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Skeletal formula of 3-methoxytyramine
Ball-and-stick model of the 3-methoxytyramine molecule
IUPAC name
Other names
554-52-9 N
ChemSpider 1606 N
Jmol interactive 3D Image
MeSH 3-methoxytyramine
PubChem 1669
Molar mass 167.21 g/mol
Except where otherwise noted, data are given for materials in their standard state (at 25 °C [77 °F], 100 kPa).
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Infobox references

3-Methoxytyramine (3-MT), also known as 3-methoxy-4-hydroxyphenethylamine, is a metabolite of the neurotransmitter dopamine formed by the introduction of a methyl group to dopamine by the enzyme catechol-O-methyl transferase (COMT). 3-MT can be further metabolized by the enzyme monoamine oxidase (MAO) to form homovanillic acid (HVA), which is then typically excreted in the urine.

Originally thought to be physiologically inactive, 3-MT has recently been shown to act as an agonist of human TAAR1.[1]


3-Methoxytyramine occurs naturally in the prickly pear cactus (genus Opuntia),[2] and is in general widespread throughout the Cactaceae.[3] It has also been found in crown gall tumors on Nicotiana sp.[4]

See also[edit]


  1. ^ Sotnikova TD, Beaulieu JM, Espinoza S; et al. (2010). "The dopamine metabolite 3-methoxytyramine is a neuromodulator". Plos One 5 (10): e13452. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0013452. PMC 2956650. PMID 20976142. 
  2. ^ Neuwinger, Hans Dieter (1996). "Cactaceae". African ethnobotany: poisons and drugs: chemistry, pharmacology, toxicology. CRC Press. p. 271. ISBN 978-3-8261-0077-2.  Retrieved on June 12, 2009 through Google Book Search.
  3. ^ T. A. Smith (1977). "Phenethylamine and related compounds in plants." Phytochem. 16 9-18.
  4. ^ S. D. Mitchell, J. L. Firmin and D. O. Gray (1984). "Enhanced 3-methoxytyramine levels in crown gall tumours and other undifferentiated plant tissues." Biochem J. 221 891-5.