisch J, Buchy D, Hoener MC, Liechti ME. Receptor interaction profiles of novel N-2-methoxybenzyl (NBOMe) derivatives of 2,5-dimethoxy-substituted phenethylamines (2C drugs). Neuropharmacology. 2015 Dec;99:546-53. PMID 26318099 doi: 10.1016/j.neuropharm.2015.08.034
  8. ^ Hansen M, Phonekeo K, Paine JS, Leth-Petersen S, Begtrup M, Bräuner-Osborne H, Kristensen JL (March 2014). "Synthesis and structure-activity relationships of N-benzyl phenethylamines as 5-HT2A/2C agonists". ACS Chemical Neuroscience. 5 (3): 243–9. doi:10.1021/cn400216u. PMC 3963123. PMID 24397362.
  9. ^ Michael Robert Braden (2007). "Towards a biophysical understanding of hallucinogen action". Dissertation: 1–176.
  10. ^ Nichols DE. Structure-activity relationships of serotonin 5-HT2A agonists. WIREs Membr. Transp. Signal, 2012;1(5):559-579. doi:10.1002/wmts.42
  11. ^ Leth-Petersen S, Petersen IN, Jensen AA, Bundgaard C, Bæk M, Kehler J, Kristensen JL. 5-HT2A/5-HT2C Receptor Pharmacology and Intrinsic Clearance of N-Benzylphenethylamines Modified at the Primary Site of Metabolism. ACS Chem Neurosci. 2016 Nov 16;7(11):1614-1619. PMID 27564969 doi:10.1021/acschemneuro.6b00265
  12. ^ Prabhakaran J, Solingapuram Sai KK, Zanderigo F, Rubin-Falcone H, Jorgensen MJ, Kaplan JR, Tooke KI, Mintz A, Mann JJ, Kumar JSD. In vivo evaluation of [18F]FECIMBI-36, an agonist 5-HT2A/2C receptor PET radioligand in nonhuman primate. Bioorg Med Chem Lett. 2017 Jan 1;27(1):21-23. PMID 27889455 doi:10.1016/j.bmcl.2016.11.043
  13. ^ Juncosa JI, Hansen M, Bonner LA, Cueva JP, Maglathlin R, McCorvy JD, Marona-Lewicka D, Lill MA, Nichols DE (January 2013). "Extensive rigid analogue design maps the binding conformation of potent N-benzylphenethylamine 5-HT2A serotonin receptor agonist ligands". ACS Chemical Neuroscience. 4 (1): 96–109. doi:10.1021/cn3000668. PMC 3547484. PMID 23336049.
  14. ^ "The Misuse of Drugs Act 1971 (Ketamine etc.) (Amendment) Order 2014". www.legislation.gov.uk.
  15. ^ "Psychoactive Substances Act 2016". www.legislation.gov.uk.