2MASS J04414489+2301513

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2MASS J04414489+2301513
Brown dwarf 2M J044144 and planet.jpg
2MASS J04414489+2301513 is a brown dwarf with a companion about 5–10 times the mass of Jupiter.
Observation data
Epoch J2000      Equinox J2000
Constellation Taurus
2MASS J04414489+2301513
Right ascension 04h 41m 44.898s[1]
Declination +23° 01′ 51.39″[1]
Apparent magnitude (V)
2MASS J04414565+2301580
Right ascension 04h 41m 45.652s[1]
Declination +23° 01′ 58.07″[1]
Apparent magnitude (V) 15.20[2]
Characteristics
Spectral type M8.5[3]
Astrometry
Proper motion (μ) RA: 7.918[4] mas/yr
Dec.: -20.152[4] mas/yr
Parallax (π)8.1822 ± 0.3044[4] mas
Distance400 ± 10 ly
(122 ± 5 pc)
2MASS J04414565+2301580
Proper motion (μ) RA: 7.914[5] mas/yr
Dec.: -22.086[5] mas/yr
Parallax (π)8.0887 ± 0.0713[5] mas
Distance403 ± 4 ly
(124 ± 1 pc)
Details
2MASS J04414489+2301513
Mass19 ± 3 / 9.8 ± 1.8[6] MJup
Luminosity0.00347 / 0.00093[6] L
Temperature2100 / 1800[6] K
Age1[3] Myr
2MASS J04414565+2301580
Mass0.20+1.0
−0.05
 M / 35 ± 5[6] MJup
Luminosity0.14 / 0.00741[6] L
Temperature3400 / 2800[6] K
Age1[3] Myr
Other designations
WDS J04417+2302AB, Gaia EDR3 146487556211644544
Database references
SIMBAD2M J044144
2M J044145

2MASS J04414489+2301513 (often abbreviated as 2M J044144) is a young star system hosting a planet and a couple of brown dwarfs, approximately 470 light years (145 parsecs) away.

The 2MASS J04414489+2301513 primary (a brown dwarf) has a large separation (12.4 arcseconds) companion, 2MASS J04414565+2301580 (abbreviated as 2M J044145), which in turn has a nearby small separation substellar companion (separation of 0.23 arcseconds to the northeast). 2M J044145 has similar proper motion to 2M J044144 and is likely physically associated with the system.[7] The entire system of 4 objects is then a hierarchical quadruple of two binary stars orbiting each other.[7] The primary component has a spectral type of M4.5 and a red apparent magnitude of 14.2.[6] Both components seem to be accreting mass from their stellar disks, as shown by their emission lines.[6] The four stars have a total mass of only 26% of the Sun, making it the quadruple star system with the lowest mass known.[6]

Planetary system[edit]

The primary is orbited by a companion about 5–10 times the mass of Jupiter.[8] The mass of the primary brown dwarf is roughly 20 times the mass of Jupiter and its age is roughly one million years.[3] It is not clear whether this companion object is a sub-brown dwarf or a planet. The companion is very large with respect to its parent and must have formed within 1 million years or so. This seems to be too big and too fast to form like a regular planet from a disk around the central object.[3]

The 2MASS J04414489+2301513 planetary system
Companion
(in order from star)
Mass Semimajor axis
(AU)
Orbital period
(years)
Eccentricity Inclination Radius
b 7.5±2.5 MJ 15±0.6 411 1.13 RJ

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b c d Cutri, R. M.; et al. (2003). "2MASS All-Sky Catalog of Point Sources". VizieR On-line Data Catalog. 2246. Bibcode:2003yCat.2246....0C.
  2. ^ Zacharias, N. (2012). "The fourth US Naval Observatory CCD Astrograph Catalog (UCAC4)". VizieR On-line Data Catalog. 1322. Bibcode:2012yCat.1322....0Z.
  3. ^ a b c d e Todorov, K.; Luhman, K. L.; McLeod, K. K. (2010). "Discovery of a Planetary-Mass Companion to a Brown Dwarf in Taurus". The Astrophysical Journal. 714 (1): L84–L88. arXiv:1004.0539. Bibcode:2010ApJ...714L..84T. doi:10.1088/2041-8205/714/1/L84. S2CID 119242529.
  4. ^ a b c Brown, A. G. A.; et al. (Gaia collaboration) (2021). "Gaia Early Data Release 3: Summary of the contents and survey properties". Astronomy & Astrophysics. 649: A1. arXiv:2012.01533. Bibcode:2021A&A...649A...1G. doi:10.1051/0004-6361/202039657. S2CID 227254300. Gaia EDR3 record for this source at VizieR.
  5. ^ a b c Brown, A. G. A.; et al. (Gaia collaboration) (2021). "Gaia Early Data Release 3: Summary of the contents and survey properties". Astronomy & Astrophysics. 649: A1. arXiv:2012.01533. Bibcode:2021A&A...649A...1G. doi:10.1051/0004-6361/202039657. S2CID 227254300. Gaia EDR3 record for this source at VizieR.
  6. ^ a b c d e f g h i Bowler, Brendan P.; Hillenbrand, Lynne A. (2015). "Near-infrared Spectroscopy of 2M0441+2301 AabBab: A Quadruple System Spanning the Stellar to Planetary Mass Regimes". The Astrophysical Journal. 811 (2): L30. arXiv:1509.01658. Bibcode:2015ApJ...811L..30B. doi:10.1088/2041-8205/811/2/L30. S2CID 22608263.
  7. ^ a b Todorov, K. O.; Luhman, K. L.; Konopacky, Q. M.; McLeod, K. K.; Apai, D.; Ghez, A. M.; Pascucci, I.; Robberto, M. (2014). "A Search for Companions to Brown Dwarfs in the Taurus and Chamaeleon Star-Forming Regions". The Astrophysical Journal. 788 (1): 40. arXiv:1404.0213. Bibcode:2014ApJ...788...40T. doi:10.1088/0004-637X/788/1/40. S2CID 16636388.
  8. ^ "Hubble spots giant planet orbiting tiny star". USA Today. 2010-04-07. Retrieved 2013-02-24.