2×2 (TV channel)
|Launched||November 1, 1989
September 1, 2003-restart
April 1, 2007-Rebranding
|Closed||August 14, 1997|
|Owned by||LLP "Firm "TV Channel 2x2"
The company "TV Channel 2x2-Moscow"
(2002 — February 2006)
(February 2006-February 2014)
|Picture format||SECAM 576i (4:3 SDTV)|
|Audience share||2.09% (Jan-Sep 2012, TNS Russia)|
|Slogan||All will be Cyber-pan|
|Broadcast area||Russia, Belarus|
|NTV Plus (Russia)||-|
|Natsionalnye Kabelnye Seti||Channel 21|
2x2 (read as "Dvazhdy dva", Russian for "Twice Two") is a Russian television channel. Founded in 1989, it was the first commercial TV station in USSR. After a decade of closure, 2x2 was revived in 2003. Since then the channel predominantly broadcast foreign animated TV series, including anime and Adult Swim shows.
Trial period (July — November 1989)
The channel was established by order of USSR radio and television as a structural unit in the General Directorate of programs (GDP). In the state initially were four people: Sergey Alexeev (Director), Olga Smirnova, Oleg Schoor (Director), Olga Lukasik (administrator) in August, as the administrator joined the team Sergey Lavrov.A pilot broadcasting on the third frequency channel in Moscow and the Moscow region began in July 1989 under the name "Commercial channel". Broadcasting was done in the daytime as in the evening on the same frequency broadcast state "Moscow". Length esters "Commercial television channel" was not fixed. Broadcast during the advertising broadcast music videos "All She Wants Is" Duran Duran, "Always on My Mind" group Pet Shop Boys, "Pendant que les champs brûlent" group Niagara, "Everywhere" Fleetwood Mac, "Around My Heart" singer Sandra, "the Soldier" Thomas Anders "Mon mec à moi" by Patricia Kaas, as well as fragments of the concert Space in Moscow. The staff was only a small room No. 115 behind the bar to ask 3 (Olympic television and radio) and two hardware and essential installation, APB 8, and AWSM 6-1.
The name "2x2" was invented by the team around the end of July 1989, at the same time, Sergey Lavrov (the only team artist) was a common style of the channel and the original version of the logo, which with minor modifications still exists today. From November 1, 1989, the TV channel "2x2" began broadcasting under his own name on the channel "Moscow" DH, then — "MTK". In the evening (from 18:00 to 23:00) was broadcast by the TV channel "ITC".
First time on TV showed a half-hour and more ad units, foreign music videos, and cartoons (in particular, THE Soviet "Screen"), was later shown and then repeated many times, the television series "Captain Power and the soldiers of the future" broadcast series "I spy", very often showed an advertising clip of the company "Video of Interneshnl". Also broadcast Patriotic collection of clips starting with a clip of Oleg Bloodless "And knock" (the main character of this collection was Igor talc), clips of the song theatre Alla Pugacheva from the company "Video of Interneshnl" and also clips of "Accountant" of the group "the Combination" clips Alena's Apinoj "Street of love" and "Xenia", transmission "Billboard" DJ Ale-Alena, which also aired videos of Russian artists, such as Bogdan Titomir and Oleg Gazmanov. From the first day of broadcast have been broadcast by Sergei Selenourea "Batalla!". At that time "2x2" was the only Russian TV channel, which often showed music videos, which greatly distinguished him from the General background of a few available Soviet channels. The channel enjoyed tremendous popularity among the Soviet students who, in anticipation of the often 20-minute show of music videos, view and ad units, lasting sometimes for 40 minutes without a break. According to a survey of 586 high school students of Moscow schools, conducted in late 1991, the channel became the leaders in popularity: it looked 34,16 % of the respondents.
From approximately August 1990 the station began to show the transfer of the British television channel Super Channel. One of these programs was a Blue Night. Their share in the etheric grid almost immediately became impressive — was broadcast one-or two-hour compilation of video clips, thematic programs (music, fashion, sports), movies.
Broadcast some educational programs, including transfer of production Discovery Channel, including "After 2000".
From 1 July 1992, the channel appeared and series, mostly Latin American. Among them: "Nobody but you", "Señorita", "the Forbidden woman," "Revenge," "the ugly duckling", "Guadeloupe", "Sweet enemy," and "Widow Blanco", "La usurpadora," "Stolen love," "I can't live without you", "Once we grow wings", etc.
Starting around 1992, the channel began to transfer out of heavy and rock music "Green Corridor", production production Studio "BIZ Enterprises" businessman Boris Zosimova. In the future of music policy of the channel is almost entirely under the control of that person, the consequence of which in 1993 was the signing of the contract with the owners of the TV channel "MTV Europe" on the rebroadcast of some programs of the channel (for example, on the night of January 1, 1994, was shown the concert of ABBA) First clips from European broadcast MTV aired throughout the day between the TV series and other programs. For the first time, recordings, MTV aired quite often, including the VJ units, often even without translation. Among the programs was the issue of "Beavis and Butthead". Soon the place MTV clips began to take paid videos Russian artists such as Vlad Stashevsky and Eugene Kemerovo. By the summer of 1994 remains a daily one-hour compilation of clips from MTV live (out in the afternoon), which soon also disappeared. Music videos, but not show where MTV rarely aired in the future, still in between series. Despite the fact that some of the ideas Zosimova (MTV) was not justified, he further took part in the broadcast, creating a TV-producer of "BIZ-TV", in which came a number of music programs and formed almost all of the musical component of the channel. Also in the framework of this project aired out the transfer of "Forgotten names" devoted to the Soviet stage, later moved to channel "TV-6", where he aired in the program "Disc channel" as the "Whirling wheels". The leading program was Cyril Nemolyaev.
In 1993, the "2x2" first appeared on the satellite, the result of which was the relay (in writing) his broadcasts some regional partners. Before the satellite TV channel broadcast only in Moscow and area, and via its own transmitters in Tver and Ryazan, with the delivery of the signal in real-time with terrestrial radio relay.
In 1993-1994 on "2x2" also regularly showed commercials of the organization "Greenpeace", and because the air of this channel could often see Joanna Stingray and Boris Grebenschikov. In 1993 the news came in "2x2". In 1994, the main character of the compilation of clips was Philip. In the days of mourning in the air was the video for the song "my Country", which was included in the album Kirkorov "I not Raphael"[
From 1992 to 1994 inclusive, the channel broadcast BBC news, ITN and Worldnet in the morning and evening (18:00) time, and one of the morning editions are always broadcast without translation.
In 1994, the channel had problems with the Australian television series "Chances", which is of the usual melodrama gradually moved to more explicit erotic genre.
In 1994-1995, the canal reached its peak of popularity because of the diverse terrestrial broadcasting, but also because of programs such as "Dandy — the New reality" and such animated series as "teenage mutant ninja Turtles".
Later, in 1996, for the first time in Russia began the show the animated series in the genre of anime "sailor moon" as well as telenovelas Mexican origin "Nobody but you" and "My second mother", TV series "Thunder in Paradise", "Highlander" and "Sledgehammer", "lassie".
9 June 1997, the channel has lost its place on the "third button" new TV channels "TV Center" and "Muscovy" moved to the UHF band, in the 51st UHF channel, where from 7:00 to 11:00 and from 19:00 until late night broadcast "Muz-TV". On 51-m the channel "2x2" broadcast from 11 to 19 hours, with very low quality content and a predominance of "home shopping".
On 14 August 1997, the channel has stopped broadcasting on Moscow and the region on the 51st channel and called "AST 2x2" (hereinafter repeatedly changing the concept, owners, and its name — "AST", "Prometheus-AST", "ASTV", "Asteks-TV") started to use only regional broadcasting via satellite and microwave transmission, until the complete absorption of the TV channel "Rambler".
27 February 2002 won a competition at the 43rd UHF channel with the concept of "shop on a sofa". 1 September 2003, the channel has returned to the air, according to plans, the channel was launched on 11 November 2002 but because of problems the launch was postponed for a year. According to the results of technical tests for electromagnetic compatibility 43rd UHF channel in Moscow proved to be unsuitable for permanent broadcasting it, the TV channel instead of the 43rd was selected 60th UHF channel, where the "2×2" and broadcast until 31 December 2015, after which it was replaced by the channel ТНТ4.
From the first days of broadcasting the "revival" of "2×2" most of the airtime of TV channel transmission was a popular TV channel about fashion "Fashion TV" and clips of domestic artists production production Studio "a Difficult Childhood". The name of the program bore the name of a popular song by Vladimir Markin "Purple haze".
In the autumn of 2003 the channel "2x2" has become almost women's — 8 out of 20 hours of airtime was given to the programme of the French channel Fashion TV. The rest of the time there was music of different styles and trends.
In the summer of 2004 a contract was signed with the Style TV channel on long-term cooperation.
In the same year on the frequency of the channel is relayed by network utility partner — TV channel "Style TV" logo "2x2" (interrupting broadcasting of teleshopping).
By 2005-2006, it is a critical time for teleshopping almost entirely superseded the transmission of mesh broadcast channel (logo and pictures). Mostly in the grid, attended the presentation of products from TV shop "TV Club". Broadcast TV has been broken into subject categories ranging from kitchen goods to fitness equipment. In the night from Friday to Saturday on channel was broadcast feature films and TV series. Also in the broadcasting network aired music videos. Despite this popularity, in early 2007 the company "TV Club" has decided to launch its channel on the basis of 2x2. The first channel I saw only the residents of Moscow and Moscow region thanks to the cable networks of AKADO, and soon the channel became available throughout Russia.
In 2006, the holding company Prof-Media bought the TV station. "2x2". 3 October 2006 holding "Prof-Media" introduced a new concept of broadcasting of the TV channel "2x2". Updated "2×2" was launched 1 April 2007 on the technical basis of the abolished of the TV Rambler Teleset. We show movies are translated or dubbed in Russian language. Some of them have already appeared on other Russian channels, for example, "the Simpsons", "Futurama" and "family Guy" (REN TV).
At the end of March 2007 the channel broadcast fragments of cartoons, then showed the time of airing, as well as promos with the slogan "Turn off brain, turn on 2x2!". Underneath was the caption: "Demo channel".
On 30 November 2010 it was announced that from February 5, 2011 the channel would begin a demonstration program WWE RAW. Their obtaining a two-year contract was announced on wwe.com. WWE also spoke positively about the return of WWE demonstration programs on Russian television.
5 Sep 2012 in the newsletter for cable operators, it was announced that from September 14, 2012 TV channel "2x2" is planning to implement additions/changes to the existing satellite distribution network: start broadcasting of the program with a shift of "2 MSK"; program shift "+4 MSK", will have a time shift of "+5 MSK".
From 1 January 2016, the channel switched to broadcasting only in cable and satellite networks, losing their air frequencies channel "ТНТ4" (before rebranding — "TNT-Comedy"), the broadcast of which consists of archival content "TNT". The possibility of selling advertising channel retains broadcast frequency in Birobidzhan.
The channel changed the logo twelve times.
- From 1 July to 31 October 1989, it used the words Commercial channel. It stood in the top right corner.
- From 1 November 1989 to 25 September 1990, the logo simply consisted of the wordmark 2x2. It remained in the same position.
- From 26 September 1990 to July 13, 1991, the logo was rectangular, with the text "2x2", in the first half of rectangle, the white numeral 2 appeared on a black background, and on the second half the exact opposite. It stood in the top left corner.
- From 14 September 1991 to 31 October 1992, the first half of the logo had a 2, the other figure had the square, which lay in the opposite direction (according to the old records). It stood in the top right corner, but will later move to the bottom right corner.
- From 1 November 1992 to 14 August 1997 it used the 1990 logo, but the font for the digit 2 has changed. It then became translucent and convex, and remained in the same position.
- Since 1996, the logo is not removed during advertisements.
- From 15 November 2003 to 18 March 2007 the same logo was used, only ceased to be convex and translucent. It stood on the bottom left corner.
- From August to December 2004 the logo at the top of each hour was upside down and showed time.
- From 19 March to autumn of 2007, the logo changed, there are two small squares, between the multiplication sign. In the squares the number 2 every 15 seconds turned into two flashing eyes and back. It stood in the bottom right corner.
- From 19 March to 1 April 2007 the logo on its left had the wordmark "Demo channel".
- From April 1 to fall of 2007, "[adult swim]" appeared above the logo between 11pm and 1am.
- From autumn 2007 to November 2008 and from 11 January to November 2008, it used the same logo, only in the squares instead of numbers "2" are displayed drawn angry faces with different smiles. It remained in the same position.
- From December 2007 to 10 January 2008, the logo was rectangular, black and white. Above the logo was an image of the mouse. It remained in the same position.
- From November to December 2008 it used the same logo, only instead of the mouse was the face of a hare. It remained in the same position.
- From December to 24 December 2008 it used the same logo, only instead of a rabbit was a rat, whose ass was the fire. It remained in the same position.
- From December 25 to March 2009, it used the same logo, only instead of rats was a bull. It remained in the same position.
- From March to August 2009 it used the 2007 logo with successor twos, only to become translucent. It remained in the same position.
- From 1 September 2009 to 31 March 2014 and 1 June 2014 to present, it used the previous logo, but opaque (in black and white). It remained in the same position. During the broadcast of shows and cartoons of Russian production the logo became red, and the multiplication sign replaced by a hammer and sickle.
- Since July 2010 during advertisements the logo replaces 2s with dollar signs so it would say $x$.
- From 1 April to 31 May 2014 it used the same logo, but white and with numbers and the multiplication sign being transparent. The screen design mimicked the one of iOS 7. It remained in the same position. During the show, shows and cartoons of Russian production, the multiplication sign is not replaced with a hammer and sickle.
- From 4 August 2014, the channel broadcasts a clock located at the middle top of the screen. From 9 September 2015 to 20 December 2015 the clock was in a font designed to mimic a seven segment display, after it would return back to how it was.
- From 1 September 2014 above the clock is a progress bar, which fills itself as the show broadcasts on. From 9 September 2015 to 20 December 2015 it was a dotted line, after it would return back to how it was.
- From 1 April 2015, during show broadcasts and cartoons of Russian production, to the left of the logo "Made in..." appears, pointing to the fact of its own production.
The telecasts are for the most part American and British animated show for adults, since the summer of 2009 the TV station, under the terms of the license renewal also aired reanimatsionnye series in a special night block 2x2|new. Most are satirical or burlesque show with her special, in a sense, even absurd, unconventional humor. Like this has been on Russian television.
At the end of 2007, the channel began to show some well-known anime series.
In March 2008, the channel was asked to not broadcast the cartoons "Funny forest friends" (Happy Tree Friends) for the propaganda of violence and "the adventures of big Jeff" (Big Jeff's Adventures) for pornography.
Translation of several TV series ("South Park," "king of the hill", "Papal town", "mouse", "Chicken", "Tom goes to the mayor" and "Uncontrolled") for "2x2" was attended by famous Russian translator Dmitry "Goblin" Puchkov. Also the animated series "Ghetto" was voiced by famous rappers Noggano and Kupe. And the animated series "38 monkeys" — Leonid Parfyonov.
New Year's Eve from 2008 to 2009, "2x2" at midnight showed a concert with participation of young avant-garde composer Nikolai Voronov, who became famous in Runet his song "White dragonfly of love". In addition, as part of the Christmas concert was held the presentation of the trainer of cats Vladimir Krasnolozhkin. New Year's Eve on the channel you can see other artists who will never show the rest of the program.
Also in the daytime is showing the family unit, most of the series unit is designed exclusively for children.
The law "On the protection of children from harmful information" was reflected in the air "2x2". In August 2012, the Director of the TV channel Lev Makarov told "Interfax" that will "cut" a number of popular TV series. So, show "Itchy and Scratchy" from "the Simpsons" along with a series containing it "moved" to the middle of the night (23:40) and "South Park" has lost some of the scenes with the murders of Kenny.
Controversies and criticism
As the country's largest adult-oriented animation channel, 2×2 is prone to misconsent with the conservative and religious groups, and occasionally with authorities. Since the animation in Russia was traditionally viewed as exclusively children's media, 2×2 has to highlight continually that its programs are not recommended for children.
In February 2008 the Russian Media Culture Protection Department (Rossvyazokhrankultura), a regulatory body for TV in Russia, issued warnings about Happy Tree Friends and The Adventures of Big Jeff, claiming that the shows "promote violence and brutality, harm the psychic health and moral development of children, attack the social morality; all of this being a violation of license agreement". The department warned 2×2, which broadcast the shows, to remove them in order to avoid legal issues. 2×2 owners voiced their disagreement, but reluctantly fulfilled the request.
Later that year, activists of the Russian Pentecostalist Church criticized 2×2 for airing South Park and The Simpsons. Their appeal to close 2×2 was rejected by the Russian media officials. On September 24, 2008 the channel's licence was extended for additional 5 years.
In July 2009 2×2 cut a scene from the episode "Free Willzyx" of South Park which depicted Vladimir Putin as "a greedy and desperate leader", prompting "criticism and furious discussion on Russia blogs".
Shows and films airing on 2×2
- "2x2" (PDF). Retrieved 18 April 2013.
- Россвязьохранкультура выносит предупреждения редакции телепрограммы «Телеканал 2х2» и ЗАО «Телеканал 2х2» (in Russian). Russian Media Culture Protection Department. Archived from the original on 2008-03-08.
- "Российские протестанты потребовали закрыть телеканал "2x2"" (in Russian). Lenta.Ru. 2008-03-12. Retrieved 2008-11-16.
- Holdsworth, Nick (2008-10-20). "Russia's 2X2 wins license renewal". Variety. Archived from the original on 26 October 2008. Retrieved 2008-11-20.
- "Russian channel cuts Vladimir Putin scene on 'South Park'". The Daily Telegraph. 2009-07-10. Retrieved 2009-08-03.