The Roman republic in 290 BC (dark and light red, pink and orange).
Year 290 BC was a year of the pre-Julian Roman calendar. At the time it was known as the Year of the Consulship of Rufinus and Dentatus (or, less frequently, year 464 Ab urbe condita). The denomination 290 BC for this year has been used since the early medieval period, when the Anno Dominicalendar era became the prevalent method in Europe for naming years.
Roman general and consul, Manius Curius Dentatus, gains a decisive victory over the Samnites, thereby ending a war that has lasted 50 years. He also reduces the Sabine insurgents to submission, their territory is annexed and they are granted civitas sine suffragio ("citizenship without the right to vote"). The Samnites are recognised by the Romans as autonomous allies. The Samnites are forced to give up some of their land to the Romans as compensation.