|Millennium:||1st millennium BC|
|253 BC by topic|
|Gregorian calendar||253 BC|
|Ab urbe condita||501|
|Ancient Egypt era||XXXIII dynasty, 71|
|- Pharaoh||Ptolemy II Philadelphus, 31|
|Ancient Greek era||131st Olympiad, year 4|
|Balinese saka calendar||N/A|
|Chinese calendar||丁未年 (Fire Goat)|
2444 or 2384
— to —
戊申年 (Earth Monkey)
2445 or 2385
|Coptic calendar||−536 – −535|
|Ethiopian calendar||−260 – −259|
|- Vikram Samvat||−196 – −195|
|- Shaka Samvat||N/A|
|- Kali Yuga||2848–2849|
|Iranian calendar||874 BP – 873 BP|
|Islamic calendar||901 BH – 900 BH|
|Minguo calendar||2164 before ROC|
|Seleucid era||59/60 AG|
|Thai solar calendar||290–291|
−126 or −507 or −1279
— to —
−125 or −506 or −1278
Year 253 BC was a year of the pre-Julian Roman calendar. At the time it was known as the Year of the Consulship of Caepio and Blaesus (or, less frequently, year 501 Ab urbe condita). The denomination 253 BC for this year has been used since the early medieval period, when the Anno Domini calendar era became the prevalent method in Europe for naming years.
- The second Syrian War between the Seleucids and the Ptolemies ends. Antiochus II regains much of Anatolia from Ptolemy II, including the cities of Miletus and Ephesus, and also the Phoenician coast.
- The war is concluded with the marriage of Antiochus to Ptolemy II's daughter, Berenice Syra. Antiochus divorces his previous wife, Laodice, and transfers the succession to Berenice's children.
- In recapturing the city of Miletus, Antiochus II overthrows the tyrant of the city. In response, the citizens worship him as a god in thanksgiving leading to the addition of Theos to Antiochus II's name.
- A second Roman war fleet of 150 ships is wrecked on the voyage from Lilybaeum (in Sicily) to Rome.
- Tiberius Coruncanius is the first plebeian to be elected pontifex maximus of Rome.
- Alexander, Antigonus II's nephew and regent, leads a revolt in Corinth with Ptolemy II's help and declares himself an independent monarch. As a result, Antigonus loses Corinth and Chalcis, the two bases from which he has dominated southern Greece. As the Aetolians occupy Thermopylae, Antigonus II is cut off from Athens and the Peloponnese.
- Macedonia's involvement in the second Syrian War ceases when Antigonus becomes preoccupied with the rebellion of Corinth and Chalcis, as well as an increase in enemy activity along Macedon's northern frontier.
- Philopoemen, Greek general and statesman (d. 183 BC)
- Zhang Cang, Chinese general and prime-minister (d. 152 BC)