2S1 "Gvozdika" during the Independence Day parade in Kiev, Ukraine
|Place of origin||Soviet Union|
|Used by||see Operators|
|Wars||see Combat history|
|Designer||Kharkov Tractor Plant|
|Number built||more than 10,000|
|Weight||16 tonnes (35,273 lbs)|
|Length||7.26 m (23 ft 10 in)|
|Width||2.85 m (9 ft 4 in)|
|Height||2.73 m (8 ft 11 in)|
|Shell||separate loading, cased charge|
|Breech||Horizontal sliding wedge, semi-automatic|
|Elevation||-3 to +70 degrees|
|Rate of fire||Maximum: 5 rpm
Sustained: 1-2 rpm
|Muzzle velocity||680 m/s (2,200 ft/s)|
|Maximum firing range||Conventional: 15.3 km (9.5 mi)
Extended: 21.9 km (13.6 mi)
|Armor||20 mm (.78 in)|
|2A18 122 mm (4.8 in) howitzer|
220 kW (300 hp)
|500 km (310 mi)|
|Speed||Road: 60 km/h (37 mph)
Off-road: 30 km/h (18 mph)
Swim: 4.5 km/h (2.8 mph)
The 2S1 Gvozdika, (Russian: 2С1 «Гвоздика», 'Carnation'); is a Soviet 122-mm self-propelled howitzer that resembles the PT-76 but is essentially a lengthened version of the MT-LB APC, mounting the 2A18 howitzer. "2S1" is its GRAU designation. An alternative Russian designation is SAU-122 but in the Russian Army it is commonly known as Gvozdika. The 2S1 is fully amphibious with very little preparation, and once afloat is propelled by its tracks. A variety of wider tracks are also available to allow the 2S1 to operate in snow or swamp conditions. It is NBC protected and has infra-red night-vision capability.
The 2S1 has seven road wheels on each side; the running gear can be fitted with different widths of track to match terrain. The interior is separated into a driver's compartment on the left, an engine compartment on the right and a fighting compartment to the rear. Within the fighting compartment the commander sits on the left, the loader on the right and the gunner to the front. The all-welded turret is located above the fighting compartment. The 2S1 utilizes a 122 mm howitzer based on the towed D-30 howitzer. The gun is equipped with a power rammer, a double-baffle muzzle brake and a fume extractor. It is capable of firing HE (high explosive), leaflet, HE/RAP, armor-piercing HE, flechette and chemical rounds.
The first prototype was ready in 1969. The 2S1 entered service with the Soviet Army in the early 1970s and was first seen in public at a Polish Army parade in 1974. The vehicle was deployed in large numbers (72 per tank division, 36 per motorized rifle division). It was designated the M1974 by the U.S. Army and manufactured in Bulgarian, Polish and Russian state factories.
Former Soviet Union/Russia
- MT-LBu – This larger variant of the MT-LB that has the longer chassis and stronger engine of the 2S1 could be considered a derivative of the 2S1.
- UR-77 "Meteorit" (ustanovka razminirovaniya) – A mine clearing vehicle with a turret-like superstructure bearing two launch ramps. The ramps are used to fire rockets towing hose-type mine-clearing line charges. A single charge can clear an area of 90 m by 6 m. The UR-77 is the successor to the BTR-50 based UR-67.
- UR-77 vehicles were used in mass in the Battle of Komsomolskoye during the Second Chechen War- the one-ton mine-clearing charges were used to blow away entire houses.
- UR-77s were delivered to the Syrian Army by Russia in 2014 to serve in the Syrian Civil War, where they have been used in action against the Free Syrian Army. Some UR-77s were filmed in combat at in the Damascus suburb of Jobar on October 1.
- RKhM "Kashalot" (razvedivatel’naya khimicheskaya mashina) – Chemical reconnaissance vehicle with detection, marking and alarm devices. This model has the hull shape and single rear door of the 2S1, but with the short chassis and machine gun turret of the MT-LB. Former Western designation: ATV M1979/4.
- RKhM-K – Command version with additional signal equipment but without sensors or markers.
- 2S34 "Chosta" – Modernisation of the 2S1 with the 122 mm 2A31 gun replaced by the 120 mm 2A80. Further improvements include a new fire control system, a battlefield observation system and the ability to fire the Kitolov-2M guided ammunition. One unit, the 21st Mechanized Brigade in Totskoye is currently being equipped with the system.
- 2S15 "Norov" – A prototype tank destroyer equipped with a radar-based fire control system and a 100 mm gun.
- 2S1M Goździk – Version with special amphibious kit that increases the vehicle's amphibious capabilities.
- 2S1T Goździk – Version with a TOPAZ digital fire control system from WB electronics. The system consists of a FONET-IP digital intercom system, new digital radio, military GPS receiver, military computer and dedicated software. The same system is used on other Polish Armed Forces artillery systems like the AHS Krab, Dana-T and WR-40 Langusta.
- Rak carrier (Rak is polish for crayfish) – A new 120 mm mortar turret with an automatic feed system intended to be installed on existing 2S1 chassis as well as in the wheeled KTO Rosomak chassis.
- LPG (LPG for Lekkie Podwozie Gąsienicowe – lit. Light Tracked Chassis) – A chassis of a surplus 2S1 Goździk converted into an Armored Personnel Carrier. The original gun turret was removed, the upper part of the vehicle was redesigned, and the old engine replaced with a modern MTU diesel engine. The vehicle is used as a command vehicle for the AHS Krab howitzer and Rak mortar units and as medical or technical support vehicles.
- Model 89 – Romanian variant that uses a modified version of the hull of the MLI-84.
- Raad-1 ('thunder') – Iranian variant that is based on the hull of the Boragh APC.
- BMP-23 (Bojna mashina na pekhotata) – Infantry fighting vehicle with 2A14 23 mm gun and ATGM 9K11 "Malyutka" in a 2-man turret. The chassis is based on the one from the MT-LB but with components of the 2S1 and fitted with a 315 hp engine.
- BMP-23D – Improved version with 9K111 "Fagot" and smoke grenade launchers.
- BRM-23 – Reconnaissance version. Prototype.
- BMP-30 – Similar chassis as the BMP-23 but with the complete turret of the Soviet-made BMP-2. Only 10 were built.
- Abu Fatma – This appears to be a licence produced version.
- Algeria – 145
- Armenia –
- Azerbaijan – 81 2S1 and unknown number of UR-77
- Bosnia and Herzegovina – 5
- Belarus – 246
- Bulgaria – 506
- Cuba – 150
- Croatia – 9 (to be used alongside 15 Panzerhaubitze 2000 from German Army stock.)
- Eritrea – 20
- Finland – 72 (known as 122 PsH 74)
- Georgia 48
- India – 110
- Kazakhstan – 10
- Poland – c. 324 (to be replaced by AHS Krab)
- South Ossetia
- Serbia – 72
- Slovakia – 49
- Syria – 400
- Russia – 622
- Ukraine – 638
- Uruguay – 6
- Czech Republic – Phased out in early 2000s (decade)
- Czechoslovakia – Passed on to successor states
- East Germany – Phased out in 1990 after German reunification
- Romania – 48 reserve status since 2005
- Slovenia – 8 reserve status
- Soviet Union – Passed on to successor states
- Yugoslavia – Passed on to successor states.
- Afghanistan – Soviet war in Afghanistan
- Chechnya (Russia) – Second Chechen War (1999 to 2000)
- Iraq – First Gulf War, Second Gulf War
- Yugoslavia – Yugoslav Wars, Kosovo War
- Georgia – 2008 South Ossetia war
- Libya – 2011 Libyan civil war
- Syria – Syrian civil war
- Ukraine – War in Donbass
- Marat Kenzhetaev (1998). "Self Propelled Artillery and Mortars". www.armscontrol.ru. MIPT Center for Arms Control, Energy and Environmental Studies. Retrieved 2010-05-03.
- "2S1 M-1974 122-mm Self-Propelled Howitzer". GlobalSecurity.org. 2008-11-09.
- Pashin, Alexander. "Russian Army Operations and Weaponry During Second Military Campaign in Chechnya". Moscow Defense Brief. Retrieved 8 March 2014.
- Beckhusen, Robert. "Spotted—Al Assad’s Brutal Mine-Clearing Tank in Syria". War is Boring. www.medium.com. Retrieved 13 October 2014.
- "صاروخ جديد يستهدف عصابات النصرة في حي جوبر". www.youtube.com. Retrieved 13 October 2014.
- Belarus Army Equipment
- Eugene Yanko, Copyright 1997 – email@example.com. "2s1 Gvozdika Self-Propelled Howitzer | Russian Arms, Military Technology, Analysis of Russia's Military Forces". Warfare.ru. Retrieved 2011-08-18.
- Ground Forces Equipment – Ukraine
- Trewhitt, Philip (1999). Armored Fighting Vehicles. New York, NY: Amber Books. p. 124. ISBN 0-7607-1260-3.
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to 2S1 Gvozdika.|
- Huta Stalowa Wola – Polish manufacturer
- Arsenal Co. - Bulgarian manufacturer of 2A31(2S1)