276th Engineer Battalion (United States)

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276th Engineer Battalion
276EngineerBnCOA.jpg
Coat of arms
Active Founded 1652; active 1791
Country  United States
Branch United States Army
Type Engineer
Size Regiment
Motto(s) "Liberty or Death"
Commanders
Notable
commanders
Charles L. Southward (as 176th Regimental Combat Team)

The 276th Engineer Battalion is an engineer battalion of the Virginia Army National Guard.

Lineage[edit]

Organized in May 1791 from existing elements in the Virginia Militia at Richmond as the Richmond City Regiment

  • Reorganized and redesignated 31 December 1791 as the 19th Regiment
  • While remaining in state service, the 19th Regiment formed the following unit for Federal service:
  • First Corps d’Elite Brigade of Virginia Militia, Colonel Thomas Mann Randolph

commanding, mustered into Federal service in 1813 to consist of:

  • Richmond Volunteers
  • Flying Artillery, Captain William Wirt
  • Rifle Company, Captain William H. Richardson
  • Richmond Light Infantry Blues.

First Corps d’Elite Brigade mustered out of Federal service in 1814

  • Elements mustered into Federal service 14–16 December 1846 at Richmond; mustered out of Federal service 1–2 August 1848 at Fort Monroe, Virginia
  • Reorganized and redesignated 31 March 1848 as the 19th (Richmond City) Regiment
  • Consolidated 1 May 1851 with the 179th (Richmond [organized in 1848]),

23d (Chesterfield County [organized in 1791]), and 33d (Henrico County [organized in 1791]) Regiments, and consolidated unit designated as the 1st Regiment, Virginia Volunteers, with Headquarters at Richmond

  • Mustered into state service 21 April 1861 at Richmond

(First Virginia)[edit]

Reorganized and redesignated 1 July 1861 as the 1st Virginia Infantry; concurrently, mustered into Confederate service at Manassas

  • Paroled 9 April 1865 at Appomattox, Virginia
  • Reconstituted 25 October 1871 in the Virginia Volunteers as the 1st Regiment of Infantry with Headquarters at Richmond
  • (Companies A, B, and C mustered into Federal service in May 1898 as Companies M, B, and I, 2d Virginia Volunteer Infantry, respectively; Company F mustered into Federal service 20 May 1898 as Company M, 3d Virginia Volunteer Infantry)
  • (Companies M, B, and I, 2d Virginia Volunteer Infantry, mustered out of Federal service in December 1898; Company M, 3d Virginia Volunteer Infantry, mustered out of Federal service 5 November 1898)
  • 1st Regiment of Infantry disbanded 29 April 1899
  • (Companies assigned 10 October 1900 to the 70th Infantry Regiment, Virginia Volunteers)
  • Reconstituted 1 September 1908 in the Virginia Volunteers as the 1st Infantry
  • (Virginia Volunteers redesignated 3 June 1916 as the Virginia National Guard).

Called into Federal service 18 June 1916; mustered into Federal service 30 June 1916 at Richmond; mustered out of Federal service 16 January 1917 at Richmond

  • Called into Federal service 25 July 1917; mustered into Federal service 25 July-4 August 1917 at home stations; drafted into Federal service 5 August 1917
  • Consolidated 4 October 1917 with the 2d (organized 3 November 1741) and 4th (organized 29 August 1882) Infantry to form the 116th Infantry, an element of the 29th Division
  • Demobilized 30 May 1919 at Camp Lee, Virginia
  • Former 1st Infantry reorganized 30 December 1919 in the Virginia National Guard as the 1st Provisional Infantry Regiment with Headquarters at Richmond
  • Reorganized and redesignated 7 September 1920 as the 2d Battalion, 1st Infantry, with Headquarters at Petersburg (1st and 3d Battalions – hereafter separate lineages)
  • Reorganized and redesignated 9 March 1922 as the 2d Battalion, 183d Infantry
  • (183d Infantry assigned in 1923 to the 29th Division)
  • Reorganized and redesignated 22 February 1929 as the 2d Battalion, 1st Infantry, an element of the 29th Division
  • Reorganized and redesignated 1 January 1941 as the 2d Battalion, 176th Infantry, an element of the 29th Infantry Division
  • Inducted into Federal service 3 February 1941 at home stations
  • (176th Infantry relieved 11 March 1942 from assignment to the 29th Infantry Division; assigned 1 April 1943 to the Replacement and School Command at Fort Benning, Georgia as the Infantry Demonstration Regiment)
  • Inactivated 10 July 1944 at Fort Benning, Georgia
  • Reorganized and Federally recognized 20 November 1946 at Richmond as the 3d Battalion, 176th Infantry
  • Reorganized and redesignated 1 June 1959 as elements of the 1st Battle Group, 176th Infantry, with Headquarters at Richmond
  • Converted and redesignated 22 March 1963 as the 276th Engineer Battalion with Headquarters at Richmond
  • Ordered into active Federal service 18 December 2003 at home stations; released from active Federal service 15 June 2005 and reverted to state control[1]

Distinctive unit insignia[edit]

  • Description

A Silver color metal and enamel device 1 inch (2.54 cm) in height consisting of a shield blazoned: Azure, a saltire Gray fimbriated Argent, to chief a fleur-de-lis of the like; on a chief of the last a cross Gules charged with an arrow fesswise of the third. Attached below the shield a Silver scroll inscribed "LIBERTY OR DEATH" in Blue letters.

  • Symbolism

The shield is blue for Infantry. The gray saltire commemorates service in the Confederate States Army during the Civil War. The fleur-de-lis symbolizes the service in France during World War I. The red cross (the cross of St. George) refers to the settlement of Virginia by the English and with the arrow alludes to the French and Indian War and participation as colonial militia. The red cross also refers to the Revolutionary service of the unit's predecessor.

  • Background

The distinctive unit insignia was originally approved for the 1st Infantry Regiment on 7 June 1929. It was redesignated for the 176th Infantry Regiment on 3 March 1941. The insignia was redesignated for the 276th Engineer Battalion, Virginia Army National Guard and amended to change the symbolism on 29 January 1968.

Coat of arms[edit]

  • Blazon
    • Shield-Azure, a saltire Gray fimbriated Argent, to chief a fleur-de-lis of the like; on a chief of the last a cross Gules with an arrow fesswise of the third.
    • Crest-That for the regiments and separate battalions of the Virginia Army National Guard: From a wreath Argent and Azure, "Virtus, the genius of the Commonwealth, dressed as an Amazon, resting on a spear with one hand and holding a sword in the other; and treading on Tyranny, represented by a man prostrate, a crown falling from his head, a broken chain in his left hand and a scourge in his right," all Proper. Motto LIBERTY OR DEATH.
  • Symbolism
    • Shield-The shield is blue for Infantry. The gray saltire commemorates service in the Confederate States Army during the Civil War. The fleur-de-lis symbolizes the service in France during World War I. The red cross (the cross of St. George) refers to the settlement of Virginia by the English and with the arrow alludes to the French and Indian War and participation as colonial militia. The red cross also refers to the Revolutionary service of the unit's predecessor.
    • Crest-The crest is that of the Virginia Army National Guard.
  • Background-The coat of arms was originally approved for the 1st Infantry Regiment on 11 May 1929. It was redesignated for the 176th Infantry Regiment on 4 March 1941. The insignia was redesignated for the 276th Engineer Battalion, Virginia Army National Guard and amended to change the symbolism on 29 January 1968.

Campaign streamers[edit]

War of 1812

  • Virginia 1814

Mexican War

  • Streamer without inscription

Civil War (Confederate service)

  • First Manassas
  • Peninsula
  • Second Manassas
  • Sharpsburg
  • Fredericksburg
  • Gettysburg
  • Cold Harbor
  • Petersburg
  • Appomattox
  • Virginia 1861
  • Virginia 1863
  • Virginia 1864
  • North Carolina 1863
  • North Carolina 1864

World War I

  • Meuse-Argonne
  • Alsace 1918

War on Terrorism

  • Campaigns to be determined

Decorations[edit]

Valorous Unit Award, streamer embroidered Afghanistan 2009

References[edit]

  1. ^ "Lineage and Honors Information 276th Engineer Battalion". U.S. Army Center of Military History. 11 December 2009.