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Millennium: 1st millennium
291 in various calendars
Gregorian calendar291
Ab urbe condita1044
Assyrian calendar5041
Balinese saka calendar212–213
Bengali calendar−302
Berber calendar1241
Buddhist calendar835
Burmese calendar−347
Byzantine calendar5799–5800
Chinese calendar庚戌年 (Metal Dog)
2987 or 2927
    — to —
辛亥年 (Metal Pig)
2988 or 2928
Coptic calendar7–8
Discordian calendar1457
Ethiopian calendar283–284
Hebrew calendar4051–4052
Hindu calendars
 - Vikram Samvat347–348
 - Shaka Samvat212–213
 - Kali Yuga3391–3392
Holocene calendar10291
Iranian calendar331 BP – 330 BP
Islamic calendar341 BH – 340 BH
Javanese calendar171–172
Julian calendar291
Korean calendar2624
Minguo calendar1621 before ROC
Nanakshahi calendar−1177
Seleucid era602/603 AG
Thai solar calendar833–834
Tibetan calendar阳金狗年
(male Iron-Dog)
417 or 36 or −736
    — to —
(female Iron-Pig)
418 or 37 or −735
Hunping jar of the Jin Dynasty

Year 291 (CCXCI) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display the full calendar) of the Julian calendar. At the time, it was known as the Year of the Consulship of Tiberianus and Dio (or, less frequently, year 1044 Ab urbe condita). The denomination 291 for this year has been used since the early medieval period, when the Anno Domini calendar era became the prevalent method in Europe for naming years.


By place[edit]

Roman Empire[edit]

  • Winter: The emperors Diocletian and Maximian convene in Milan.
  • An uneasy peace is established between the emperors Diocletian and Maximian on the one hand, and the rival emperor Carausius on the other.
  • Perhaps in cooperation with the forces of Maximian, Carausius campaigns successfully against Germanic raids in Gaul and Britain. Also during his reign, Carausius begins building the forts of the Saxon Shore.

Northern Europe[edit]

  • The Alemanni, having been expelled from part of their territory by the Burgundians, seek to regain their lost lands. These peoples had unsuccessfully invaded Gaul in tandem in 285/6, and the Alemanni had likely been weakened by the Roman counter-invasions of 287 and 288.
  • A force of Goths defeat the Burgundians.
  • The Tervingian Goths and Taifali fight the Vandals and Gepids.


Persian Empire[edit]

  • King Bahram II fights against a coalition consisting of his brother Hormizd of Sakastan, Sassanian vassal Hormizd I Kushashah, and the Gilans.