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|309 by topic|
|Ab urbe condita||1062|
|Balinese saka calendar||230–231|
|Chinese calendar||戊辰年 (Earth Dragon)|
3005 or 2945
— to —
己巳年 (Earth Snake)
3006 or 2946
|- Vikram Samvat||365–366|
|- Shaka Samvat||230–231|
|- Kali Yuga||3409–3410|
|Iranian calendar||313 BP – 312 BP|
|Islamic calendar||323 BH – 322 BH|
|Minguo calendar||1603 before ROC|
|Seleucid era||620/621 AG|
|Thai solar calendar||851–852|
435 or 54 or −718
— to —
436 or 55 or −717
Year 309 (CCCIX) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar) of the Julian calendar. In the Roman Empire, it was known as the Year of the Consulship of Licinianus and Constantius (or, less frequently, year 1062 Ab urbe condita). The denomination 309 for this year has been used since the early medieval period, when the Anno Domini calendar era became the prevalent method in Europe for naming years.
- Gaius Ceionius Rufius Volusianus, the Praetorian Prefect of Emperor Maxentius, defeats the usurper Domitius Alexander and purges Africa of his supporters.
- King Hormizd II, ruler of the Sassanid Empire, demands that the king of the Ghassanids pays tribute. After the king refuses, Hormizd invades Ghassanid territory. The Ghassanids seek aid from Maximinus Daza, but before a Roman army can arrive, Hormizd defeats the Ghassanid army and kills their king. A Ghassanid force then ambushes Hormizd's small retinue while the latter is on a hunting trip, and the Sasanian king is mortally wounded. He dies after a 7-year reign.
- Hormizd is succeeded by his infant son Shapur II following the brief reign and murder of Adur Narseh.
- Pope Marcellus I is banished from Rome by Emperor Maxentius.
- April 18 – Eusebius succeeds Marcellus I as the 31st pope, but is himself banished on August 17 to Sicily (these events may have also taken place in 310).
- Shapur II (the Great), king of the Sassanid Empire (d. 379)
- January 16 – Marcellus I, bishop of Rome (b. 255)
- Adur Narseh, king of the Sassanid Empire
- Elias and companions, Christian martyrs
- Hormizd II, king of the Sassanid Empire
- ^ Smith, William (1862). A New Classical Dictionary of Greek and Roman Biography, Mythology and Geography (Partly Based Upon the Dictionary of Greek and Roman Biography and Mythology). HarperCollins. p. 1008.
- ^ Bal'ami, Abu Ali. Annals, Chapter 15.
- ^ Smith Williams, Henry (March 16, 2019). The Historians' History of the World. Creative Media Partners. ISBN 9781010421023.
- ^ Johann Joseph Ignaz, von Doellinger; Baur, Ferdinand Christian; Gieseler, Johann Carl Ludwig; Plummer, Alfred; Wordsworth, Christopher (1876). Hippolytus and Callistus: or, the Church of Rome in the first half of the third century. p. 66.
- ^ Bower, Archibald (1844). The History of the Popes: From the Foundation of the See of Rome to A.D. 1758 · Volume 1. Griffith and Simon. p. 41.