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|278 by topic|
|Ab urbe condita||1031|
|Balinese saka calendar||199–200|
|Chinese calendar||丁酉年 (Fire Rooster)|
2974 or 2914
— to —
戊戌年 (Earth Dog)
2975 or 2915
|Coptic calendar||−6 – −5|
|- Vikram Samvat||334–335|
|- Shaka Samvat||199–200|
|- Kali Yuga||3378–3379|
|Iranian calendar||344 BP – 343 BP|
|Islamic calendar||355 BH – 354 BH|
|Minguo calendar||1634 before ROC|
|Seleucid era||589/590 AG|
|Thai solar calendar||820–821|
404 or 23 or −749
— to —
405 or 24 or −748
Year 278 (CCLXXVIII) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Julian calendar. At the time, it was known as the Year of the Consulship of Probus and Lupus (or, less frequently, year 1031 Ab urbe condita). The denomination 278 for this year has been used since the early medieval period, when the Anno Domini calendar era became the prevalent method in Europe for naming years.
- Emperor Probus defeats the Alamanni, advancing through the Neckar valley. He expels the Franks from Gaul and reorganizes the Roman defenses on the Rhine.
- Probus resettles the Germanic tribes in the devastated provinces of the Roman Empire. He adopts the titles of Gothicus Maximus and Germanicus Maximus.
- Piracy along the coast of Lycia and Pamphylia: The Romans besiege the city of Cremna (Pisidia) and kill the Isaurian robber Lydius.
- December 27 – Yang Hu, Chinese general and scholar of the Jin dynasty (b. 221)
- Fu Xuan, Chinese scholar and poet (b. 217)
- Yang Huiyu, Chinese empress dowager of the Jin dynasty (b. 214)