2nd New Zealand Parliament

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The 2nd New Zealand Parliament was a term of the Parliament of New Zealand. It opened on 15 April 1856, following New Zealand's 1855 election. It was dissolved on 5 November 1860 in preparation for 1860–61 election. The 2nd Parliament was the first under which New Zealand had responsible government, meaning that unlike previously, the Cabinet was chosen (although not officially appointed) by Parliament rather than by the Governor.

Historical context[edit]

At this time political parties had not been established (they were not established until after the 1890 election), meaning that anyone attempting to form an administration had to win support directly from individual MPs. This made forming (and retaining) a government difficult. The Sewell Ministry, the first responsible government, led by Henry Sewell, lasted only two weeks. The first Fox Ministry, the second responsible government, led by William Fox, also lasted only two weeks. The third responsible government, the first Stafford Ministry, led by Edward Stafford, was more stable, governing for the remainder of the 2nd Parliament and for the beginning of the 3rd.

Parliamentary sessions[edit]

Parliament sat for three sessions:[1]

Session from to
First 15 Apr 1856 16 Aug 1856
Second 10 Aug 1858 21 Aug 1858
Third 30 Jul 1860 5 Nov 1860

Electoral boundaries for the 2nd Parliament[edit]

The 2nd Parliament, which initially used the same electoral boundaries as the 1st Parliament, consisted of thirty-seven representatives representing twenty-four electorates. Two regions of the colony (the inland regions of the lower North Island and the north-west corner of the South Island) were not part of any electorate, and so were not represented.

NewZealandElectorates1853-Labeled.png

Initial composition of the 2nd Parliament[edit]

Member Electorate Province MP's term Election date
Cuff, JohnJohn Cuff Akaroa Canterbury First 28 December[2]
Campbell, LoganLogan Campbell Auckland, City ofCity of Auckland Auckland First 27 October[3]
Beckham, ThomasThomas Beckham Auckland, City ofCity of Auckland Auckland First 27 October[4]
Daldy, WilliamWilliam Daldy Auckland, City ofCity of Auckland Auckland First 27 October[2]
Merriman, FrederickFrederick Merriman Auckland Suburbs Auckland Second 27 October[5]
Brodie, WalterWalter Brodie Auckland Suburbs Auckland First 27 October[6]
Carleton, HughHugh Carleton Bay of Islands Auckland Second 24 November[3]
Brittin, DingleyDingley Brittin Christchurch Country Canterbury First 20 December[6]
Hall, JohnJohn Hall Christchurch Country Canterbury First 20 December[7]
Sewell, HenryHenry Sewell Christchurch, Town ofTown of Christchurch Canterbury Second 18 December[8]
Cargill, JohnJohn Cargill Dunedin Country Otago Second 11 December[3]
Cargill, WilliamWilliam Cargill Dunedin Country Otago First 11 December[3]
Macandrew, JamesJames Macandrew Dunedin, Town ofTown of Dunedin Otago Second 11 December[9]
Brown, CharlesCharles Brown Grey and Bell New Plymouth First 8 November[6]
Ludlam, AlfredAlfred Ludlam Hutt Wellington Second 16 November[10]
Bell, DillonDillon Bell Hutt Wellington First 16 November[4]
FitzGerald, JamesJames FitzGerald Lyttelton, Town ofTown of Lyttelton Canterbury Second 21 December[11]
Parker, CharlesCharles Parker Motueka and Massacre Bay Nelson First 8 November[12]
Domett, AlfredAlfred Domett Nelson, Town ofTown of Nelson Nelson First 12 November[13]
Stafford, EdwardEdward Stafford Nelson, Town ofTown of Nelson Nelson First 12 November[14]
Richmond, WilliamWilliam Richmond New Plymouth, Town ofTown of New Plymouth New Plymouth First 5 November[15]
Henderson, ThomasThomas Henderson Northern Division Auckland First 27 October[16]
Lee, WalterWalter Lee Northern Division Auckland Second 27 October[10]
East, AlfredAlfred East Omata New Plymouth First 10 November[13]
Williamson, JohnJohn Williamson Pensioner Settlements Auckland First 27 October[17]
Greenwood, JosephJoseph Greenwood Pensioner Settlements Auckland Second 27 October[18]
Taylor, CharlesCharles Taylor Southern Division Auckland Second 26 October[19]
Graham, RobertRobert Graham Southern Division Auckland First 26 October[18]
Elliott, CharlesCharles Elliott Waimea Nelson First 19 November[13]
Travers, WilliamWilliam Travers Waimea Nelson Second 6 November[20]
Smith, JohnJohn Smith Wairarapa and Hawke's Bay Wellington First 26 November[21]
Wells, WilliamWilliam Wells Wairau Nelson First 19 November[22]
Fox, WilliamWilliam Fox Wanganui and Rangitikei Wellington First 27 November[23]
Clifford, CharlesCharles Clifford Wellington, City ofCity of Wellington Wellington Second 13 November[24]
Featherston, IsaacIsaac Featherston Wellington, City ofCity of Wellington Wellington Second 13 November[25]
Fitzherbert, WilliamWilliam Fitzherbert Wellington, City ofCity of Wellington Wellington First 13 November[11]
Ward, DudleyDudley Ward Wellington Country Wellington First 15 November[26]

Changes during term[edit]

Montage of portraits depicting members of the New Zealand House of Representatives, the Sergeant-at-Arms, and the Clerk of the House, during the Second Parliament in 1860. Government House, Auckland, is at the top. This is the first photo taken of the New Zealand Parliament.
The key that goes with the montage of portraits.

The turnover of MPs was very high in the 2nd Parliament, with 32 by-elections and a supplementary election being held. This situation was partly the result of a redistribution of boundaries to seven electorates, and the creation of four new electorates – agreed upon in the Electoral Districts Act, 1858, with the total number of MPs in Parliament rising from 37 to 41, and the number of electorates rising from 24 to 28. The northern portion of the Northern Division electorate was split off and became the electorate of Marsden.[27] The Wairarapa and Hawke's Bay electorate was split into two separate components, Wairarapa and County of Hawke. All the previously unincorporated areas in the lower North Island were divided between Wairarapa, County of Hawke, Wanganui and Rangitikei, and Wellington Country.[27]

In the South Island, the southern portion of Wairau electorate, plus part of Christchurch Country, became the new Cheviot electorate.[28] The western portion of Dunedin Country was split off and became the new Wallace electorate. The northwest of the South Island remained the colony's only territory not part of an electorate.[28]

Members of Parliament belonging to one of the electorates that was split could choose which of the two new electorates they would want to represent, and by-elections were held during 1859 in the thus unrepresented electorates.[29]

At the opening of the 6th session of the Parliament on 10 April 1858,[30] the speaker read out 14 resignations.[31]

By-election Electorate Date Incumbent Reason Winner
1856 Motueka and Massacre Bay 19 May Charles Parker[12] Resignation Herbert Curtis[2][32]
1856 Christchurch Country[33] 14 October Dingley Brittin[6] Resignation John Ollivier[34]
1856 Grey and Bell 14 October Charles Brown[6] Resignation John Lewthwaite[10]
1856 Town of Christchurch[35] 18 November Henry Sewell[8] Resignation Richard Packer[12]
1856 Hutt 27 November Alfred Ludlam[10] Resignation Samuel Revans[36]
1858 City of Auckland 27 April Logan Campbell[3] Resignation Thomas Forsaith[23]
1858 Pensioner Settlements[37] 29 April Joseph Greenwood[18] Resignation John Symonds[38]
1858 Southern Division 8 May Charles Taylor[19] Resignation Theodore Haultain[39]
1858 Grey and Bell 17 May John Lewthwaite[10] Resignation Charles Brown[6]
1858 Waimea 21 May Charles Elliott[13] Resignation David Monro[40]
1858 Wairau 21 May William Wells[22] Resignation Frederick Weld[22]
1858 Town of Lyttelton 28 May James FitzGerald[11] Resignation Crosbie Ward[26]
1858 Akaroa 31 May John Cuff[2] Resignation William Moorhouse[40]
1858 Dunedin Country 16 June John Cargill[3] Resignation John Taylor[19]
1858[41] Wairarapa and Hawke's Bay 22 July J. Valentine Smith[21] Resignation James Ferguson[25]
1858 City of Wellington 27 July Isaac Featherston
William Fitzherbert[11]
Resignations Isaac Featherston
William Rhodes[42]
1858 Wellington Country 29 July Dudley Ward[26] Resignation Alfred Brandon[6]
1858 Hutt 31 July Dillon Bell[4]
Samuel Revans[36]
Resignations Alfred Renall[10]
William Fitzherbert[11]
1859 Town of Dunedin 14 January James Macandrew Resignation James Macandrew[9]

Supplementary election, 1859[edit]

Cheviot 18 December[43] Edward Jollie
Marsden 29 November[25] James Farmer
Wairarapa 7 November[24] Charles Carter
Wallace 30 November[4] Dillon Bell
By-election Electorate Date Incumbent Reason Winner

2nd Parliament (continued)[edit]

1859 Waimea 26 December William Travers Resignation Fedor Kelling
1860 Town of Christchurch[44][45] 18 January Richard Packer Resignation Henry Sewell
1860 (1st) Suburbs of Auckland 25 January Walter Brodie Resignation Theophilus Heale
1860 Dunedin Country 28 March William Cargill[3] Resignation Thomas Gillies[46]
1860 (1st) Christchurch Country 2 April John Ollivier Resignation Isaac Cookson
1860 City of Auckland 5 April Thomas Beckham Resignation Archibald Clark
1860 (2nd) Suburbs of Auckland 5 April Frederick Merriman Resignation Joseph Hargreaves
1860 Omata 16 April Alfred East Resignation James Richmond
1860 (2nd) Christchurch Country 21 April John Hall Resignation Charles Brown
1860 County of Hawke 26 April James Ferguson Resignation Thomas Fitzgerald
1860 Northern Division[47] 23 May Thomas Henderson Resignation Thomas Henderson
1860 Grey and Bell[48] 28 May Charles Brown Resignation Thomas King
1860 (3rd) Suburbs of Auckland 4 August Joseph Hargreaves Resignation Logan Campbell

Existing electorates[edit]

Akaroa

Cuff resigned in 1858[31] and was succeeded by William Sefton Moorhouse.

Auckland Suburbs

Merriman resigned on 13 March 1860.[49] He was succeeded by Joseph Hargreaves, who was elected on 5 April 1860, and resigned on 24 July 1860.[39] Hargreaves was replaced by Logan Campbell, who was returned unopposed on 4 August 1860.[50]

Brodie resigned on 6 December 1859[49] and was succeeded by Theophilus Heale.[51]

Christchurch Country

Brittin resigned in 1856, returned to England on 'urgent business' and did not return to New Zealand.[52] He was succeeded in 1856 by John Ollivier,[53] who himself resigned in 1860. Ollivier was succeeded by Isaac Thomas Cookson.

Hall resigned in 1860 and was succeeded by Charles Hunter Brown.

City of Auckland

Campbell resigned in 1858.[31] He was succeeded by Thomas Forsaith.

Beckham resigned in 1859. He was succeeded by Archibald Clark.[54]

City of Wellington

In 1858, Featherston and Fitzherbert resigned their seats in Parliament.[31] Featherston apparently wanted to return to England.[55] Instead, he successfully stood for re-election within months. The other person returned in the same by-election was William Barnard Rhodes.[56]

County of Hawke

The renamed County of Hawke (it had previously been Wairarapa and Hawkes Bay, until its southern portion was made into the separate electorate of Wairarapa). Thomas Henry FitzGerald was elected as its representative on 26 April 1860.

Dunedin Country

John and his father William Cargill resigned in 1858[31] and October 1859, respectively. The first vacancy was filled by John Parkin Taylor, who retired from parliament at the end of this term. The second vacancy was filled by Thomas Gillies.[49]

Grey and Bell

Brown resigned on 16 August 1856 to (unsuccessfully) contest the Taranaki superintendency. He was again elected in 1858 and resigned in 1860, when his militia service required his full attention.[57] In between Brown's terms, John Lewthwaite (who resigned in 1858) represented the electorate.[31]

Hutt

Bell resigned in 1858[31] and was succeeded by William Fitzherbert. Ludlam, the other representative of Hutt, resigned in 1856 and was replaced by Samuel Revans, who resigned again on 22 March 1858[31] and was succeeded by Alfred Renall.

Motueka and Massacre Bay

Parker resigned in 1856 and was succeeded by Herbert Curtis.[58]

Omata

East resigned in 1860. The subsequent by-election on 16 April 1860 was won unopposed by James Crowe Richmond.[59]

Pensioner Settlements

Greenwood resigned[31] and Captain Jermyn Symonds was elected on 30 April 1858.[60]

Southern Division

Taylor resigned on 13 April 1858 and was succeeded through an 1858 by-election by Theodore Haultain.

Town of Christchurch

Sewell resigned his seat in late 1856 to return to England. He was succeeded by Richard Packer.[35] Packer resigned in 1859. Sewell, having returned from England, won the 1860 by-election.[45] He did not seek re-election at the end of the term, but was appointed Registrar-General of Lands towards the end of 1860.[61]

Town of Dunedin

Macandrew resigned on 2 November 1858. He successfully contested the January 1859 by-election in the same electorate.[62]

Town of Lyttelton

FitzGerald] resigned in 1857 due to ill health.[31][63] Crosbie Ward won the resulting by-election in May 1858.[64]

Waimea

Elliot resigned in 1858.[31] He was succeeded by David Monro, who had already represented the electorate in the 1st Parliament.

Travers resigned in 1859 and was succeeded by Fedor Kelling.[58]

Wairarapa and Hawkes Bay

Smith resigned on 10 March 1858.[31] He was succeeded by James Burne Ferguson.[65]

Wairau

Wells resigned in 1858.[31] He was succeeded by Frederick Weld, who had already represented the electorate in the 1st Parliament.

Wellington Country

Ward resigned on 22 March 1858.[31] He was succeeded by Alfred Brandon.

New electorates[edit]

Cheviot

Cheviot was first created in 1859, with Edward Jollie its first representative.

Marsden

Marsden was established in 1859. James Farmer was the first representative, elected on 16 December 1859.[66]

Wairarapa

The Wairarapa electorate was created in 1859. Charles Carter was the first elected representative.

Wallace

The Wallace electorate was created in 1859 and the first elections held on 30 November. Dillon Bell was the first elected representative.

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ Scholefield 1950, p. 68.
  2. ^ a b c d Scholefield 1950, p. 102.
  3. ^ a b c d e f g Scholefield 1950, p. 99.
  4. ^ a b c d Scholefield 1950, p. 95.
  5. ^ Scholefield 1950, p. 126.
  6. ^ a b c d e f g Scholefield 1950, p. 97.
  7. ^ Scholefield 1950, p. 111.
  8. ^ a b Scholefield 1950, p. 138.
  9. ^ a b Scholefield 1950, p. 121.
  10. ^ a b c d e f Scholefield 1950, p. 120.
  11. ^ a b c d e Scholefield 1950, p. 106.
  12. ^ a b c Scholefield 1950, p. 131.
  13. ^ a b c d Scholefield 1950, p. 104.
  14. ^ Scholefield 1950, p. 140.
  15. ^ Scholefield 1950, p. 136.
  16. ^ Scholefield 1950, p. 113.
  17. ^ Scholefield 1950, p. 148.
  18. ^ a b c Scholefield 1950, p. 109.
  19. ^ a b c Scholefield 1950, p. 143.
  20. ^ Scholefield 1950, p. 144.
  21. ^ a b Scholefield 1950, p. 139.
  22. ^ a b c Scholefield 1950, p. 147.
  23. ^ a b Scholefield 1950, p. 107.
  24. ^ a b Scholefield 1950, p. 100.
  25. ^ a b c Scholefield 1950, p. 105.
  26. ^ a b c Scholefield 1950, p. 146.
  27. ^ a b McRobie 1989, p. 28.
  28. ^ a b McRobie 1989, p. 31.
  29. ^ McRobie 1989, p. 29.
  30. ^ "The General Assembly of New Zealand". Otago Witness (340). 5 June 1858. p. 4. Retrieved 30 April 2010. 
  31. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n "House of Representatives". Otago Witness (340). 5 June 1858. p. 5. Retrieved 30 April 2010. 
  32. ^ Cyclopedia Company Limited (1906). "Present And Past Members Of Parliament". The Cyclopedia of New Zealand : Nelson, Marlborough & Westland Provincial Districts. Christchurch. Retrieved 26 June 2010. 
  33. ^ "Canterbury". Daily Southern Cross. XIII (978). 11 November 1856. p. 3. Retrieved 26 March 2010. 
  34. ^ Scholefield 1950, p. 130.
  35. ^ a b "Canterbury". Nelson Examiner and New Zealand Chronicle. XV (79). 31 December 1856. p. 3. Retrieved 26 March 2010. 
  36. ^ a b Scholefield 1950, p. 134.
  37. ^ "The Elections". Daily Southern Cross. XV (1132). 4 May 1858. p. 3. Retrieved 17 January 2011. 
  38. ^ Scholefield 1950, p. 142.
  39. ^ a b Scholefield 1950, p. 112.
  40. ^ a b Scholefield 1950, p. 127.
  41. ^ "Nomination and Election of a Member of the House of Representatives for the Wairarapa and Hawke's Bay Districts". Hawke's Bay Herald. 1 (45). 31 July 1858. p. 2. Retrieved 18 January 2011. 
  42. ^ Scholefield 1950, p. 135.
  43. ^ Scholefield 1950, p. 117.
  44. ^ "Canterbury". Wellington Independent. XV (1398). 17 January 1860. p. 3. Retrieved 27 March 2010. 
  45. ^ a b "Mr. Sewell's Policy". Wellington Independent. XV (1402). 31 January 1860. p. 3. Retrieved 27 March 2010. 
  46. ^ Scholefield 1950, p. 108.
  47. ^ "Northern Division election". Daily Southern Cross. XVII (1297). 25 May 1860. p. 3. Retrieved 23 December 2010. 
  48. ^ "Grey and Bell election". Taranaki Herald. VIII (409). 2 June 1860. p. 3. Retrieved 15 June 2010. 
  49. ^ a b c Wilson 1985, p. ?.
  50. ^ "Election for the Suburbs". Daily Southern Cross. XVII (1319). 7 August 1860. p. 2. Retrieved 23 June 2010. 
  51. ^ Cyclopedia Company Limited 1902, p. 103.
  52. ^ Cyclopedia Company Limited 1903, p. 92.
  53. ^ "Canterbury". Daily Southern Cross. XIII (978). 11 November 1856. p. 3. Retrieved 26 March 2010. 
  54. ^ Cyclopedia Company Limited 1902, p. 102.
  55. ^ Hamer, David (22 June 2007). "Featherston, Isaac Earl 1813 – 1876". Dictionary of New Zealand Biography. Archived from the original on 23 May 2010. Retrieved 3 July 2010. 
  56. ^ "Wellington". Hawke's Bay Herald. 1 (47). 14 August 1858. p. 2. Retrieved 3 July 2010. 
  57. ^ Foster 1966, p. ?.
  58. ^ a b Cyclopedia Company Limited 1906, p. 33.
  59. ^ "Election". Taranaki Herald. VIII (403). 21 April 1860. p. 2. Retrieved 23 June 2010. 
  60. ^ "The Elections". Daily Southern Cross. XV (1132). 4 May 1858. p. 3. Retrieved 29 June 2010. 
  61. ^ "New Plymouth, December 8, 1860". Taranaki Herald. IX (436). 8 December 1860. p. 2. Retrieved 27 March 2010. 
  62. ^ "Election of a Member for the House of Representatives". Otago Witness (372). 15 January 1859. p. 5. Retrieved 1 July 2010. 
  63. ^ McIntyre, W. David (22 June 2007). "FitzGerald, James Edward 1818 – 1896". Dictionary of New Zealand Biography. Retrieved 1 May 2010. 
  64. ^ Rice, Geoffrey W. "Ward, Crosbie". Dictionary of New Zealand Biography. Ministry for Culture and Heritage. Retrieved 1 May 2010. 
  65. ^ "Nomination and Election of a Member of the House of Representatives for the Wairarapa and Hawke's Bay Districts". Hawke's Bay Herald. 1 (45). 31 July 1858. p. 2. Retrieved 28 June 2010. 
  66. ^ Scholefield 1925, p. 90.

References[edit]

External links[edit]