Eastern Hemisphere at the beginning of the 2nd century AD.
Eastern Hemisphere at the end of the 2nd century AD.
2nd century is the period from 101 to 200 in accordance with the Julian calendar in the Common Era. It is considered part of the . Classical era, epoch, or historical period
Early in the century, the
Roman Empire attained its greatest expansion under the emperor Trajan, but after his death became primarily defensive for the rest of its history. Much prosperity took place throughout the empire at this time, ruled as it were by the Five Good Emperors, a succession of just and able rulers. This period also saw the removal of the Jews from Jerusalem during the reign of Hadrian after Bar Kokhba's revolt. The last quarter of the century saw the end of the period of peace and prosperity known as the Pax Romana at the death of the emperor Marcus Aurelius, last of the " Five Good Emperors", and the accession of his ineffective and deranged son Commodus.
Han Dynasty of China was firmly cemented into power and extended its imperial influence into Central Asia during the first half of the century, by the second half there was widespread corruption and open rebellion. This set in motion its ultimate decline, until it was overthrown in 220.
Pieces of Hadrian's Wall remain near Greenhead and along the route, though large sections have been dismantled over the years to use the stones for various nearby construction projects.
96 – 180: Five Good Emperors of Rome: Nerva, Trajan, Hadrian, Antoninus Pius, Marcus Aurelius. The
Kingdom of Aksum emerges.
101 - 102, 105 - 106: The Dacian Wars. After two conflicts, Dacia is annexed as a Roman province.
114 - 116: A war with Parthia results in Armenia and Mesopotamia being temporarily annexed into the Roman Empire.
115 – 117: Kitos War, adjunct to the Jewish–Roman wars.
122 – 132: Hadrian's Wall across Northern England.
132 – 135: Bar Kokhba's revolt against Rome.
132: Chinese chronicles described the existence of diplomatic relations between Java-Dwipa and China.
142 - The Antonine Wall is built across central Scotland.
144: Marcion, rejected by Church of Rome, founds Marcionism.
144: A Chinese Buddhist saint, Fa Hsien, was caught in a storm and landed in Java-Dwipa, or Java Island, where he stayed for five months. The northern part of the island was then ruled by an Indonesian Hindu King named Kudungga. Kutai, on the island of Borneo, was successively ruled by the Hindu kings Devawarman, Aswawarman and Mulawarman.
161 – 166: Roman–Parthian War of 161–166.
167 – 175: First Marcomanni War.
178 – 180: Second Marcomanni War (depicted in the movie ). Gladiator
165- 180: The Antonine Plague in Rome.
180 – 192: Commodus, Roman Emperor.
184 – 205: the Yellow Turban Rebellion of the Han Dynasty in China begins.
193: Roman Year of the Five Emperors.
193 – 211: Septimius Severus, Roman Emperor. Herakleitos makes The Unswept Floor, mosaic variant of a 2nd-century BC painting by
Sosos of Pergamon. It is now kept at Musei Vaticani, Museo Gregoriano Profano, ex Lateranese, Rome. c. 2nd or 3rd century – Standing Buddha, from
Gandhara ( Pakistan), is made. Kushan period. It is now kept at Lahore Museum, Lahore.
Significant people [ edit ]
Trajan, Roman Emperor
Hadrian, Roman Emperor
Antoninus Pius, Roman Emperor
Lucius Verus, Roman Emperor
Marcus Aurelius, Roman Emperor, philosopher
Rabbi Akiva, Head of all the Jewish Sages
Rabbi Yehuda haNasi, redactor of the Mishnah
Commodus, Roman Emperor
Ignatius, third bishop of Antioch, author of letters
Irenaeus, second bishop of Lyon, author of Against the Heresies
Julia Domna, Empress of Rome
Justin Martyr, Christian apologist
Montanus, Christian heretic.
Nagarjuna, founder of Madhyamaka Buddhism
Polycarp, bishop of Smyrna.
Septimius Severus, Roman Emperor
Simon bar Kokhba, Jewish rebel leader
Victor I, bishop of Rome.
Zhang Daoling, Chinese Taoist hermit.
Zhang Heng, Chinese statesman, poet, inventor, astronomer, geographer, and engineer.
Zhang Zhongjing, one of the most famous Chinese physicians during Han Dynasty.
Literature [ edit ]
Science and Philosophy [ edit ]
Abascantus, Roman physician
Apollodorus of Damascus, Greek engineer and architect
Arrian, Greek-Roman historian
Cai Lun, Chinese inventor
Claudius Ptolemy, Greek astronomer, astrologer and geographer
Epictetus, Greek philosopher
Galen (Claudius Galenus), Greek physician
Hyginus Gromaticus, Roman writer on land-surveying
Marcus Cornelius Fronto, Roman grammarian and rhetorician
Plutarch, Greek philosopher, writer and historian
Suetonius (Gaius Suetonius Tranquillus), Roman historian
Tacitus (Gaius Cornelius Tacitus), Roman historian
Valentinius, Roman philosopher
Inventions, discoveries, introductions [ edit ]