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Preferred IUPAC name
Other names
4-Ethyl-2,5-dimethoxyphenethylamine, Aquarust
3D model (JSmol)
ECHA InfoCard 100.221.016 Edit this at Wikidata
  • InChI=1S/C12H19NO2/c1-4-9-7-12(15-3)10(5-6-13)8-11(9)14-2/h7-8H,4-6,13H2,1-3H3 checkY
  • InChI=1/C12H19NO2/c1-4-9-7-12(15-3)10(5-6-13)8-11(9)14-2/h7-8H,4-6,13H2,1-3H3
  • COc1cc(CC)c(cc1CCN)OC
Molar mass 209.289 g·mol−1
Appearance White crystals
>70 mg/ml (20°C)
Legal status
Except where otherwise noted, data are given for materials in their standard state (at 25 °C [77 °F], 100 kPa).
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2C-E is a psychedelic phenethylamine of the 2C family. It was first synthesized by Alexander Shulgin[1] and documented in his book PiHKAL. Like the other substances in its family, it produces sensory and cognitive effects in its physical reactions with living organisms.[2]


Mass Spectrometer Analysis: 2C-E

2,5-Dimethoxy-4-ethylphenethylamine is a colorless oil. Crystalline forms are obtained as the amine salt by reacting the free base with a mineral acid, typically hydrochloric acid (HCl).

Shulgin does not report an exact boiling point for the free base, stating only that during one synthesis the fraction boiling between 90 and 100 °C at 0.25 mmHg pressure was collected and converted to the hydrochloride salt. Shulgin reports the melting point of the hydrochloride salt as 208.5–210.5 °C.[3]


20 mg Capsules of 2C-E
2C-E Pile

According to Shulgin, the duration of 2C-E's effects is generally between six and ten hours for an average dose, with the plateau lasting between three and six hours.[1]

2C-E's effects are often described as "neutral", in comparison with other psychedelic chemicals and even other 2C-x related molecules. In PiHKAL, Shulgin states:

"Here is another of the magical half-dozen. The range is purposefully broad. At 10 milligrams there have been some pretty rich +++[nb 1] experiences, and yet I have had the report from one young lady of a 30 milligram trial that was very frightening. My first experience with 2C-E was really profound, and it is the substance of a chapter within the story. Several people have said, about 2C-E, "I don't think I like it, since it isn't that much fun. But I intend to explore it again." There is something here that will reward the experimenter. Someday, the full character of 2C-E will be understood, but for the moment, let it rest as being a difficult and worth-while material. A very much worth-while material."

Adverse effects[edit]

Adverse effects include tachycardia, hypertension, agitation, delirium, and hallucinations.[4] At least two deaths have been attributed to a 2C-E overdose.[4][5][6]

Drug prohibition laws[edit]


In Queensland, 2C-E was added to the 'Dangerous Drugs' list of the 'Drugs Misuse Act 1986'[7] by the 'Drugs Misuse Amendment Act 2008'.[8] Making it illegal to produce, supply or possess.


As of October 31, 2016, 2C-E is a controlled substance (Schedule III) in Canada.[9]


As of October 2015, 2C-E is a controlled substance in China.[10]


2C-E is added to the list of Schedule B controlled substances.[11]


2C-E is an Anlage I controlled drug.

New Zealand[edit]

New Zealand has a catch-all Analogues section in Schedule 3 / Class C of their drug laws that would make 2C-I, 2C-E, DOI, ephedrine, and pseudoephedrine Schedule 3 compounds in New Zealand.


Portugal has decriminalized possession of all recreational drugs in quantities no more than a ten-day supply of that substance.[citation needed] However production and distribution (buying/selling) are a criminal offense.


Sveriges riksdags health ministry Statens folkhälsoinstitut [sv] classified 2C-E as "health hazard" under the act Lagen om förbud mot vissa hälsofarliga varor [sv] (translated Act on the Prohibition of Certain Goods Dangerous to Health) as of Oct 1, 2004, in their regulation SFS 2004:696 listed as 2,5-dimetoxi-4-etylfenetylamin (2C-E), making it illegal to sell or possess.[12]


In the United Kingdom, 2C-E is a Class A controlled substance. The UK has the strictest laws in the EU on designer drugs. The Misuse Of Drugs Act was amended in 2002 to include a "catch most" clause outlawing every drug, and possible future drug, from the LSD (ergoline) and MDMA (phenethylamine) chemical families (including 2C-E). The amendment is a near verbatim quote from the books of the American biochemist Alexander Shulgin, who obtained a PhD from the University of California, Berkeley. Dr. Shulgin, a former research chemist at the Dow Chemical Company, re-discovered the synthesis for MDMA in 1976 and published the syntheses for more than 200 phenethylamine compounds of his own invention, and 55 tryptamine compounds many of which were also his own invention. The Shulgins were motivated to release the synthesis information as a way to protect the public's access to information about psychedelic compounds, a goal Alexander Shulgin has noted many times.

United States[edit]

As of July 9, 2012, in the United States 2C-E is a Schedule I substance under the Food and Drug Administration Safety and Innovation Act of 2012, making possession, distribution and manufacture illegal.[13]


  1. ^ Shulgin's +/- rating scale, per PiHKAL. See References below. Quoting: "Plus Three (+++) = Not only are the chronology and the nature of a drug's action quite clear, but ignoring its action is no longer an option. The subject is totally engaged in the experience, for better or worse."


  1. ^ a b Shulgin, Alexander; Shulgin, Ann (September 1991). PiHKAL: A Chemical Love Story. Berkeley, California: Transform Press. ISBN 0-9630096-0-5. OCLC 25627628. 2C-E in PiHKAL
  2. ^ Papaseit, Esther; Olesti, Eulalia; Pérez-Mañá, Clara; Torrens, Marta; Grifell, Marc; Ventura, Mireia; Pozo, Oscar J.; de Sousa Fernandes Perna, Elizabeth B.; Ramaekers, Johannes G.; de la Torre, Rafael; Farré, Magí (2020). "Acute Effects of 2C-E in Humans: An Observational Study". Frontiers in Pharmacology. 11: 233. doi:10.3389/fphar.2020.00233. ISSN 1663-9812. PMC 7093582. PMID 32256350.
  3. ^ Shulgin, Alexander T.; Manning, Tania; Daley, Paul F. (2011). The Shulgin Index: Volume 1 (First ed.). Berkeley, CA: Transform Press. ISBN 978-0-9630096-3-0.
  4. ^ a b Topeff JM; Ellsworth H; Willhite LA; Bangh SA; Edwards EM; Cole JB (2011). "A case series of symptomatic patients, including one fatality, following 2C-E exposure". Clin. Toxicol. 49: 526.
  5. ^ Pham, Sherisse (18 March 2011). "Man Arrested in Mass Drug Overdose That Killed 1 Teen and Left 10 People Hospitalized". ABC World News. Retrieved 29 June 2014.
  6. ^ Sacks J; Ray MJ; Williams S; Opatowsky MJ (2012). "Fatal toxic leukoencephalopathy secondary to overdose of a new psychoactive designer drug 2C-E ("Europa")". Baylor University Medical Center Proceedings. 25 (4): 374–376. doi:10.1080/08998280.2012.11928883. PMC 3448584. PMID 23077393.
  7. ^ "In force legislation - Queensland Legislation - Queensland Government" (PDF). legislation.qld.gov.au. Archived (PDF) from the original on 2014-09-11.
  8. ^ "Acts as passed - Queensland Legislation - Queensland Government" (PDF). legislation.qld.gov.au. Archived (PDF) from the original on 2015-04-07.
  9. ^ "Regulations Amending the Food and Drug Regulations (Part J — 2C-phenethylamines)". Canada Gazette. Vol. 150, no. 9. 4 May 2016. Archived from the original on 2016-08-31.
  10. ^ "关于印发《非药用类麻醉药品和精神药品列管办法》的通知" (in Chinese). China Food and Drug Administration. 27 September 2015. Archived from the original on 1 October 2015. Retrieved 1 October 2015.
  11. ^ Sundheds- og Ældreministeriet. "Bekendtgørelse om euforiserende stoffer - retsinformation.dk". retsinformation.dk. Archived from the original on 2013-10-04.
  12. ^ "20040696" (PDF). Archived (PDF) from the original on 2013-09-29. Retrieved 2013-09-06.
  13. ^ "Erowid 2C-E Vault: Legal Status". erowid.org. Archived from the original on 2015-12-08.

External links[edit]