2008 Mumbai attacks
|2008 Mumbai Attacks|
Locations of the 2008 Mumbai attacks where the attacks occurred
|Date||26 November 2008
-29 November 2008|
23:00 (26/11)-08:00 (29/11) (IST, UTC+05:30)
|Bombings, shootings, hostage crisis, siege|
|Weapons||AK-47, RDX, IEDs, grenades|
|Deaths||Approximately 166 (plus 9 attackers)|
|Victims||See casualty list for complete list|
|Perpetrators||Zaki ur Rehman Lakhvi
Number of participants
The 2008 Mumbai (Bombay) attacks were a series of attacks that took place in November 2008, when 10 members of Lashkar-e-Taiba, an Islamic militant organisation based in Pakistan, carried out a series of 12 coordinated shooting and bombing attacks lasting four days across Mumbai. The attacks, which drew widespread global condemnation, began on Wednesday, 26 November and lasted until Saturday, 29 November 2008, killing 164 people and wounding at least 308.
Eight of the attacks occurred in South Mumbai: at Chhatrapati Shivaji Terminus, the Oberoi Trident, the Taj Mahal Palace & Tower, Leopold Cafe, Cama Hospital, the Nariman House Jewish community centre, the Metro Cinema, and in a lane behind the Times of India building and St. Xavier's College. There was also an explosion at Mazagaon, in Mumbai's port area, and in a taxi at Vile Parle. By the early morning of 28 November, all sites except for the Taj Hotel had been secured by Mumbai Police and security forces. On 29 November, India's National Security Guards (NSG) conducted 'Operation Black Tornado' to flush out the remaining attackers; it culminated in the death of the last remaining attackers at the Taj Hotel and ended the attacks.
Ajmal Kasab disclosed that the attackers were members of Lashkar-e-Taiba, among others. The Government of India said that the attackers came from Pakistan, and their controllers were in Pakistan. On 7 January 2009, Pakistan confirmed the sole surviving perpetrator of the attacks was a Pakistani citizen. On 9 April 2015, the foremost ringleader of the attacks, Zakiur Rehman Lakhvi, was granted bail against surety bonds of ₨200,000 (US$1,900) in Pakistan.
- 1 Background
- 2 Attacks
- 3 Attribution
- 4 Casualties and compensation
- 5 Aftermath
- 6 Trials
- 7 Memorials
- 8 See also
- 9 Notes
- 10 References
- 11 External links
There have been many non-state attacks in Mumbai since the 13 coordinated bomb explosions that killed 257 people and injured 700 on 12 March 1993. The 1993 attacks are believed to have been in retaliation for the Babri Mosque demolition.
On 6 December 2002, a blast in a BEST bus near Ghatkopar station killed two people and injured 28. The bombing occurred on the 10th anniversary of the demolition of the Babri Mosque in Ayodhya. A bicycle bomb exploded near the Vile Parle station in Mumbai, killing one person and injuring 25 on 27 January 2003, a day before the visit of the Prime Minister of India Atal Bihari Vajpayee to the city. On 13 March 2003, a day after the 10th anniversary of the 1993 Bombay bombings, a bomb exploded in a train compartment near the Mulund station, killing 10 people and injuring 70. On 28 July 2003, a blast in a BEST bus in Ghatkopar killed 4 people and injured 32. On 25 August 2003, two bombs exploded in South Mumbai, one near the Gateway of India and the other at Zaveri Bazaar in Kalbadevi. At least 44 people were killed and 150 injured. On 11 July 2006, seven bombs exploded within 11 minutes on the Suburban Railway in Mumbai, killing 209 people, including 22 foreigners and more than 700 injured. According to the Mumbai Police, the bombings were carried out by Lashkar-e-Taiba and Students Islamic Movement of India (SIMI).
A group of men, sometimes stated as 24, at other times 26, received training in marine warfare at a remote camp in mountainous Muzaffarabad. Part of the training was reported to have taken place on the Mangla Dam reservoir.
The recruits went through the following stages of training, according to Indian and US media reports:
- Psychological: Indoctrination to Islamist ideas, including imagery of atrocities suffered by Muslims in India, Chechnya, Palestine and across the globe.
- Basic Combat: Lashkar's basic combat training and methodology course, the Daura Aam.
- Advanced Training: Selected to undergo advanced combat training at a camp near Mansehra, a course the organisation calls the Daura Khaas. According to an unnamed source at the US Defense Department this includes advanced weapons and explosives training supervised by retired personnel of the Pakistan Army, along with survival training and further indoctrination.
- Commando Training: Finally, an even smaller group selected for specialised commando tactics training and marine navigation training given to the Fedayeen unit selected in order to target Mumbai.
From the students, 10 were handpicked for the Mumbai mission. They also received training in swimming and sailing, besides the use of high-end weapons and explosives under the supervision of LeT commanders. According to a media report citing an unnamed former Defence Department Official of the US, the intelligence agencies of the US had determined that former officers from Pakistan's Army and Inter-Services Intelligence agency assisted actively and continuously in training. They were given blueprints of all the four targets – Taj Mahal Palace & Tower, Oberoi Trident, Nariman House and Chhatrapati Shivaji Terminus.
The first events were detailed around 20:00 Indian Standard Time (IST) on 26 November, when 10 men in inflatable speedboats came ashore at two locations in Colaba. They reportedly told local Marathi-speaking fishermen who asked them who they were to "mind their own business" before they split up and headed two different ways. The fishermen's subsequent report to police received little response and local police were helpless. 
Chhatrapati Shivaji Terminus
The Chhatrapati Shivaji Terminus (CST) was attacked by two gunmen, Ismail Khan and Ajmal Kasab. Kasab was later caught alive by the police and identified by eyewitnesses. The attacks began around 21:30 when the two men entered the passenger hall and opened fire, using AK-47 rifles. The attackers killed 58 people and injured 104 others, their assault ending at about 22:45. Security forces and emergency services arrived shortly afterwards. Announcements by a railway announcer, Vishnu Dattaram Zende, alerted passengers to leave the station and saved scores of lives. The two gunmen fled the scene and fired at pedestrians and police officers in the streets, killing eight police officers. The attackers passed a police station. Knowing that they were outgunned against the heavily armed terrorists, the police officers at the station, instead of confronting the terrorists, decided to switch off the lights and secure the gates.
The attackers then headed towards Cama Hospital with an intention to kill patients, but the hospital staff locked all of the patient wards. A team of the Mumbai Anti-Terrorist Squad led by police chief Hemant Karkare searched the Chhatrapati Shivaji Terminus and then left in pursuit of Kasab and Khan. Kasab and Khan opened fire on the vehicle in a lane next to the hospital, and received return fire in response. Karkare, Vijay Salaskar, Ashok Kamte and one of their officers were killed. The only survivor, Constable Arun Jadhav, was severely wounded. Kasab and Khan seized the police vehicle but later abandoned it and seized a passenger car instead. They then ran into a police roadblock, which had been set up after Jadhav radioed for help. A gun battle then ensued in which Khan was killed and Kasab was wounded. After a physical struggle, Kasab was arrested. A police officer, Tukaram Omble was also killed when he ran in front of Kasab to shoot him.
The Leopold Cafe, a popular restaurant and bar on Colaba Causeway in South Mumbai, was one of the first sites to be attacked. Two attackers, Shoaib alias Soheb and Nazir alias Abu Umer, opened fire on the cafe on the evening of 26 November, killing at least 10 people, (including some foreigners), and injuring many more.
Bomb blasts in taxis
There were two explosions in taxis caused by timer bombs. The first one occurred at 22:40 at Vile Parle, killing the driver and a passenger. The second explosion took place at Wadi Bunder between 22:20 and 22:25. Three people, including the driver of the taxi were killed, and about 15 others were injured.
Taj Mahal Hotel and Oberoi Trident
Two hotels, the Taj Mahal Palace & Tower and the Oberoi Trident, were among the four locations targeted. Six explosions were reported at the Taj hotel – one in the lobby, two in the elevators, three in the restaurant – and one at the Oberoi Trident. At the Taj Mahal, firefighters rescued 200 hostages from windows using ladders during the first night.
CNN initially reported on the morning of 27 November 2008 that the hostage situation at the Taj had been resolved and quoted the police chief of Maharashtra stating that all hostages were freed; however, it was learned later that day that there were still two attackers holding hostages, including foreigners, in the Taj Mahal hotel.
A number of European Parliament Committee on International Trade delegates were staying in the Taj Mahal hotel when it was attacked, but none of them were injured. British Conservative Member of the European Parliament (MEP) Sajjad Karim (who was in the lobby when attackers initially opened fire there) and German Social Democrat MEP Erika Mann were hiding in different parts of the building. Also reported present was Spanish MEP Ignasi Guardans, who was barricaded in a hotel room. Another British Conservative MEP, Syed Kamall, reported that he along with several other MEPs left the hotel and went to a nearby restaurant shortly before the attack. Kamall also reported that Polish MEP Jan Masiel was thought to have been sleeping in his hotel room when the attacks started, but eventually left the hotel safely. Kamall and Guardans reported that a Hungarian MEP's assistant was shot. Also caught up in the shooting were the President of Madrid, Esperanza Aguirre, while checking in at the Oberoi Trident, and Indian MP N. N. Krishnadas of Kerala and Gulam Noon while having dinner at a restaurant in the Taj Hotel.
Nariman House, a Chabad Lubavitch Jewish centre in Colaba known as the Mumbai Chabad House, was taken over by two attackers and several residents were held hostage. Police evacuated adjacent buildings and exchanged fire with the attackers, wounding one. Local residents were told to stay inside. The attackers threw a grenade into a nearby lane, causing no casualties. NSG commandos arrived from Delhi, and a naval helicopter took an aerial survey. During the first day, 9 hostages were rescued from the first floor. The following day, the house was stormed by NSG commandos fast-roping from helicopters onto the roof, covered by snipers positioned in nearby buildings. After a long battle, one NSG commando Havaldar Gajender Singh Bisht and both perpetrators were killed. Rabbi Gavriel Holtzberg and his wife Rivka Holtzberg, who was six months pregnant, were murdered with four other hostages inside the house by the attackers.
According to radio transmissions picked up by Indian intelligence, the attackers "would be told by their handlers in Pakistan that the lives of Jews were worth 50 times those of non-Jews." Injuries on some of the bodies indicated that they may have been tortured.
During the attacks, both hotels were surrounded by Rapid Action Force personnel and Marine Commandos (MARCOS) and National Security Guards (NSG) commandos. When reports emerged that attackers were receiving television broadcasts, feeds to the hotels were blocked. Security forces stormed both hotels, and all nine attackers were killed by the morning of 29 November. Major Sandeep Unnikrishnan of the NSG was killed during the rescue of Commando Sunil Yadav, who was hit in the leg by a bullet during the rescue operations at Taj. 32 hostages were killed at the Oberoi Trident.
NSG commandos then took on the Nariman house, and a Naval helicopter took an aerial survey. During the first day, 9 hostages were rescued from the first floor. The following day, the house was stormed by NSG commandos fast-roping from helicopters onto the roof, covered by snipers positioned in nearby buildings. NSG Commando Havaldar Gajender Singh Bisht, who was part of the team that fast-roped onto Nariman House, died after a long battle in which both perpetrators were also killed. Rabbi Gavriel Holtzberg and his wife Rivka Holtzberg, who was six months pregnant, were murdered with four other hostages inside the house by the attackers. By the morning of November 28th, the NSG had secured the Jewish outreach centre at Nariman House as well as the Oberoi Trident hotel. They also incorrectly believed that the Taj Mahal Palace and Towers had been cleared of attackers, and soldiers were leading hostages and holed-up guests to safety, and removing bodies of those killed in the attacks. However, later news reports indicated that there were still two or three attackers in the Taj, with explosions heard and gunfire exchanged. Fires were also reported at the ground floor of the Taj with plumes of smoke arising from the first floor. The final operation at the Taj Mahal Palace hotel was completed by the NSG commandos at 08:00 on 29 November, killing three attackers and resulting in the conclusion of the attacks. The NSG rescued 250 people from the Oberoi, 300 from the Taj and 60 people (members of 12 different families) from Nariman House. In addition, police seized a boat filled with arms and explosives anchored at Mazgaon dock off Mumbai harbour.
The Mumbai attacks were planned and directed by Lashkar-e-Taiba militants inside Pakistan, and carried out by 10 young armed men trained and sent to Mumbai and directed from inside Pakistan via mobile phones and VoIP.
In July 2009 Pakistani authorities confirmed that LeT plotted and financed the attacks from LeT camps in Karachi and Thatta. In November 2009, Pakistani authorities charged seven men they had arrested earlier, of planning and executing the assault.
Mumbai police originally identified 37 suspects—including two army officers—for their alleged involvement in the plot. All but two of the suspects, many of whom are identified only through aliases, are Pakistani. Two more suspects arrested in the United States in October 2009 for other attacks were also found to have been involved in planning the Mumbai attacks. One of these men, Pakistani American David Headley (born Daood Sayed Gilani), was found to have made several trips to India before the attacks and gathered video and GPS information on behalf of the plotters.
In April 2011, the United States issued arrest warrants for four Pakistani men as suspects in the attack. The men, Sajid Mir, Abu Qahafa, Mazhar Iqbal alias "Major Iqbal", are believed to be members of Lashkar-e-Taiba and helped plan and train the attackers.
Negotiations with Pakistan
Pakistan initially denied that Pakistanis were responsible for the attacks, blaming plotters in Bangladesh and Indian criminals, a claim refuted by India, and saying they needed information from India on other bombings first.
The Indian government supplied evidence to Pakistan and other governments, in the form of interrogations, weapons, and call records of conversations during the attacks. In addition, Indian government officials said that the attacks were so sophisticated that they must have had official backing from Pakistani "agencies", an accusation denied by Pakistan.
Under US and UN pressure, Pakistan arrested a few members of Jamaat ud-Dawa and briefly put its founder under house arrest, but he was found to be free a few days later. A year after the attacks, Mumbai police continued to complain that Pakistani authorities were not co-operating by providing information for their investigation. Meanwhile, journalists in Pakistan said security agencies were preventing them from interviewing people from Kasab's village. Home Minister P. Chidambaram said the Pakistani authorities had not shared any information about American suspects Headley and Rana, but that the FBI had been more forthcoming.
An Indian report, summarising intelligence gained from India's interrogation of David Headley, was released in October 2010. It alleged that Pakistan's intelligence agency (ISI) had provided support for the attacks by providing funding for reconnaissance missions in Mumbai. The report included Headley's claim that Lashkar-e-Taiba's chief military commander, Zaki-ur-Rahman Lakhvi, had close ties to the ISI. He alleged that "every big action of LeT is done in close coordination with [the] ISI."
According to investigations, the attackers travelled by sea from Karachi, Pakistan, across the Arabian Sea, hijacked the Indian fishing trawler 'Kuber', killed the crew of four, then forced the captain to sail to Mumbai. After murdering the captain, the attackers entered Mumbai on a rubber dinghy. The captain of 'Kuber', Amar Singh Solanki, had earlier been imprisoned for six months in a Pakistani jail for illegally fishing in Pakistani waters. The attackers stayed and were trained by the Lashkar-e-Taiba in a safehouse at Azizabad near Karachi before boarding a small boat for Mumbai.
David Headley was a member of Lashkar-e-Taiba, and between 2002 and 2009 Headley travelled extensively as part of his work for LeT. Headley received training in small arms and countersurveillance from LeT, built a network of connections for the group, and was chief scout in scoping out targets for Mumbai attack having allegedly been given $25,000 in cash in 2006 by an ISI officer known as Major Iqbal, The officer also helped him arrange a communications system for the attack, and oversaw a model of the Taj Mahal Hotel so that gunmen could know their way inside the target, according to Headley's testimony to Indian authorities. Headley also helped ISI recruit Indian agents to monitor Indian troop levels and movements, according to a US official. At the same time, Headley was also an informant for the US Drug Enforcement Administration, and Headley's wives warned American officials of Headley's involvement with LeT and his plotting attacks, warning specifically that the Taj Mahal Hotel may be their target.
US officials believed that the Inter-Services Intelligence (I.S.I.) officers provided support to Lashkar-e-Taiba militants who carried out the attacks. Disclosures made by former American intelligence contractor Edward Snowden in 2013 revealed that the Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) had intercepted communications between the Lashkar boat and the LeT headquarters in Azad Kashmir and passed the alert on to RAW on November 18, eight days before the terrorists actually struck Mumbai.
The arrest of Zabiuddin Ansari alias Abu Hamza in June 2012 provided further clarity on how the plot was hatched. According to Abu Hamza, the attacks were previously scheduled for 2006, using Indian youth for the job. However, a huge cache of AK-47's and RDX, which were to be used for the attacks, was recovered from Aurangabad in 2006, thus leading to the dismantling of the original plot. Subsequently, Abu Hamza fled to Pakistan and along with Lashkar commanders, scouted for Pakistani youth to be used for the attacks. In September 2007, 10 people were selected for the mission. In September 2008, these people tried sailing to Mumbai from Karachi, but couldn't complete their mission due to choppy waters. These men made a second attempt in November 2008, and successfully managed to execute the final attacks. David Headley's disclosures, that three Pakistani army officers were associated with the planning and execution of the attack were substantiated by Ansari's revelations during his interrogation. After Ansari's arrest, Pakistan's Foreign Office claimed they had received information that up to 40 Indian nationals were involved in the attacks.
The attackers had planned the attack several months ahead of time and knew some areas well enough to vanish and reappear after security forces had left. Several sources have quoted Kasab telling the police that the group received help from Mumbai residents. The attackers used at least three SIM cards purchased on the Indian side of the border with Bangladesh. There were also reports of a SIM card purchased in the US state New Jersey, if this is the case, then this would go back to Iraqi Intelligence Services and Al Qaeda from 9–11 or Jemmah Ismaliyah and Egyptian Islamic Jihad through Iraqi Intelligence from Saddam Hussein's old network of militants that was never proved. Police had also mentioned that Faheem Ansari, an Indian Lashkar operative who had been arrested in February 2008, had scouted the Mumbai targets for the November attacks. Later, the police arrested two Indian suspects, Mikhtar Ahmad, who is from Srinagar in Kashmir, and Tausif Rehman, a resident of Kolkata. They supplied the SIM cards, one in Calcutta, and the other in New Delhi.
The attackers used a satellite phone and cell phones to talk to each other as well as their handlers that were based in Pakistan. In transcripts intercepted by Indian authorities between the attackers and their handlers, the handlers provided the attackers with encouragement, tactical advice, and information gained from media coverage. The attackers used both personal cell phones and those obtained from their victims to communicate with each other and the news media. Although the attackers were encouraged to murder hostages, the attackers were in communication with the news media via cell phones to make demands in return for the release of hostages. This was believed to be done in order to further confuse Indian authorities that they were dealing with primarily a hostage situation.
There were also indications that the attackers had been taking steroids. The gunman who survived said that the attackers had used Google Earth to familiarise themselves with the locations of buildings used in the attacks.
There were 10 gunmen, nine of whom were subsequently shot dead and one captured by security forces. Witnesses reported that they seemed to be in their early twenties, wore black T-shirts and jeans, and that they smiled and looked happy as they shot their victims.
It was initially reported that some of the attackers were British citizens, but the Indian government later stated that there was no evidence to confirm this. Similarly, early reports of 12 gunmen were also later shown to be incorrect.
On 9 December, the 10 attackers were identified by Mumbai police, along with their home towns in Pakistan: Ajmal Amir from Faridkot, Abu Ismail Dera Ismail Khan from Dera Ismail Khan, Hafiz Arshad and Babr Imran from Multan, Javed from Okara, Shoaib from Narowal, Nazih and Nasr from Faisalabad, Abdul Rahman from Arifwalla, and Fahad Ullah from Dipalpur Taluka. Dera Ismail Khan is in the North-West Frontier Province; the rest of the towns are in Pakistani Punjab.
On 6 April 2010, the Home Minister of Maharashtra State, which includes Mumbai, informed the Assembly that the bodies of the nine killed Pakistani gunmen from the 2008 attack on Mumbai were buried in a secret location in January 2010. The bodies had been in the mortuary of a Mumbai hospital after Muslim clerics in the city refused to let them be buried on their grounds.
Only one of the 10 attackers, Ajmal Kasab,survived the attack. He was hanged in Yerwada jail in 2012. Other nine attackers killed during the onslaught were Hafiz Arshad alias Abdul Rehman Bada, Abdul Rahman Chhota, Javed alias Abu Ali, Fahadullah alias Abu Fahad, Ismail Khan alias Abu Ismail, Babar Imran alias Abu Akasha, Nasir alias Abu Umar, Nazir alias Abu Umer and Shoaib alias Abu Soheb.
On 12 February 2009 Pakistan's Interior Minister Rehman Malik said that Pakistani national Javed Iqbal, who acquired VoIP phones in Spain for the Mumbai attackers, and Hamad Ameen Sadiq, who had facilitated money transfer for the attack, had been arrested. Two other men known as Khan and Riaz, but whose full names were not given, were also arrested. Two Pakistanis were arrested in Brescia, Italy (East of Milan), on 21 November 2009, after being accused of providing logistical support to the attacks and transferring more than US$200 to Internet accounts using a false ID. They had Red Corner Notices issued against them by Interpol for their suspected involvement and it was issued after the last year's strikes.
In October 2009, two Chicago men were arrested and charged by the FBI for involvement in "terrorism" abroad, David Coleman Headley and Tahawwur Hussain Rana. Headley, a Pakistani-American, was charged in November 2009 with scouting locations for the 2008 Mumbai attacks. Headley is reported to have posed as an American Jew and is believed to have links with militant Islamist groups based in Bangladesh. On 18 March 2010, Headley pleaded guilty to a dozen charges against him thereby avoiding going to trial.
On 15 January 2010, in a successful snatch operation R&AW agents nabbed Sheikh Abdul Khwaja, one of the handlers of the 26/11 attacks, chief of HuJI India operations and a most wanted suspect in India, from Colombo, Sri Lanka, and brought him over to Hyderabad, India for formal arrest.
On 25 June 2012, the Delhi Police arrested Zabiuddin Ansari alias Abu Hamza, one of the key suspects in the attack at the Indira Gandhi International Airport in New Delhi. His arrest was touted as the most significant development in the case since Kasab's arrest. Security agencies had been chasing him for three years in Delhi. Ansari is a Lashker-e-Taiba ultra and the Hindi tutor of the 10 attackers who were responsible for the Mumbai attacks in 2008. He was apprehended, after he was arrested and deported to India by Saudi Intelligence officials as per official request by Indian authorities. After Ansari's arrest, investigations revealed that in 2009 he allegedly stayed for a day in a room in Old Legislators's Hostel, belonging to Fauzia Khan, a former MLA and minister in Maharashtra Government. The minister, however, denied having any links with him. Home Minister P. Chidambaram, asserted that Ansari was provided a safe place in Pakistan and was present in the control room, which could not have been established without active State support. Ansari's interrogation further revealed that Sajid Mir and a Pakistani Army major visited India under fake names as cricket spectators to survey targets in Delhi and Mumbai for about a fortnight.
Casualties and compensation
At least 164 victims (civilians and security personnel) and nine attackers were killed in the attacks. Among the dead were 28 foreign nationals from 10 countries. One attacker was captured. The bodies of many of the dead hostages showed signs of torture or disfigurement. A number of those killed were notable figures in business, media, and security services.
- Assistant Police Sub-Inspector Tukaram Omble, who succeeded in capturing a terrorist alive, with his bare hands.
- Joint Commissioner of Police Hemant Karkare, the Chief of the Mumbai Anti-Terrorism Squad
- Additional Commissioner of Police: Ashok Kamte
- Encounter specialist Senior Inspector Vijay Salaskar
- Senior Inspector Shashank Shinde
- NSG Commando, Major Sandeep Unnikrishnan
- NSG Commando, Hawaldar Gajendra Singh
The casualties occurred in the following locations,
|Location||Type of attack||Dead||Rescued|
|Mumbai Harbour||Shootings; hostages.||4||none|
|Chhatrapati Shivaji Terminus (CST) railway station; (express train terminus), (suburban terminus)||Shootings; grenade attacks.||58||none|
|Leopold Cafe, a popular tourist restaurant in Colaba;||Shootings; grenade explosion.||10||none|
|Taj Mahal Palace & Tower near the Gateway of India;||Shootings; six explosions; fire on ground, first, and top floors; hostages; RDX found nearby.||31
(in addition to 1 commando)
|Oberoi Trident at Nariman Point;||Shootings; explosions; hostages; fire.||30||143|
|Metro Cinema||Shooting from carjacked police jeep.||around 10||none|
|Cama and Albless Hospital;||Shootings; hostages.||5 policemen||none|
|Nariman House (Chabad House) Jewish outreach centre;||Siege; shootings; hostages.||7 (including 1 commando)||9|
|Vile Parle suburb near the airport, North Mumbai||Car bomb blast.||1||none|
|Badruddin Tayabji Lane behind the Times of India building.||Police killed by gunfire.||9 policemen||none|
|Mazagaon docks in Mumbai's port area;||Explosion; boat with armaments seized.||none||none|
The government of Maharashtra announced about ₹500,000 (US$7,400) as compensation to the kin of each of those killed in the terror attacks and about ₹50,000 (US$740) to the seriously injured. In August 2009, Indian Hotels Company and the Oberoi Group received about $28 million USD as part-payment of the insurance claims, on account of the attacks on Taj Mahal and Trident, from General Insurance Corporation of India.
The attacks are sometimes referred to in India as "26/11", after the date in 2008 that the attacks began, in similar style to the 9/11 attacks in the United States, the 11-M attack in Madrid, Spain, and the 7/7 bombings in London, United Kingdom. The Pradhan Inquiry Commission, appointed by the Maharashtra government, produced a report that was tabled before the legislative assembly more than a year after the events. The report said the "war-like" attack was beyond the capacity to respond of any police force, but also found fault with the Mumbai Police Commissioner Hasan Gafoor's lack of leadership during the crisis.
The Maharashtra government planned to buy 36 speed boats to patrol the coastal areas and several helicopters for the same purpose. It also planned to create an anti-terror force called "Force One" and upgrade all the weapons that Mumbai police currently have. Prime Minister Manmohan Singh on an all-party conference declared that legal framework would be strengthened in the battle against "terrorism" and a federal anti-terrorist intelligence and investigation agency, like the FBI, will be set up soon to co-ordinate action against "terrorism." The government strengthened anti-terror laws with UAPA 2008, and the federal National Investigation Agency was formed.
The attacks further strained India's slowly recovering relationship with Pakistan. India's then External Affairs Minister Pranab Mukherjee (presently President of India) declared that India may indulge in military strikes against terror camps in Pakistan to protect its territorial integrity. There were also after-effects on the United States's relationships with both countries, the US-led NATO war in Afghanistan, and on the Global War on Terror. FBI chief Robert Mueller praised the "unprecedented cooperation" between American and Indian intelligence agencies over the Mumbai terror attack probe. However, Interpol secretary general Ronald Noble said that Indian intelligence agencies did not share any information with Interpol.
A new National Counter Terrorism Centre (NCTC) was proposed to be set up by the then-Home Minister P. Chidambaram as an office to collect, collate, summarise, integrate, analyse, co-ordinate and report all information and inputs received from various intelligence agencies, state police departments, and other ministries and their departments.
Movement of troops
Pakistan moved troops towards the border with India voicing concerns about the Indian government's possible plans to launch attacks on Pakistani soil if it did not co-operate. After days of talks, the Pakistan government, however, decided to start moving troops away from the border.
Indians criticised their political leaders after the attacks, saying that their ineptness was partly responsible. The Times of India commented on its front page that "Our politicians fiddle as innocents die." Political reactions in Mumbai and India included a range of resignations and political changes, including the resignations of Minister for Home Affairs Shivraj Patil, Chief Minister Vilasrao Deshmukh and deputy chief minister R. R. Patil for controversial reactions to the attack including taking the former's son and Bollywood director Ram Gopal Verma to tour the damaged Taj Hotel and the latters remarks that the attacks were not a big deal in such a large city. Prominent Muslim personalities such as Bollywood actor Aamir Khan appealed to their community members in the country to observe Eid al-Adha as a day of mourning on 9 December. The business establishment also reacted, with changes to transport, and requests for an increase in self-defence capabilities. The attacks also triggered a chain of citizens' movements across India such as the India Today Group's "War Against Terror" campaign. There were vigils held across all of India with candles and placards commemorating the victims of the attacks. The NSG commandos based in Delhi also met criticism for taking 10 hours to reach the 3 sites under attack.
International reaction for the attacks was widespread, with many countries and international organisations condemning the attacks and expressing their condolences to the civilian victims. Many important personalities around the world also condemned the attacks.
Media coverage highlighted the use of social media and Internet social networking tools, including Twitter and Flickr, in spreading information about the attacks. In addition, many Indian bloggers offered live textual coverage of the attacks. A map of the attacks was set up by a web journalist using Google Maps. The New York Times, in July 2009, described the event as "what may be the most well-documented terrorist attack anywhere."
In November 2010, families of American victims of the attacks filed a lawsuit in Brooklyn, New York, naming Lt. Gen. Ahmed Shuja Pasha, chief of the I.S.I., as being complicit in the Mumbai attacks. On 22 September 2011, the attack on the American Embassy in Afghanistan, was attributed to Pakistan via cell phone records identical to the attacks in Mumbai, also linked to Pakistan. The investigation is on-going.
Kasab's trial was delayed due to legal issues, as many Indian lawyers were unwilling to represent him. A Mumbai Bar Association passed a resolution proclaiming that none of its members would represent Kasab. However, the Chief Justice of India stated that Kasab needed a lawyer for a fair trial. A lawyer for Kasab was eventually found, but was replaced due to a conflict of interest. On 25 February 2009, Indian investigators filed an 11,000-page chargesheet, formally charging Kasab with murder, conspiracy, and waging war against India among other charges.
Kasab's trial began on 6 May 2009. He initially pleaded not guilty, but later admitted his guilt on 20 July 2009. He initially apologised for the attacks and claimed that he deserved the death penalty for his crimes, but later retracted these claims, saying that he had been tortured by police to force his confession, and that he had been arrested while roaming the beach. The court had accepted his plea, but due to the lack of completeness within his admittance, the judge had deemed that many of the 86 charges were not addressed and therefore the trial continued.
Kasab was convicted of all 86 charges on 3 May 2010. He was found guilty of murder for directly killing seven people, conspiracy to commit murder for the deaths of the 164 people killed in the three-day terror siege, waging war against India, causing terror, and of conspiracy to murder two high-ranking police officers. On 6 May 2010, he was sentenced to death by hanging. However, he appealed his sentence at high court. On 21 February 2011, the Bombay High Court upheld the death sentence of Kasab, dismissing his appeal.
On 29 August 2012, the Indian Supreme Court upheld the death sentence for Kasab. The court stated, "We are left with no option but to award death penalty. The primary and foremost offence committed by Kasab is waging war against the Government of India.” The verdict followed 10 weeks of appeal hearings, and was decided by a two-judge Supreme Court panel, which was led by Judge Aftab Alam. The panel rejected arguments that Kasab was denied a free and fair trial.
Kasab filed a mercy petition with the President of India, which was rejected on 5 November . Kasab was hanged in Pune's Yerwada jail in secret on 21 November 2012 at 7:30 am and naming the operation as operation 'X'. The Indian mission in Islamabad informed the Pakistan government about Kasab's hanging through letter. Pakistan refused to take the letter, which was then faxed to them. His family in Pakistan was sent news of his hanging via a courier.
Indian and Pakistani police have exchanged DNA evidence, photographs and items found with the attackers to piece together a detailed portrait of the Mumbai plot. Police in Pakistan have arrested seven people, including Hammad Amin Sadiq, a homoeopathic pharmacist, who arranged bank accounts and secured supplies. Sadiq and six others begin their formal trial on 3 October 2009 in Pakistan, though Indian authorities say the prosecution stops well short of top Lashkar leaders. In November 2009, Indian Prime Minister Manmohan Singh said that Pakistan has not done enough to bring the perpetrators of the attacks to justice.
An eight-member commission comprising defence lawyers, prosecutors and a court official was allowed to travel to India on 15 March 2013 to gather evidences for the prosecution of seven suspects linked to the 2008 Mumbai attacks. However, the defence lawyers were barred from cross-examining the four prosecution witnesses in the case including Ajmal Kasab. On the eve of the first anniversary of 26/11, a Pakistani anti-terror court formally charged seven accused, including LeT operations commander Zaki ur Rehman Lakhvi. However, the actual trial started on 5 May 2012. The Pakistani court conducting trial of Mumbai attacks accused, reserved its judgement on the application filed by Lakhvi, challenging the report of the judicial panel, to 17 July 2012. On 17 July 2012, the court refused to take the findings of the Pakistani judicial commission as part of the evidence. It however, ruled that if a new agreement that allows panel's examination of witnesses, is reached, the prosecution may move an application for sending the panel to Mumbai. The Indian Government upset over the court ruling, however, contended that evidence collected by the Pakistani judicial panel has evidential value to punish all those involved in the attack. On 21-September-2013, a Pakistani judicial commission arrived in India to carry out the investigation and to cross examine the witnesses. This is the second such visit, the one in March 2012 was not a success as its report was rejected by an anti-terrorism court in Pakistan due to lack of evidence.
In the United States
The LeT operative David Headley (born Daood Sayed Gilani) in his testimony before a Chicago federal court during co-accused Tahawwur Rana's trial revealed that Mumbai Chabad House was added to the list of targets for surveillance given by his Inter Services Intelligence handler Major Iqbal, though the Oberoi hotel, one of the sites attacked, was not originally on the list. On 10 June 2011, Tahawwur Rana was acquitted of plotting the 2008 Mumbai attacks, but was held guilty on two other charges. He was sentenced to 14 years in federal prison on 17 January 2013.
David Headley pleaded guilty to 12 counts related to the attacks, including conspiracy to commit murder in India and aiding and abetting in the murder of six Americans. On 23 January 2013, he was sentenced to 35 years in federal prison. His plea that he not be extradited to India, Pakistan or Denmark was accepted.
On the first anniversary of the event, the state paid homage to the victims of the attack. Force One—a new security force created by the Maharashtra government—staged a parade from Nariman Point to Chowpatty. Other memorials and candlelight vigils were also organised at the various locations where the attacks occurred.
On the second anniversary of the event, homage was again paid to the victims.
- 1993 Bombay bombings
- 2006 Mumbai train bombings
- November 2015 Paris attacks
- List of Islamist terrorist attacks
- Survivor registry
- The Attacks of 26/11
- Westgate centre shootings
- The Siege: The Attack on the Taj
- Phantom (2015 film)
- Sarah Avraham
- Two with dual US-Israeli citizenship.
- Two with dual Israeli-US citizenship.
- Dual British-Cypriot citizenship.
- Dual Cypriot-British citizenship.
- Magnier, Mark; Sharma, Subhash (27 November 2008). "India terrorist attacks leave at least 101 dead in Mumbai". Los Angeles Times. p. A1. Retrieved 28 November 2008.
- "HM announces measures to enhance security" (Press release). Press Information Bureau (Government of India). 11 December 2008. Retrieved 14 December 2008.
- Masood, Salman (12 February 2009). "Pakistan Announces Arrests for Mumbai Attacks". New York Times. Retrieved 12 February 2009.
- Haider, Kamran (12 February 2009). "Pakistan says it arrests Mumbai attack plotters". Reuters. Retrieved 12 February 2009.
- Pakistan admits Pakistanis, LeT training camps used for Mumbai attacks. The News Tribe (12 November 2012). Retrieved on 2014-06-19.
- Nelson, Dean. (8 July 2009) Pakistani president Asif Zardari admits creating terrorist groups. Telegraph. Retrieved on 2014-06-19.
- Pakistan admits Mumbai terror link | The National. Thenational.ae (12 February 2009). Retrieved on 2014-06-19.
- Press Trust of India (27 November 2008). "Army preparing for final assault, says Major General Poonam Gilurkar". The Times of India. India. Retrieved 10 December 2008.
- "India Blames Pakistan as Mumbai Siege Ends". DW. 29 November 2008. Retrieved 15 July 2011.
- Star, Barbara; Black, Phil (27 November 2008). "Who is to blame for Mumbai attacks? yyghh". CNN. Retrieved 28 November 2008.
- Friedman, Thomas (17 February 2009). "No Way, No How, Not Here". The New York Times. Archived from the original on 29 August 2012. Retrieved 17 May 2010.
- Indian Muslims hailed for not burying 26/11 attackers, Sify News, 19 February 2009, retrieved 15 July 2011
- Schifrin, Nick (25 November 2009). "Mumbai Terror Attacks: 7 Pakistanis Charged – Action Comes a Year After India's Worst Terrorist Attacks; 164 Die.". ABC News. Retrieved 17 May 2010.
- Black, Ian (28 November 2008). "Attacks draw worldwide condemnation". The Guardian. UK. Archived from the original on 1 December 2008. Retrieved 5 December 2008.
- "Wave of Terror Attacks Strikes India's Mumbai, Killing at Least 182". Fox News Channel. 27 November 2008. Archived from the original on 4 December 2008. Retrieved 3 December 2008.
- Kahn, Jeremy (2 December 2008). "Jews of Mumbai, a Tiny and Eclectic Group, Suddenly Reconsider Their Serene Existence". The New York Times. Archived from the original on 20 August 2014. Retrieved 3 December 2008.
- Magnier, Mark (3 December 2008). "Mumbai police officers describe nightmare of attack". Los Angeles Times. Archived from the original on 6 December 2008. Retrieved 3 December 2008.
- "Tracing the terror route". The Indian Express. India. 10 December 2008. Archived from the original on 28 May 2009. Retrieved 9 December 2008.
- "Police declare Mumbai siege over". BBC. 29 November 2008. Archived from the original on 29 November 2008. Retrieved 29 November 2008.
- "Terrorist's name lost in transliteration". The Hindu. Chennai, India. 6 December 2008. Archived from the original on 8 December 2008. Retrieved 7 December 2008.
- "Lashkar-e-Taiba (Army of the Pure) (aka Lashkar e-Tayyiba, Lashkar e-Toiba; Lashkar-i-Taiba) – Council on Foreign Relations". Cfr.org. Archived from the original on 5 June 2010. Retrieved 31 December 2010.
- Schmitt, Eric; Somini Sengupta, Jane Perlez (3 December 2008). "US and India See Link to Militants in Pakistan". The New York Times. Retrieved 3 December 2008.
- Somini Sengupta; Eric Schmitt (3 December 2008). "Ex-US Official Cites Pakistani Training for India Attackers". The New York Times. Archived from the original on 2 April 2009. Retrieved 14 February 2009.
- "Pakistan Continues to Resist India Pressure on Mumbai". Time. 8 January 2009. Archived from the original on 14 January 2009. Retrieved 8 January 2009.
- "Pak court grants bail to Mumbai terror attack accused Lakhvi". Yahoo. 9 January 2015. Retrieved 9 January 2015.
- "Lakhvi gets bail, again". Dawn, Pakistan. Retrieved 9 January 2015.
- "1993: Bombay hit by devastating bombs". BBC. 12 March 1993. Archived from the original on 11 December 2008. Retrieved 12 November 2010.
- Monica Chadha (12 September 2006). "Victims await Mumbai 1993 blasts justice". BBC. Archived from the original on 10 December 2008. Retrieved 12 November 2008.
- "Blast outside Ghatkopar station in Mumbai, 10 killed". rediff.com India Limited. 6 December 2002. Retrieved 19 August 2008.
- "1992: Mob rips apart mosque in Ayodhya". BBC. 6 December 1992. Archived from the original on 7 December 2008. Retrieved 11 November 2008.
- "1 killed, 25 hurt in Vile Parle blast". The Times of India. India. 28 January 2003. Retrieved 19 August 2008.
- "Fear after Bombay train blast". BBC. 14 March 2003. Retrieved 19 August 2008.
- Vijay Singh; Syed Firdaus Ashra (29 July 2003). "Blast in Ghatkopar in Mumbai, 4 killed and 32 injured". rediff.com India Limited. Archived from the original on 8 September 2008. Retrieved 19 August 2008.
- "2003: Bombay rocked by twin car bombs". BBC. 25 August 2003. Retrieved 19 August 2008.
- "For the record: The 11/7 chargesheet". rediff.com India Limited. 11 July 2008. Retrieved 19 August 2008.
- "India: A major terror target". The Times of India. India. 30 October 2008. Archived from the original on 12 January 2009. Retrieved 11 November 2008.
- "Gunfire heard at two Mumbai hotels - CNN.com".
- Dwight Hamilton; Kostas Rimsa (19 November 2007). Terror Threat: International and Homegrown Terrorists and Their Threat to Canada. Dundurn Press Ltd. p. 103. ISBN 978-1-55002-736-5. Retrieved 28 September 2011.
- "Rs 50, 000 not enough for injured". Indian Express Newspapers (Mumbai) Ltd. 21 July 2006. Retrieved 11 November 2008.
- Editorial – K. Jaishankar – IJCJS vol 2 issue 2 July–December, 2008. Sascv.org. Retrieved on 19 June 2014.
- "India police: Indian Government spy agency behind Mumbai bombings". CNN. 1 October 2006. Retrieved 11 November 2008.
- "Mumbai Police blames ISI, LeT for 7/11 blasts". The Times of India. India. 30 September 2006. Retrieved 11 November 2008.
- Blakely, Rhys (2 December 2008). "City fears five terrorists are missing". The Times. London. Retrieved 23 April 2010.(subscription required)
- Rahman, Maseeh; Jones, Sam (1 December 2008). "Rumours abound as inquiry begins its search for truth". The Guardian. London. Archived from the original on 2 December 2008. Retrieved 1 December 2008.
- Swami, Praveen (2 December 2008). "A journey into the Lashkar". The Hindu. Chennai.
- Schmitt, Eric; Sengupta, Somini (4 December 2008). "New York Times, Quoting a former US defence official". The New York Times. Retrieved 23 April 2010.
- Williams, Matthias (2008-11-29). "Militants in Mumbai wanted an Indian 9/11". Reuters. Retrieved 2015-11-16.
- Lakshmi, Rama (3 December 2008). "Details Emerge From Sole Arrested Gunman". The Washington Post. Retrieved 3 December 2008.
- Schmitt, Eric; Sengupta, Somini (3 December 2008). "Ex-U.S. Official Cites Pakistani Training for India Attackers". The New York Times. Archived from the original on 11 May 2013. Retrieved 4 December 2008.
- Moreau, Ron; Mazumdar, Sudip (27 November 2008). "The Pakistan Connection". Newsweek. Archived from the original on 6 December 2008. Retrieved 28 November 2008.
- "Meet the men who attacked Mumbai ....". Rainbow Skill : Knowledge Portal. Retrieved 2016-12-12.
- "3 witnesses identify Kasab, court takes on record CCTV footage". The Economic Times. India. 17 June 2009. Archived from the original on 20 June 2009. Retrieved 17 June 2009.
- "Photographer recalls Mumbai attacks". The News International. 16 June 2009. Archived from the original on 20 June 2009. Retrieved 17 June 2009.
- "26/11 attacks: Two years on, rail announcer Vishnu Zende has moved on". DNA. PTI. 24 November 2010. Retrieved 8 May 2015.
- Raghavendra Rao (14 December 2008). "CST announcer who saved lives rewarded". Indian Express.
- "Judgement, THE HIGH COURT OF JUDICATURE AT BOMBAY, THE JUDGMENT RESERVED : 7 FEBRUARY 2011; THE ORDER IS PRONOUNCED: 21 FEBRUARY 2011". The Times Of India.
- "Info from cop in Karkare's jeep led to Kasab's arrest". Mid Day. 3 December 2008. Archived from the original on 17 June 2011. Retrieved 15 July 2011.
- "Mumbai gunman guilty of 'act of war'". The National (Abu Dhabi). 4 May 2010. Retrieved 15 July 2011.
- "Jukexboxes on the Moon: Stardom is martyrdom: India arrives in the American imagination". Triple Canopy. Retrieved 15 July 2011.
- Blakely, Rhys; Page, Jeremy (1 December 2008). "Defiant Leopold café shows that Mumbai is not afraid". The Times. UK. Retrieved 19 March 2009.
- "Leopold Cafe reopens amidst desolation". Deccan Herald. India. 1 December 2008. Archived from the original on 5 December 2008. Retrieved 19 March 2009.
- "Mumbai attack: Timeline of how the terror unfolded". Daily Mirror. UK. 27 November 2008. Archived from the original on 28 May 2009. Retrieved 25 May 2009.
- "Taj Hotel Burns, 2 Terrorists Killed". CNN IBN. 27 November 2008. Retrieved 27 November 2008.
- "Taj Hotel Attacked". TTKN News. 27 November 2008. Retrieved 27 November 2008.
- "Scores killed in Mumbai rampage". CNN. 26 November 2008. Archived from the original on 2 December 2008. Retrieved 26 November 2008.
- Stevens, Andrew; Kapur, Mallika; O'Sullivan, Phil; Turner, Phillip; Hiranand, Ravi; Wong, Yasmin; Shah Singh, Harmeet (27 November 2008). "Fighting reported at Mumbai Jewish center". CNN. Archived from the original on 2 December 2008. Retrieved 28 November 2008.
- Charter, David (27 November 2008). "Tory MEP flees for his life as gunman starts spraying the hotel bar with bullets". The Times. London. Retrieved 21 February 2008.
- "EU trade delegation in Mumbai safe, delegate says". Deutsche Presse-Agentur. 27 November 2008. Retrieved 23 February 2009.
- Charter, David (27 November 2008). "Tory MEP flees for his life as gunman starts spraying the hotel bar with bullets". The Times. UK. Retrieved 27 November 2008.
- "EU parliament staff member wounded in India shootout". EU business. 27 November 2008. Archived from the original on 3 December 2008. Retrieved 21 February 2009.
- MEP attacks EU consular reaction in Mumbai, PHILIPPA RUNNER, 8 December 2008 @ 17:19 CET, EUobserver
- "Relacja Polaka z piekła" (in Polish). Reuters, TVN24. 27 November 2008. Retrieved 21 February 2009.
- "EU parliament staff member wounded in India shootout". The Economic Times. India. 27 November 2008. Retrieved 21 February 2009.
- Press Trust of India (27 November 2008). "200 people held hostage at Taj Hotel". NDTV. Retrieved 21 February 2009.
- Thomson, Alice; Rachel Sylvester (27 November 2008). "Sir Gulam Noon, British 'Curry King': how I escaped bombed hotel". The Times. UK. Retrieved 27 November 2008.
- Vaakov Lappin (29 November 2008). "Consulate: Unspecified number of Israelis missing in Mumbai". The Jerusalem Post. Retrieved 27 November 2008.
- "NSG ends reign of terror at Nariman". The Times of India. India. 29 November 2008. Retrieved 23 February 2009.
- "Siege at Nariman House ends, two terrorists killed". The Hindu. Chennai, India. 29 November 2008.
- Daniel Trotta (28 November 2008). "Rabbi killed in Mumbai had gone to serve Jews". Reuters. Archived from the original on 3 December 2008. Retrieved 29 November 2008.
- Gee, Alastair (1 November 2009), "Mumbai terror attacks: And then they came for the Jews", The Times, London, archived from the original on 26 March 2011, retrieved 15 July 2011
- Gee, Alastair, "And then they came for the Jews", Samoa Observer, retrieved 15 July 2011
- Pasricha, Anjana (27 November 2008). "Commandos Launch Operations to Clear Luxury Hotels Seized by Gunmen in Mumbai". VOA News. Voice of America. Archived from the original on 17 March 2009.
- "We want all Mujahideen released: Terrorist inside Oberoi". The Times of India. India. 27 November 2008. Retrieved 27 November 2008.
- Patrick Frater (30 November 2008). "Indian journalists in media firestorm". Variety. Archived from the original on 2 December 2008. Retrieved 1 December 2008.
- "Mumbai operation appears nearly over". CNN. 29 November 2008. Archived from the original on 8 March 2009. Retrieved 23 February 2009.
- "Oberoi standoff ends". CNN. 28 November 2008. Retrieved 7 March 2009.[dead link]
- "Terrorists had no plan to blow up Taj: NSG DG". Rediff. Archived from the original on 22 June 2011. Retrieved 26 November 2009.
- "NSG commando recounts gunfight with terrorists". CNN IBN. Retrieved 26 November 2009.
- Blakely, Rhys (22 December 2008). "A taste of defiance as massacre hotel opens for high tea". The Times. UK. Retrieved 8 January 2011.
- Keith Bradsher; Somini Sengupta (28 November 2008). "Commandos storm Jewish center in Mumbai". International Herald Tribune. Archived from the original on 1 December 2008. Retrieved 28 November 2008.
- "Mumbai takes back control from terrorists". TTKN Oxford. 28 November 2008. Archived from the original on 28 December 2008. Retrieved 28 November 2008.
- "Gunbattle enters third day, intense firing at Taj hotel". 28 November 2008. Archived from the original on 1 December 2008. Retrieved 28 November 2008.
- "Taj operation over, three terrorists killed". Hindustan Times. India. 29 November 2008. Archived from the original on 2 December 2008. Retrieved 29 November 2008.
- "Battle for Mumbai ends, death toll rises to 195". The Times of India. India. 29 November 2008. Retrieved 21 February 2009.
- "Timeline: one night of slaughter and mayhem". Evening Standard. 27 November 2008. Archived from the original on 5 December 2008. Retrieved 1 December 2008.
- Perlez, Jane; Masood, Salman (27 July 2009). "Terror Ties Run Deep in Pakistan, Mumbai Case Shows". The New York Times. p. A4.
- Hussain, Zahid (28 July 2009). "Islamabad Tells of Plot by Lashkar". The Wall Street Journal. Islamabad. Retrieved 28 July 2009.
- Schifrin, Nick (25 November 2009). "Mumbai terror attacks: 7 Pakistanis charged". ABC News. Archived from the original on 27 November 2009. Retrieved 1 December 2009.
- Rhys Blakely (26 February 2009). "Pakistani Army colonel 'was involved' in Mumbai terror attacks". The Times. London. Retrieved 26 February 2009.
- "Who are David Headley, Tahawwur Rana?". CNN IBN. 17 November 2009. Archived from the original on 21 November 2009. Retrieved 21 November 2009.
- Mohan, Vishwa (7 November 2009). "Headley link traced to Pak, 2 LeT men arrested". The Times of India. India. Retrieved 21 November 2009.
- Associated Press, "Four more men charged in Mumbai attack", Japan Times, 27 April 2011, p. 4.
- "Chidambaram asserts 26/11 originated from Pak soil". The Hindu. Chennai, India. 9 February 2009. Retrieved 21 February 2009.
- Shakeel Ahmad (16 February 2009). "Samjhota, Mumbai attacks linked, says Qureshi". Dawn. Archived from the original on 19 February 2009. Retrieved 16 February 2009.
- Richard A. Oppel; Salman Masood (7 January 2009). "Gunman in Mumbai Siege a Pakistani, Official Says". The New York Times. Archived from the original on 11 April 2009. Retrieved 21 February 2009.
- Mubashir Zaidi (7 January 2009). "Surviving gunman's identity established as Pakistani". Dawn. Archived from the original on 28 May 2009. Retrieved 7 January 2009.
- "Part of 26/11 plan made on our land, admits Pakistan". NDTV. 12 February 2009. Archived from the original on 13 February 2009. Retrieved 12 February 2009.
- Somini Sengupta (6 January 2009). "Dossier From India Gives New Details of Mumbai Attacks". The New York Times. Archived from the original on 9 April 2009. Retrieved 14 February 2009.
- Anirban Bhaumik (4 January 2009). "PC heads for US with 26/11 proof". Deccan Herald. India. Retrieved 21 February 2009.[dead link]
- Rupert, James (28 January 2009). "Pakistan's Partial Crackdown Lets Imams Preach Jihad". Bloomberg. Retrieved 6 December 2009.
- Praveen Swami (23 November 2009). "Missing evidence mars Mumbai massacre probe". The Hindu. Chennai, India. Retrieved 15 July 2011.
- Reporters Without Borders (13 November 2009). "Two journalists held after helping media probe Mumbai attacker's background". Reporters Without Borders. Retrieved 15 July 2011.
- Nirupama Subramanian (24 November 2009). "Kasab's village remains a no-go area for journalists". The Hindu. Chennai, India. Retrieved 15 July 2011.
- PTI (1 December 2009). "No information on Headley, Rana from Pakistan, says Home Minister Chidambaram". The Times of India. India. Retrieved 15 July 2011.
- "Indian gov't: Pakistan spies tied to Mumbai siege". Yahoo! News. Associated Press. 19 October 2010. Archived from the original on 21 October 2010. Retrieved 20 October 2010.
- "Report: Pakistan Spies Tied to Mumbai Siege". Fox News Channel. Associated Press. 19 October 2010. Archived from the original on 22 November 2010. Retrieved 20 October 2010.
- "Slain navigator of Porbandar trawler was imprisoned in Pak". The Economic Times. India. 30 September 2008. Archived from the original on 28 May 2009. Retrieved 15 February 2009.
- "Terror boat was almost nabbed off Mumbai". The Economic Times. India. 10 December 2008. Retrieved 17 May 2010.
- New York Times, 16 October 2010 "US Had Warnings on Plotter of Mumbai Attack," http://www.nytimes.com/2010/10/17/world/asia/17headley.html?pagewanted=1&_r=1&ref=global-home
- Pro Publica, 15 October 2010 "FBI Was Warned Years in Advance of Mumbai Attacker’s Terror Ties," http://www.propublica.org/article/mumbai-plot-fbi-was-warned-years-in-advance
- New York Times, 17 December 2010 "Top US Spy Leaves Pakistan After His Name Is Revealed," http://www.nytimes.com/2010/12/18/world/asia/18pstan.html?hp
- "Why India didn't strike Pakistan after 26/11".
- "26/11: Abu Jundal names same Pak army officers as Headley did". The Times Of India. 3 July 2012.
- "26/11 had been planned originally for 2006, reveals Abu Hamza". NDTV. 26 June 2012. Retrieved 26 June 2012.
- "26/11: Pakistan says Mumbai attackers were helped by 40 Indians". The Times of India. 2 July 2012. Retrieved 2 July 2012.
- Ali, S Ahmed (30 November 2008). "Mumbai locals helped us, terrorist tells cops". The Times of India. India. Retrieved 30 November 2008.
- Sheela Bhatt (27 November 2008). "Exclusive: LeT terrorist Ismail arrested in Mumbai". Rediff.com. Archived from the original on 5 December 2008. Retrieved 29 November 2008.
- Ishaan Tharoor (4 December 2008). "Pakistani Involvement in the Mumbai Attacks". Time. Retrieved 21 February 2009.
- Rhys Blakely (4 December 2008). "Mumbai gunman says he was paid $1,900 for attack – as new CCTV emerges". The Times. UK. Retrieved 21 February 2009.
- "Indian 'scouted attack' in Mumbai". Herald Sun. Australia. 6 December 2008. Retrieved 21 February 2009.
- "Two men accused of providing SIM cards to Mumbai attackers". CBC News. 6 December 2008. Archived from the original on 22 March 2009. Retrieved 21 February 2009.
- "The Lessons of Mumbai" (PDF). RAND Corporation. RAND Corporation. 2009. Retrieved 27 February 2016.
- Chang, Gordon G. (13 August 2009). "India's China Problem –". Forbes. Retrieved 31 December 2010.
- Damien McElroy (3 December 2008). "Mumbai attacks Terrorists took cocaine to stay awake during assault". The Daily Telegraph. London. Archived from the original on 9 February 2009. Retrieved 21 February 2009.
- Rahul Bedi (9 December 2008). "Mumbai attacks: Indian suit against Google Earth over image use by terrorists". The Daily Telegraph. London. Archived from the original on 11 February 2009. Retrieved 20 February 2009.
- Somini Sengupta; Keith Bradsher (29 November 2008). "India Faces Reckoning as Terror Toll Eclipses 170". The New York Times. Retrieved 21 February 2009.
- Rakesh Prakash (29 November 2008). "Please give me saline". The Times of India. India: Bangalore Mirror. Archived from the original on 2 March 2009. Retrieved 21 February 2009.
- Ramesh, Randeep (28 November 2008). "They were in no hurry. Cool and composed, they killed and killed". The Guardian. UK. Archived from the original on 1 December 2008. Retrieved 29 November 2008.
- Balakrishnan, Angela (28 November 2008). "Claims emerge of British terrorists in Mumbai". The Guardian. London. Retrieved 29 November 2008.
- Tom Morgan (28 November 2008). "Arrested Mumbai gunmen 'of British descent'". The Independent. UK. Archived from the original on 1 December 2008. Retrieved 28 November 2008.
- Jon Swaine (28 November 2008). "Mumbai attack: Government 'has no evidence of British involvement'". The Daily Telegraph. London. Archived from the original on 2 February 2009. Retrieved 28 February 2009.
- McElroy, Damien (6 December 2008). "Mumbai attacks: police admit there were more than ten attackers". The Daily Telegraph. London. Retrieved 4 August 2009.
- Jeremy Kahn; Robert F. Worth (9 December 2008). "Mumbai Attackers Called Part of Larger Band of Recruits". The New York Times. Retrieved 21 February 2009.
- Bodies of nine Mumbai gunmen buried secretly in JanReuters, Tue 6 April 2010 10:26 pm IST
- "Bodies of 9 terrorists of 2611 disposed off".
- Swami, Praveen (2 December 2008). "A journey into the Lashkar". The Hindu. Chennai, India. Archived from the original on 5 December 2008. Retrieved 5 December 2008.
- "Planned 9/11 at Taj, reveals caught terrorist". Zee News. 29 November 2008. Retrieved 21 February 2009.
- Kamran Haider (12 February 2009). "Pakistan says it arrests Mumbai attack plotters". Reuters. Archived from the original on 25 June 2012. Retrieved 26 June 2012.
- "Italy arrests two for Mumbai attacks". The Hindu. India. 21 November 2009. Retrieved 21 November 2009.[dead link]
- "Two Pakistanis arrested in connection with Mumbai attacks". France 24. 21 November 2009. Retrieved 14 August 2011.
- "Pak mum on 26/11 terror duo held in Italy". The Times of India. India. Retrieved 1 September 2011.
- "Mumbai police probe David Headley's links to 26/11 attacks". Daily News and Analysis. India. 8 November 2009. Archived from the original on 16 November 2009. Retrieved 16 November 2009.
- "India Plans to Try Chicago Man For Mumbai Attacks". The New York Times. Reuters. 8 December 2009. Retrieved 15 July 2011.[dead link]
- Josy Joseph (9 November 2009). "David Headley posed as Jew in Mumbai". Daily News and Analysis. India. Archived from the original on 12 November 2009. Retrieved 16 November 2009.
- "FBI nails Pak Major for Mumbai attacks". The Economic Times. 9 December 2009. Retrieved 9 December 2009.
- 26/11 attacks handler arrested Hindustan Times, Abhishek Sharan & Ashok Das, Delhi/Hyderabad, 18 January 2010
- "Key 26/11 conspirator Abu Hamza arrested at IGI airport in Delhi". IBN Live. 25 June 2012. Retrieved 25 June 2012.
- "Key Mumbai terror attack handler arrested in Delhi". The Times Of India. 25 June 2012.
- Swami, Praveen (25 June 2012). "Key 26/11 terrorist arrested". The Hindu. Chennai, India. Retrieved 25 June 2012.
- "26/11 suspect Abu Jundal in Delhi Police net – India News – IBNLive". Ibnlive.in.com. 28 June 2012. Retrieved 7 November 2012.
- "Pakistan used cricket diplomacy to survey terror targets". The Times Of India. 30 June 2012.
- "Jundal had a very safe haven in Pakistan: Chidambaram". 29 June 2012.
- "Maharashtra minister denies links with Jundal, says ready for probe". 26 June 2012.
- "Israel: 6 bodies removed from Jewish center". The Associated Press. 28 November 2008. Retrieved 28 November 2008.
- "Turkish Press Daily News". turkishpress.com. Retrieved 22 October 2015.
- "Aussies in Mumbai accounted for: DFAT". ABC News. 30 November 2008. Retrieved 14 December 2008.
- "Battle rages for Mumbai hostages". BBC News. 29 November 2008. Retrieved 28 November 2008.
- "Dutch died in Mumbai: NOS News". Retrieved 1 December 2008.
- "Dutchman wounded in Mumbai : Nu.nl". Retrieved 27 November 2008.
- "Hema died of smoke inhalation, says consul-general". The Star. The Star. 30 November 2008. Retrieved 30 November 2008.
- "CEO of Mauritian bank reported missing in Mumbai". nerve.in. Retrieved 22 October 2015.
- Correspondent, By Pamela Raghunath, (29 November 2008). "Commandos free Mumbai".
- "Mexican national among Mumbai victims: Mexican Foreign Ministry". The Times of India. 30 November 2008. Retrieved 29 November 2008.
- "Sporean hostage killed". The Straits Times. 28 November 2008. Retrieved 28 November 2008.
- http://www.bangkokpost.com/291108_News/29Nov2008_news02.php%7C Thai woman shot dead my militants in Mumbai, Bangkok Post, Accessed 29 November 2008
- Kumar, Raj (29 November 2008). "13 foreigners died in Mumbai: MHA". The Telegraph. Calcutta, India. Retrieved 30 November 2008.
- Ediciones El País. "El matrimonio español herido en el atentado de Bombay vuelve a casa". EL PAÍS. Retrieved 22 October 2015.
- "Los dos españoles heridos en los atentados de Bombay regresarán a España en un avión-ambulancia". Internacional (in Spanish). Europa Press. 30 November 2008. Retrieved 30 November 2008.
- "Filipino tourist injured in Mumbai hotel attack". Retrieved 28 November 2008.
- "Norway condemns terrorist attacks in India". Norwegian Broadcasting Corporation. The Norway Post. 28 November 2008. Archived from the original on 2 December 2008. Retrieved 28 November 2008.
- "Indian forces storm Jewish centre". BBC News. 27 November 2008. Archived from the original on 28 November 2008. Retrieved 27 November 2008.
- "One Japanese killed, another wounded in Mumbai shootings". Channel NewsAsia. Retrieved 26 November 2008.[dead link]
- P.S. Suryanarayana (27 November 2008). "Caught in the crossfire, 9 foreign nationals killed". The Hindu. Chennai, India. Retrieved 27 November 2008.
- Stevens, Andrew; Kapur, Mallika; Shah Singh, Harmeet; Ahmed, Saeed; Sidner, Sara; Vinci, Alessio; Sayah, Reza; Newton, Paula (29 November 2008). "Indian official: Terrorists wanted to kill 5,000". CNN. Archived from the original on 2 December 2008. Retrieved 30 November 2008.
- Krishnakumar P; Vicky Nanjappa (30 November 2008). "Rediff: Doctors shocked at hostages's torture". Rediff.com. Archived from the original on 5 March 2009. Retrieved 21 February 2009.
- Naughton, Philippe (27 November 2008). "British yachting tycoon Andreas Liveras killed in Bombay terror attacks". The Times. UK. Retrieved 27 November 2008.
- "Three top cops die on duty". The Times of India. India. 27 November 2008. Retrieved 27 November 2008.
- "Indian victims include financier, journalist, actor's sister, police". CNN. 30 November 2008. Archived from the original on 2 December 2008. Retrieved 30 November 2008.
- "Indian forces storm Jewish centre". BBC News. 27 November 2008. Retrieved 27 November 2008.
- "Indian victims include financier, journalist, actor's sister, police - CNN.com". CNN. 30 November 2008. Retrieved 28 April 2010.
- "Three top cops die on duty". The Times of India. 27 November 2008. Retrieved 27 November 2008.
- "Three rly men killed in CST encounter".
- Sullivan, Tim; Ravi Nessman (30 November 2008). "India terror begins with corpses on train platform". AP via Yahoo! News. Archived from the original on 25 October 2012. Retrieved 9 November 2008.
- Of 58 killed at terminus, 22 were Muslims, The Times of India (3 December 2008)
- Blakely, Rhys; Jeremy Pag (1 December 2008). "Defiant Leopold café shows that Mumbai is not afraid". The Times. London. Retrieved 30 November 2008.
- Blakely, Rhys; Page, Jeremy (1 December 2008). "Defiant Leopold caf shows that Mumbai is not afraid". The Times. London. Retrieved 28 April 2010.
- "Scores killed in Mumbai attacks".
- "Topic Galleries". Chicago Tribune.
- "India under attack". The Economist print edition. The Economist. 27 November 2008. Retrieved 28 November 2008.
- "Mumbai terror kills 65".
- "Encounter on at Nariman House in South Mumbai".
- "Slain NSG commando paid tributes at special ceremony in Delhi".
- TERROR TAKES OVER MUMBAI. The Statesman.
- "Key developments in Mumbai terror attacks". The Hindu. India. 27 November 2008. Retrieved 15 July 2011.
- "Taj, Oberoi get Rs 140 cr as terror insurance claims so far". Business Line. 15 August 2009. Archived from the original on 18 August 2009. Retrieved 31 December 2010.
- “There was absence of overt leadership on the part of Hasan Gafoor, the CP, and lack of visible Command and Control at the CP’s office,” said the report prepared by former Governor and Union Home Secretary R.D. Pradhan. PTI (21 December 2009). "Pradhan Committee finds serious lapses on Gafoor's part". The Hindu. Chennai, India. Retrieved 15 July 2011.
- Sapna Agarwal (27 December 2008). "No consensus on security plan even a month after Mumbai attacks". Business Standard. Retrieved 28 February 2009.
- "PM for federal agency, better legal framework". NDTV. 1 December 2008. Archived from the original on 1 December 2008. Retrieved 1 December 2008.
- "Mumbai attacks probed as India-Pakistan relations strained". CNN. 1 December 2008. Archived from the original on 19 February 2009. Retrieved 21 February 2009.
- Jeremy Page; Tom Coghlan; Zahid Hussain (1 December 2008). "Mumbai attacks 'were a ploy to wreck Obama plan to isolate al-Qaeda'". The Times. UK. Retrieved 21 February 2009.
- "Don't look at Mumbai attacks through prism of Kashmir". Rediff News. Rediff.com. 16 December 2008. Archived from the original on 2 March 2009. Retrieved 21 February 2009.
- "FBI chief hails India cooperation after Mumbai attacks". The Economic Times. India. 3 March 2009. Archived from the original on 6 August 2009. Retrieved 4 August 2009.
- "Interpol 'not given Mumbai data'". BBC. 23 December 2008. Retrieved 1 June 2009.
- PTI (16 June 2009). "Pak might soon move troops from border with India". The Times of India. New York. Retrieved 15 July 2011.
- "India directs anger at politicians after Mumbai attacks.". 1 December 2008. Archived from the original on 28 May 2009. Retrieved 1 December 2008.
- "Officials quit over India attacks". BBC. 30 November 2008. Archived from the original on 7 January 2009. Retrieved 21 February 2009.
- Aditi Pai (4 December 2008). "Vilasrao Deshmukh quits as Maharashtra CM". India Today. Retrieved 31 December 2010.
- "Maharashtra Deputy CM RR Patil resigns". CNN-IBN. 1 December 2008. Archived from the original on 2 December 2008. Retrieved 1 December 2008.
- "Muslims Condemn Mumbai Attacks, Call for Black Eid". Outlook. Outlook News. 4 December 2008. Retrieved 21 February 2009.
- Erika Kinetz (17 December 2008). "Mumbai attack dents business travel". Yahoo News. Retrieved 21 February 2009.
- "Be the change". India Today. India Today Bureau. 9 January 2009. Retrieved 28 February 2009.
- Sharma, Aman (29 November 2008). "Red tape delays NSG by 6 hours". India Today. Archived from the original on 28 May 2009. Retrieved 15 June 2009.
- "Why did NSG take 10 hours to arrive?". The Economic Times. India. 30 November 2008. Retrieved 15 June 2009.
- Rivers, Tom (27 November 2008). "Mumbai Attacks Draw Worldwide Condemnation". Voice of America. Archived from the original on 18 March 2009. Retrieved 1 January 2009.
- Claudine Beaumont (27 November 2008). "Mumbai attacks: Twitter and Flickr used to break news". The Daily Telegraph. London. Archived from the original on 19 February 2009. Retrieved 21 February 2009.
- Robert Mackey (26 November 2008). "Tracking the Mumbai Attacks". The New York Times. Retrieved 28 February 2009.
- "Map of Mumbai attacks". Google Maps. 26 November 2008. Retrieved 6 February 2013.
- Polgreen, Lydia; Vikas Bajaj (20 July 2009). "Suspect Stirs Mumbai Court by Confessing". The New York Times. Retrieved 21 July 2009.
- "26/11: Kasab guilty; Ansari, Sabauddin Shaikh acquitted". The Times of India. India. 3 May 2010. Retrieved 4 May 2010.
- "Mumbai gunman sentenced to death". BBC News. 6 May 2010. Retrieved 15 July 2011.
- Chamberlain, Gethin (3 May 2010). "Mumbai gunman convicted of murder over terror attacks". The Guardian. London. Archived from the original on 6 May 2010. Retrieved 3 May 2010.
- Deshpande, Swati (3 May 2010). "26/11 Kasab held guilty 2 Indians walk free". The Times of India. Retrieved 4 May 2010.
- "With HC order, Kasab one step closer to gallows". The Times of India. India. 22 February 2011. Retrieved 22 February 2011.
- "Indian Supreme Court upholds death penalty for Kasab". Dawn. Agence France-Presse. 29 August 2012. Retrieved 29 August 2012.
- Patnaik, Pratap (29 August 2012). "Death Sentence for Mumbai Gunman Upheld by India's Supreme Court". Bloomberg Businessweek. Retrieved 29 August 2012.
- "Ajmal Kasab hanged at Yerwada Jail in Pune at 7:30 am". The Times of India. 21 November 2012. Retrieved 21 November 2012.
- "Militant Network Is Intact Long After Mumbai Siege". The New York Times. 30 September 2009.
- Fareed Zakaria, transcript of CNN interview with Manmohan Singh (23 November 2009). "Pakistan has not done enough on attacks". The Wall Street Journal. Retrieved 15 July 2011.
- "2008 Mumbai attacks: India's refusal to allow cross-examination challenged - The Express Tribune". 29 April 2012.
- "Pakistan, India trade demarches over Lakhvi trial".
- "26/11 trial: Pak court reserves decision on Lakhvi plea". 14 July 2012.
- "Mumbai terror attacks: Pak court calls judicial panel's report illegal". 17 July 2012.
- "26/11: Upset over Pak court ruling, India says will talk to govt". 17 July 2012.
- Pakistani judicial panel to grill 26/11 witnesses – Times Of India. Articles.timesofindia.indiatimes.com (22 September 2013). Retrieved on 2013-12-06.
- How Oberoi hotel accidentally became a 26/11 target, 15 June 2011 17:06 IST, Rediff.com
- "Rana acquitted on terror plot". Deccan Herald. Retrieved 16 June 2011.
- Muskal, Michael (17 January 2013). "Businessman Tahawwur Rana gets 14 years for role in terrorism plots". The Los Angeles Times. Retrieved 17 January 2013.
- , "Planner Of Mumbai Attacks is Given a 35-Year Sentence." The New York Times, 24 January 2013.
- "Mumbai bustles but also remembers 26/11 victims". CNN IBN. Archived from the original on 29 November 2009. Retrieved 26 November 2009.
- Shah Singh, Harmeet (26 November 2010). "India remembers Mumbai dead". CNN. Retrieved 31 December 2010.
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to November 2008 Mumbai attacks.|
- 2008 Mumbai attacks at the Internet Movie Database Channel 4 documentary by Dan Reed – 'Terror in Mumbai'
- Video showing the way in which Indian authorities fought back against the attackers. – CNN-IBN (some Hindi, but mostly English).
- Dossier of evidence collected by investigating agencies of India
- List of Blogs & Bloggers who were live blogging during the attacks
- "They said, kill till you die... par hum bhi insan hain yaar". Mumbai Mirror. 14 March 2009. Retrieved 22 August 2012. [Interview of captured terrorist Mohammed Ajmal Amir Qasab]
- Mumbai Massacre Documentary produced by the PBS Series Secrets of the Dead