28S ribosomal RNA

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Mitochondrial 16S and nuclear 28S ribosomal DNA phylogenies of three species of mollusks belonging to the genus Waldo.

28S ribosomal RNA is the structural ribosomal RNA (rRNA) for the large component, or large subunit (LSU) of eukaryotic cytoplasmic ribosomes, and thus one of the basic components of all eukaryotic cells.[1] It is the eukaryotic nuclear homologue of the prokaryotic 23S and mitochondrial 16S ribosomal RNAs.[2]

Use in phylogeny[edit]

The genes coding for 28S rRNA are referred to as 28S rDNA. The comparison of the sequences from these genes are sometimes used in molecular analysis to construct phylogenetic trees, for example in protists,[3] fungi,[4] insects,[5] tardigrades,[6] and vertebrates.[7][8]


Several databases provide alignments and annotations of LSU rRNA sequences for comparative purposes:

  • RDP,[9] the Ribosomal Database Project;[10][11]
  • SILVA, a ribosomal RNA gene database project.[12]


  1. ^ Lodish, Harvey F.; Darnell, James E. (1995-01-01). Molecular cell biology. Scientific American Books. ISBN 0716723808. OCLC 30783343. 
  2. ^ Eperon, I. C.; Anderson, S.; Nierlich, D. P. (1980-07-31). "Distinctive sequence of human mitochondrial ribosomal RNA genes". Nature. 286 (5772): 460–467. doi:10.1038/286460a0. 
  3. ^ Baroin, A.; Perasso, R.; Qu, L. H.; Brugerolle, G.; Bachellerie, J. P.; Adoutte, A. (1988-05-01). "Partial phylogeny of the unicellular eukaryotes based on rapid sequencing of a portion of 28S ribosomal RNA". Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. 85 (10): 3474–3478. doi:10.1073/pnas.85.10.3474. ISSN 0027-8424. PMC 280234Freely accessible. PMID 3368456. 
  4. ^ James, Timothy Y.; Kauff, Frank; Schoch, Conrad L.; Matheny, P. Brandon; Hofstetter, Valérie; Cox, Cymon J.; Celio, Gail; Gueidan, Cécile; Fraker, Emily. "Reconstructing the early evolution of Fungi using a six-gene phylogeny". Nature. 443 (7113): 818–822. doi:10.1038/nature05110. 
  5. ^ Whiting, Michael F.; Carpenter, James C.; Wheeler, Quentin D.; Wheeler, Ward C. (1997-03-01). "The Strepsiptera Problem: Phylogeny of the Holometabolous Insect Orders Inferred from 18S and 28S Ribosomal DNA Sequences and Morphology". Systematic Biology. 46 (1): 1–68. doi:10.1093/sysbio/46.1.1. ISSN 1063-5157. PMID 11975347. 
  6. ^ Jørgensen, Aslak; Faurby, Søren; Hansen, Jesper G.; Møbjerg, Nadja; Kristensen, Reinhardt M. (2010-03-01). "Molecular phylogeny of Arthrotardigrada (Tardigrada)". Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution. 54 (3): 1006–1015. doi:10.1016/j.ympev.2009.10.006. 
  7. ^ Le, Hoc Lanh Vân; Lecointre, Guillaume; Perasso, Roland (1993-03-01). "A 28S rRNA-Based Phylogeny of the Gnathostomes: First Steps in the Analysis of Conflict and Congruence with Morphologically Based Cladograms". Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution. 2 (1): 31–51. doi:10.1006/mpev.1993.1005. 
  8. ^ Mallatt, Jon; Sullivan, Jack (December 1998). "28S and 18S rDNA sequences support the monophyly of lampreys and hagfishes". Molecular Biology and Evolution. 15 (12): 1706–18. doi:10.1093/oxfordjournals.molbev.a025897. PMID 9866205. 
  9. ^ "Ribosomal Database Project". RDP Release 11, Update 5. September 30, 2016. Retrieved 2016-12-31. 
  10. ^ Olsen, G. J.; Overbeek, R.; Larsen, N.; Marsh, T. L.; McCaughey, M. J.; Maciukenas, M. A.; Kuan, W.-M.; Macke, T. J.; Xing, Y. (1992-05-11). "The Ribosomal Database Project". Nucleic Acids Research. 20 (suppl): 2199–2200. doi:10.1093/nar/20.suppl.2199. ISSN 0305-1048. 
  11. ^ Cole, James R.; Wang, Qiong; Fish, Jordan A.; Chai, Benli; McGarrell, Donna M.; Sun, Yanni; Brown, C. Titus; Porras-Alfaro, Andrea; Kuske, Cheryl R. (2014-01-01). "Ribosomal Database Project: data and tools for high throughput rRNA analysis". Nucleic Acids Research. 42 (D1): D633–D642. doi:10.1093/nar/gkt1244. ISSN 0305-1048. PMC 3965039Freely accessible. PMID 24288368. 
  12. ^ Quast, C.; Pruesse, E.; Yilmaz, P.; Gerken, J.; Schweer, T.; Yarza, P.; Peplies, J.; Glockner, F. O. (2013-01-01). "The SILVA ribosomal RNA gene database project: improved data processing and web-based tools". Nucleic Acids Research. 41 (D1): D590–D596. doi:10.1093/nar/gks1219. ISSN 0305-1048. PMC 3531112Freely accessible. PMID 23193283.