|Millennium:||1st millennium BC|
|290 BC by topic|
|Gregorian calendar||290 BC|
|Ab urbe condita||464|
|Ancient Egypt era||XXXIII dynasty, 34|
|- Pharaoh||Ptolemy I Soter, 34|
|Ancient Greek era||122nd Olympiad, year 3|
|Balinese saka calendar||N/A|
|Chinese calendar||庚午年 (Metal Horse)|
2407 or 2347
— to —
辛未年 (Metal Goat)
2408 or 2348
|Coptic calendar||−573 – −572|
|Ethiopian calendar||−297 – −296|
|- Vikram Samvat||−233 – −232|
|- Shaka Samvat||N/A|
|- Kali Yuga||2811–2812|
|Iranian calendar||911 BP – 910 BP|
|Islamic calendar||939 BH – 938 BH|
|Minguo calendar||2201 before ROC|
|Seleucid era||22/23 AG|
|Thai solar calendar||253–254|
−163 or −544 or −1316
— to —
−162 or −543 or −1315
Year 290 BC was a year of the pre-Julian Roman calendar. At the time it was known as the Year of the Consulship of Rufinus and Dentatus (or, less frequently, year 464 Ab urbe condita). The denomination 290 BC for this year has been used since the early medieval period, when the Anno Domini calendar era became the prevalent method in Europe for naming years.
- Lucius Postumius Megellus, a consul from the previous year, is publicly tried for having used his office to have 2000 of his soldiers work on his farm. He is condemned by all the tribes and fined 50,000 denarii.
- The consuls Manius Curius Dentatus and Publius Cornelius Rufinus invade Samnium and defeat the Samnites in several engagements. The Samnites sue for peace, thus ending the Third Samnite War. The Samnites are recognised by the Romans as autonomous allies but are subordinate to Rome and must give up land as compensation.
- Curius subjugates the Sabines. Their territory is annexed, securing direct Roman access to the Adriatic. The Sabines are granted civitas sine suffragio ("citizenship without the right to vote").
- Rome founds the colonies of Castrum, Sena and Adria.
- Berenice, wife of Ptolemy, is proclaimed queen of Egypt. Ptolemy has the city of Berenice built on the Red Sea in her honour. It becomes a great emporium for Egyptian trade with the East.
- The city of Yuan is returned by the State of Qin to the State of Wei in exchange for the cities of Puban and Pishi.
- Lucius Caecilius Metellus, Roman consul and Pontifex Maximus (approximate date) (d. 221 BC)
- Megasthenes, Greek historian, diplomat and Indian ethnographer (approximate date) (b. c. 350 BC)
- ^ Livius, Titus. Ab Urbe Condita, Epitome of Book 11.
- ^ of Halicarnassus, Dionysius. Roman Antiquities 16.15-18.
- ^ Dio, Cassius. Roman History 8.37.
- ^ Victor, Aurelius. De Viris Illustribus, on Curius Dentatus.
- ^ Eutropius, Flavius. Breviarium 2.9.
- ^ Orosius, Paulus. History against the Pagans 3.22.11.
- ^ Qian, Sima. Records of the Grand Historian, Section: Basic Annals of Qin.