From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
- 1 Events
- 1.1 270
- 1.2 271
- 1.3 272
- 1.4 273
- 1.5 274
- 1.6 275
- 1.7 276
- 1.8 277
- 1.9 278
- 1.10 279
- 2 Significant people
- 3 Births
- 4 Deaths
- 5 References
- Emperor Claudius II Gothicus dies of plague while preparing to fight the Vandals and Sarmatians, who have invaded Pannonia. He is succeeded by his brother Quintillus, who briefly holds power over the Roman Empire.
- Quintillus commits suicide and is succeeded by an associate of his brother Lucius Domitius Aurelianus, the military leader who distinguished himself last year at the Battle of Naissus (Serbia).
- Aurelianus pushes the Goths back across the Danube and recovers Roman territory.
- The Romans leave Utrecht after regular invasions of Germanic tribes.
- Crisis of the Third Century: An economic crisis strikes the Roman empire; due to the partition of the empire, invasions and usurpations and the sacking of the countryside and cities by invaders, agricultural and industrial production are significantly decreased, and mines lie unused. A monetary crisis ensues, including inflation of up to 1,000 % in certain areas of the empire.
- Fan Hsiung, aka Pham Hung, comes to power in Champa and raids the Chinese-occupied territory of Tonkin.
- The Kingdom of Aksum (modern Ethiopia) begins minting its own gold coins to facilitate international trade, following the model of Roman coinage.
- Anthony the Great, a Christian saint from Egypt, regarded as Father of All Monks, enters the wilderness to become ascetic.
- The Chinese invent gunpowder (black powder), a mixture of sulfur, charcoal and potassium nitrate. It appears to have first been used only for fireworks.
- Emperor Aurelian pushes the Vandals back from Pannonia and forces them to withdraw over the Danube. He withdraws the Roman army from Dacia (modern Romania). (Note: This may have lasted until 272. Both years are mentioned by various sources.)
- Battle of Placentia: The Juthungi invade Italy and sack the city of Piacenza. A Roman army (15,000 men) under Emperor Aurelian is ambushed and defeated.
- Battle of Fano: The Juthungi move towards a defenceless Rome. Aurelian rallies his men and defeats the Germanic tribes on the Metauro River, just inland of Fano.
- Battle of Pavia: The Roman army pursues the Alamanni in Lombardy. Aurelian closes the passes in the Alps and encircles the invaders near Pavia. The Alamanni are destroyed and Aurelian receives the title Germanicus Maximus.
- Felicissimus, financial minister of the state treasury, leads an uprising of mint workers against Aurelian. He is defeated and killed on the Caelian Hill.
- Aurelian begins construction of a new defensive wall to protect Rome. The Aurelian Walls, 19 kilometers (12 mi), enclose the city with fortifications.
- Victorinus, Emperor of the Gallic Empire, is assassinated by Attitianus, reportedly for reasons of personal revenge. Domitianus presumably serves as Emperor for a few days before being replaced by Tetricus I.
- Zenobia proclaims herself to be Empress, and breaks all relations with the Roman Empire.
- Zenobia gives her son Vaballathus the title of Augustus.
Arts and sciences
- King Shapur I builds the Academy of Gundishapur (Iran), which becomes the intellectual center of the Sassanid Empire. The Nestorians fleeing religious persecution seek his protection. He commissions the refugees to translate Greek and Syriac works on astronomy, medicine and philosophy.
- A magnetic compass is first used in China.
- Emperor Aurelian sends his commander Marcus Aurelius Probus to restore Roman rule in Egypt.
- During the Siege of Tyana, Emperor Aurelian has a dream of Apollonius of Tyana and spares the city.
- Battle of Immae: Aurelian defeats the forces of the Palmyrene Empire near Antioch. Queen Zenobia flees under cover of darkness to Emesa (Syria).
- Battle of Emesa: Aurelian destroys the Palmyrene heavy cavalry (clibanarii) and conquers Palmyra. Zenobia escapes to Persia but is captured on the Euphrates.
- Aurelian lays siege to Palmyra after a revolt; he restores Roman control and sacks the city. Zenobia and her son Vabalathus are forced to parade in golden chains through the streets of Rome.
- Rome forms an alliance with the king of Aksum (Axum).
- Dacia is abandoned.
- King Shapur I of Persia dies after a reign of more than 30 years; he is succeeded by his eldest son Hormizd I.
- Dometius succeeds Titus as Patriarch of Constantinople.
- Saint Denis, first Bishop of Paris, and two of his disciples are beheaded on the road to the Temple of Mercury that stands atop a hill outside of the city. The hill will later be called Montmartre (Mountain of Martyrs) in Lutetia (modern Paris).
- Paul of Samosata is deposed as Patriarch of Antioch.
- Emperor Aurelian sacks the city of Palmyra after putting down a new revolt.
- The kingdom of Palmyra is reunited with the Roman Empire.
- Aurelian refuses to wear the imperial crown and coat.
- Marcus Claudius Tacitus, future Roman Emperor, is consul in Rome.
- Tetricus I and Tetricus II are deposed as Gallic Emperors by Aurelian.
- Administrative reorganization of Italy: Aurelian adopts as permanent the reforms instituted by Caracalla.
- Aurelian increases Rome's daily bread ration to nearly 1.5 pounds and adds pig fat to the list of foods distributed free to the populace.
- Cassius Longinus, counselor of queen Zenobia, is executed by the Romans for conspiring against Aurelian.
- An Indian delegation visits Aurelian.
- King Hormizd I of Persia dies after a brief reign in which he has shown tolerance toward the ascetic, anti-materialist Manichean faith. He is succeeded by his brother Bahram I, who has been governing the province of Atropatene.
- Battle of Châlons: Emperor Aurelian reconquers the Gallic Empire (Gaul and Britain). Tetricus I surrenders his army near Châlons-sur-Marne, France. With the conquests of the Palmyrene Empire and the Gallic Empire, the Roman Empire is united again.
- Rome greets Aurelian as Restitutor Orbis ("Restorer of the World") and accords him a magnificent triumph (victory procession), which is graced by his captives Tetricus I and his son Tetricus II.
- Aurelian issues an important reform of Roman currency.
- Germanic tribes take advantage of the destroyed Roman forces of the Rhine. They pillage and depopulate large areas of Gaul, including Paris. The Rhine border is lost for 20 years. Franks live in the area of present southern Netherlands, northern Belgium and Rhineland from now on.
- December 25 – Aurelian has a temple dedicated to Sol Invictus, on the third day after the solstice and day of rebirth of the Sun. This religion, which is in essence monotheistic, becomes the state religion of Rome.
- Britain rebels over the value of coinage.
- March 2 – Mani, a sage of Persia, dies at Gundeshapur after 30 years of preaching his "heresy" at the court of the late Sassanian King Shapur I and on long journeys to Khorasan, India and China. He is executed or allowed to die in prison, and claims to be a prophet of God. Mani combines Zoroastrian dualism with Christian theology, and his disciples gain wide support for Manichaeism, despite opposition from Byzantine and Roman Emperors.
- December 30 – Pope Felix I dies in Rome after a 5-year reign.
- Japanese shipwrights build a 100-foot oar-powered vessel for Emperor Ōjin. The Japanese will not use sails for another seven centuries.
- Emperor Aurelian prepares a campaign against the Sassanids in Asia Minor. In Thrace, while waiting to cross the Bosphorus with his army, he hands out severe punishments to corrupt soldiers and makes a list of high-ranking officers marked for execution.
- September – Aurelian falls victim to a conspiracy of the Praetorian Guard and is murdered near Byzantium (Turkey).
- September 25 – Marcus Claudius Tacitus is proclaimed Emperor by the Senate, his half brother Marcus Annius Florianus becomes Praetorian prefect.
- Gaul is pillaged by the Franks and the Alemanni.
- The Pallava dynasty begins in Southern India.
- Emperor Tacitus doubles the silver content of the aurelianianus and halves its tariffing to 2.5 d.c. carry the value marks X.I.
- Marcus Annius Florianus defeats the Goths and Alans who have invaded Asia Minor. Tacitus dies of illness or is murdered at Tyana in Cappadocia.
- Florianus becomes Roman Emperor; he breaks off his campaign against the Heruli and marches from the Bosporus with support from the Roman legions in Britain, Gaul, Spain and Italy to fight an indecisive battle with Marcus Aurelius Probus in Cilicia.
- Florianus holds power for some weeks, but is assassinated by his own troops near Tarsus (Turkey). Probus, age 44, is proclaimed new Emperor of Rome.
- Probus appoints Marcus Aurelius Carus to Prefect of the Praetorian Guard; he returns the aurelianianus to the standard and official tariffing of Aurelian.
- King Bahram I of Persia dies after a 3-year reign in which the Zoroastrian priests at Ctesiphon (Iran) put pressure on him to persecute Buddhists, Christians, and Manichaeans. He is succeeded by his son Bahram II.
- Reign of Mahasena in Ceylon. Orthodox and unpopular, he tries to introduce Mahayana Buddhism to the country.
- Emperor Probus travels with his army west across the Sea of Marmara (Turkey) and through the provinces of Thrace, Moesia, and Pannonia to defeat the Goths along the lower Danube. He acquires from the troops the title of Gothicus.
- Probus enters Rome to have his position as Emperor ratified by the Senate.
- Emperor Probus defeats the Alamanni, advancing through the Neckar valley. He expels the Franks from Gaul and reorganizes the Roman defenses on the Rhine.
- Probus resettles the Germanic tribes in the devastated provinces of the Roman Empire. He adopts the titles of Gothicus Maximus and Germanicus Maximus.
- Piracy along the coast of Lycia and Pamphylia: The Romans besiege the city of Cremna (Pisidia) and kill the Isaurian robber Lydius.
- Emperor Probus defeats the Burgundians and Vandals in Raetia and Pannonia (modern Switzerland and Hungary).
- Winter – Sima Yan, Emperor of the Jin Dynasty, launches the Jin offensive and attacks along the Yangzi River from Jianye to Jiangling, whilst the Sichuan fleet sails downriver to the Jing province. They capture the border cities and the Wu forces collapse. This marks the end of the Three Kingdoms (China).
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- Gaius Galerius Valerius Maximinus Daia, better known as Maximinus II. Born c. 270, he would become a Roman emperor.
- Flavius Valerius Aurelius Constantinus, better known as Constantine the Great. Born c. 272, he would become a Roman emperor.
- Marcus Aurelius Valerius Maxentius, better known as Maxentius. Born c. 278, he would become a Roman emperor.
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- Claudius Gothicus, Roman emperor. Died in 270, a casualty of the Plague of Cyprian.
- Quintillus, Roman emperor. Died in 270.
- Aurelian, Roman emperor. Died in 275.
- Marcus Claudius Tacitus, Roman emperor. Died in 276.
- Florianus, Roman emperor. Died in 276.
- Watson, Alaric. Aurelian and the Third Century. London, United Kingdom: Routledge, 1999, p. 50.
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