Year 268 BC was a year of the pre-Julian Roman calendar. At the time it was known as the Year of the Consulship of Sophus and Russus (or, less frequently, year 486 Ab urbe condita). The denomination 268 BC for this year has been used since the early medieval period, when the Anno Dominicalendar era became the prevalent method in Europe for naming years.
Chremonides, an Athenian statesman and general, issues the Decree of Chremonides, creating an alliance between Sparta, Athens, and Ptolemy II of Egypt. The origins of this alliance lay in the continuing desire of many Greek states, notably Athens and Sparta, for a restoration of their former independence, along with the desire of Ptolemy II to create troubles for his rival Antigonus II, King of Macedonia. Ptolemy II's ambitions in the Aegean Sea are threatened by Antigonus Gonatas' fleet, so he carefully builds up a coalition against Macedonia in Greece. He especially cultivates Athens by supplying the city with grain.