Thirty Years' War
Initially a war between Protestant and Catholic states in the fragmenting Holy Roman Empire, it gradually developed into a more general conflict involving most of the great powers of Europe, becoming less about religion and more a continuation of the France–Habsburg rivalry for European political pre-eminence.
The war began when the Holy Roman Empire tried to impose religious uniformity on its domains. The northern Protestant states, angered by the violation of their rights, banded together to form the League of Evangelical Union. The Empire soon crushed this perceived rebellion. But reactions around the Protestant world condemned the Emperor's action. Sweden soon intervened in 1630 and began the full scale Great war on the continent. Spain, wishing to crush the Dutch rebels, intervened under the pretext of helping their dynastical ally, Austria. No longer able to tolerate the encirclement of two major Habsburg powers on its border, Catholic France entered the coalition on the side of the Protestants to counter the Habsburgs.
The Thirty Years' War saw the devastation of entire regions, with famine and disease significantly decreasing the population of the German and Italian states, the Kingdom of Bohemia, and the Low Countries. The war also bankrupted most of the combatant powers. Both mercenaries and soldiers in fighting armies were expected to fund themselves by looting or extorting tribute, which imposed severe hardships on the inhabitants of occupied territories.
The Thirty Years' War ended with the treaties of Osnabrück and Münster, part of the wider Peace of Westphalia. The war altered the previous political order of European Powers. The rise of Bourbon France, the curtailing of Habsburg ambition, and the ascendancy of Sweden as a great power, created a new balance of power on the continent. France's dominant position will be the central tenet of European politics in the upcoming years, until another great war saw Britain rose as the foremost world power in the 18th Century.
- 1 Origins of the war
- 2 The Bohemian Revolt
- 3 Danish intervention (1625–1629)
- 4 Swedish intervention (1630–1635)
- 5 French intervention and continued Swedish participation (1635–1648)
- 6 Peace of Westphalia
- 7 Casualties and disease
- 8 Witch-hunts
- 9 Political consequences
- 10 Outside of Europe
- 11 Involved states (chart)
- 12 Fiction
- 13 Gallery
- 14 See also
- 15 References
- 16 Further reading
- 17 External links
Origins of the war
The Peace of Augsburg (1555), signed by Charles V, Holy Roman Emperor, confirmed the result of the 1526 Diet of Speyer, ending the war between German Lutherans and Catholics, and establishing that:
- Rulers of the 224 German states could choose the religion (Lutheranism or Catholicism) of their realms according to their consciences, and compel their subjects to follow that faith (the principle of cuius regio, eius religio).
- Lutherans living in a prince-bishopric (a state ruled by a Catholic bishop) could continue to practice their faith.
- Lutherans could keep the territory they had taken from the Catholic Church since the Peace of Passau in 1552.
- Those prince-bishops who had converted to Lutheranism were required to give up their territories (the principle called reservatum ecclesiasticum).
Although the Peace of Augsburg created a temporary end to hostilities, it did not resolve the underlying religious conflict, which was made yet more complex by the spread of Calvinism throughout Germany in the years that followed. This added a third major faith to the region, but its position was not recognized in any way by the Augsburg terms, to which only Catholicism and Lutheranism were parties.
The rulers of the nations neighboring the Holy Roman Empire also contributed to the outbreak of the Thirty Years' War:
- Spain was interested in the German states because it held the territories of the Spanish Netherlands in the western part of the Empire and states within Italy that were connected by land through the Spanish Road. The Dutch revolted against Spanish domination during the 1560s, leading to a protracted war of independence that led to a truce only in 1609.
- France was nearly surrounded by territory controlled by the two Habsburg states – Spain and the Holy Roman Empire, and feeling threatened, was eager to exert its power against the weaker German states. This dynastic concern overtook religious ones and led to Catholic France's participation on the otherwise Protestant side of the war.
- Sweden and Denmark were interested in gaining control over northern German states bordering the Baltic Sea.
The Holy Roman Empire was a fragmented collection of largely independent states. The position of the Holy Roman Emperor was mainly titular, but the emperors, from the House of Habsburg, also directly ruled a large portion of Imperial territory (the Archduchy of Austria and the Kingdom of Bohemia) as well as the Kingdom of Hungary. The Austrian domain was thus a major European power in its own right, ruling over some eight million subjects. Another branch of the House of Habsburg ruled over Spain and its empire, which included the Spanish Netherlands, southern Italy, the Philippines and most of the Americas. In addition to Habsburg lands the Holy Roman Empire contained several regional powers, such as the Duchy of Bavaria, the Electorate of Saxony, the Margraviate of Brandenburg, the Electorate of the Palatinate, Landgraviate of Hesse, the Archbishopric of Trier and the Free Imperial City of Nuremberg. A vast number of minor independent duchies, free cities, abbeys, prince-bishoprics, and petty lordships (whose authority sometimes extended to no more than a single village) rounded out the Empire. Apart from Austria and perhaps Bavaria, none of those entities was capable of national-level politics; alliances between family-related states were common, due partly to the frequent practice of splitting a lord's inheritance among his various sons.
Religious tensions remained strong throughout the second half of the 16th century. The Peace of Augsburg began to unravel: some converted bishops refused to give up their bishoprics, and certain Habsburg and other Catholic rulers of the Holy Roman Empire and Spain sought to restore the power of Catholicism in the region. This was evident from the Cologne War (1583–88), a conflict initiated when the prince-archbishop of the city, Gebhard Truchsess von Waldburg, converted to Calvinism. As he was an imperial elector, this could have produced a Protestant majority in the College that elected the Holy Roman Emperor, a position that Catholics had always held.
In the Cologne War, Spanish troops expelled the former prince-archbishop and replaced him with Ernst of Bavaria, a Roman Catholic. After this success, the Catholics regained peace, and the principle of cuius regio, eius religio began to be exerted more strictly in Bavaria, Würzburg and other states. This forced Lutheran residents to choose between conversion or exile. Lutherans also witnessed the defection of the lords of the Palatinate (1560), Nassau (1578), Hesse-Kassel (1603) and Brandenburg (1613) to the new Calvinist faith. Thus, at the beginning of the 17th century, the Rhine lands and those south to the Danube were largely Catholic, while Lutherans predominated in the north, and Calvinists dominated in certain other areas, such as west-central Germany, Switzerland and the Netherlands. Minorities of each creed existed almost everywhere, however. In some lordships and cities, the number of Calvinists, Catholics and Lutherans were approximately equal.
Much to the consternation of their Spanish ruling cousins, the Habsburg emperors who followed Charles V (especially Ferdinand I and Maximilian II, but also Rudolf II, and his successor Matthias) were content to allow the princes of the Empire to choose their own religious policies. These rulers avoided religious wars within the empire by allowing the different Christian faiths to spread without coercion. This angered those who sought religious uniformity. Meanwhile, Sweden and Denmark, both Lutheran kingdoms, sought to assist the Protestant cause in the Empire, and wanted to gain political and economic influence there as well.
Religious tensions broke into violence in the German free city of Donauwörth in 1606. There, the Lutheran majority barred the Catholic residents of the Swabian town from holding an annual Markus procession, which provoked a riot. This prompted foreign intervention by Duke Maximilian of Bavaria (1573–1651) on behalf of the Catholics. After the violence ceased, Calvinists in Germany (who remained a minority) felt the most threatened. They banded together and formed the League of Evangelical Union in 1608, under the leadership of the Elector Palatine Frederick IV (1583–1610), whose son, Frederick V, married Elizabeth Stuart, the Scottish-born daughter of King James VI of Scotland and I of England and Ireland. The establishment of the League prompted the Catholics into banding together to form the Catholic League in 1609, under the leadership of Duke Maximilian.
Tensions escalated further in 1609, with the War of the Jülich succession, which began when John William, Duke of Jülich-Cleves-Berg, the ruler of the strategically important United Duchies of Jülich-Cleves-Berg, died childless. Two rival claimants vied for the duchy. The first was Duchess Anna of Prussia, daughter of Duke John William's eldest sister, Marie Eleonore of Cleves. Anna was married to John Sigismund, Elector of Brandenburg. The second was Wolfgang William, Count Palatine of Neuburg, who was the son of Duke John William's second eldest sister, Anna of Cleves. Duchess Anna of Prussia claimed Jülich-Cleves-Berg as the heir to the senior line, while Wolfgang William, Count Palatine of Neuburg, claimed Jülich-Cleves-Berg as Duke John William's eldest male heir. Both claimants were Protestants. In 1610, to prevent war between the rival claimants, the forces of Rudolf II, Holy Roman Emperor occupied Jülich-Cleves-Berg until the Aulic Council (Reichshofrat) resolved the dispute. However, several Protestant princes feared that the Emperor, a devout Catholic, intended to keep Jülich-Cleves-Berg for himself to prevent the United Duchies falling into Protestant hands. Representatives of Henry IV of France and the Dutch Republic gathered forces to invade Jülich-Cleves-Berg, but these plans were cut short by the assassination of Henry IV by the Catholic fanatic François Ravaillac. Hoping to gain an advantage in the dispute, Wolfgang William converted to Catholicism; John Sigismund, on the other hand, converted to Calvinism (although Anna of Prussia stayed Lutheran). The dispute was settled in 1614 with the Treaty of Xanten, by which the United Duchies were dismantled: Jülich and Berg were awarded to Wolfgang William, while John Sigismund gained Cleves, Mark, and Ravensberg.
The background of the Dutch Revolt is also necessary to understanding the events leading up to the Thirty Years' War. It was widely known that the Twelve Years' Truce was set to expire in 1621, and throughout Europe it was recognized that at that time, Spain would attempt to reconquer the Dutch Republic. At that time, forces under Ambrogio Spinola, 1st Marquis of the Balbases, the Genoese commander of the Spanish army, would be able to pass through friendly territories to reach the Dutch Republic. The only hostile state that stood in his way was the Electorate of the Palatinate. (Spinola's preferred route would take him through the Republic of Genoa, the Duchy of Milan, through the Val Telline, around hostile Switzerland bypassing along the north shore of Lake Constance, then through Alsace, the Archbishopric of Strasbourg, then through the Electorate of the Palatinate, and then finally through the Archbishopric of Trier, Jülich and Berg and on to the Dutch Republic). The Palatinate thus assumed a strategic importance in European affairs out of all proportion to its size. This explains why the Protestant James VI and I arranged for the marriage of his daughter Elizabeth Stuart to Frederick V, Elector Palatine in 1612, in spite of the social convention that a princess would only marry another royal.
By 1617, it was apparent that Matthias, Holy Roman Emperor and King of Bohemia, would die without an heir, with his lands going to his nearest male relative, his cousin Archduke Ferdinand II of Austria, heir-apparent and Crown Prince of Bohemia. With the Oñate treaty, Philip III of Spain agreed to this succession.
Ferdinand, educated by the Jesuits, was a staunch Catholic who wanted to impose religious uniformity on his lands. This made him highly unpopular in Protestant (primarily Hussite) Bohemia. The population's sentiments notwithstanding, the added insult of the nobility's rejection of Ferdinand, who had been elected Bohemian Crown Prince in 1617, triggered the Thirty Years' War in 1618, when his representatives were thrown out of a window and seriously injured. The so-called Defenestration of Prague provoked open revolt in Bohemia, which had powerful foreign allies. Ferdinand was upset by this calculated insult, but his intolerant policies in his own lands had left him in a weak position. The Habsburg cause in the next few years would seem to suffer unrecoverable reverses. The Protestant cause seemed to wax toward a quick overall victory.
The Bohemian Revolt
Without heirs, Emperor Matthias sought to assure an orderly transition during his lifetime by having his dynastic heir (the fiercely Catholic Ferdinand of Styria, later Ferdinand II, Holy Roman Emperor) elected to the separate royal thrones of Bohemia and Hungary. Some of the Protestant leaders of Bohemia feared they would be losing the religious rights granted to them by Emperor Rudolf II in his Letter of Majesty (1609). They preferred the Protestant Frederick V, elector of the Palatinate (successor of Frederick IV, the creator of the Protestant Union). However, other Protestants supported the stance taken by the Catholics, and in 1617, Ferdinand was duly elected by the Bohemian Estates to become the Crown Prince, and automatically upon the death of Matthias, the next King of Bohemia.
The king-elect then sent two Catholic councillors (Vilem Slavata of Chlum and Jaroslav Borzita of Martinice) as his representatives to Prague Castle in Prague in May 1618. Ferdinand had wanted them to administer the government in his absence. On 23 May 1618, an assembly of Protestants seized them and threw them (and also secretary Philip Fabricius) out of the palace window, which was some 21 metres (69 ft) off the ground. Remarkably, although injured, they survived. This event, known as the (Second) Defenestration of Prague, started the Bohemian Revolt. Soon afterward, the Bohemian conflict spread through all of the Bohemian Crown, including Bohemia, Silesia, Upper and Lower Lusatia, and Moravia. Moravia was already embroiled in a conflict between Catholics and Protestants. The religious conflict eventually spread across the whole continent of Europe, involving France, Sweden, and a number of other countries.
Had the Bohemian rebellion remained a local conflict, the war could have been over in fewer than thirty months. However, the death of Emperor Matthias emboldened the rebellious Protestant leaders, who had been on the verge of a settlement. The weaknesses of both Ferdinand (now officially on the throne after the death of Emperor Matthias) and of the Bohemians themselves led to the spread of the war to western Germany. Ferdinand was compelled to call on his nephew, King Philip IV of Spain, for assistance.
The Bohemians, desperate for allies against the Emperor, applied to be admitted into the Protestant Union, which was led by their original candidate for the Bohemian throne, the Calvinist Frederick V, Elector Palatine. The Bohemians hinted Frederick would become King of Bohemia if he allowed them to join the Union and come under its protection. However, similar offers were made by other members of the Bohemian Estates to the Duke of Savoy, the Elector of Saxony, and the Prince of Transylvania. The Austrians, who seemed to have intercepted every letter leaving Prague, made these duplicities public. This unraveled much of the support for the Bohemians, particularly in the court of Saxony. In spite of these issues surrounding their support, the rebellion initially favoured the Bohemians. They were joined in the revolt by much of Upper Austria, whose nobility was then chiefly Lutheran and Calvinist. Lower Austria revolted soon after, and in 1619, Count Thurn led an army to the walls of Vienna itself. Moreover, within the British Isles, Frederick V's cause became seen as that of Elizabeth Stuart, described by her supporters as "The Jewell of Europe" leading to a stream of tens of thousands of volunteers to her cause throughout the course of the Thirty Years' War. In the opening phase this saw an Anglo-Dutch regiment under Horace Vere head to the Palatinate, a Scots-Dutch Regiment under Colonel John Seton move into Bohemia, and that to be joined by a mixed "Regiment of Brittanes" (Scots and English) led by the Scottish Catholic Sir Andrew Gray. Seton's regiment was the last of the Protestant allies to leave the Bohemian theatre after tenaciously holding the town of Třeboň until 1622, and only departing once the rights of the citizens had been secured.
In the east, the Protestant Hungarian Prince of Transylvania, Gabriel Bethlen, led a spirited campaign into Hungary with the support of the Ottoman Sultan, Osman II. Fearful of the Catholic policies of Ferdinand II, Gabriel Bethlen requested a protectorate by Osman II, so "the Ottoman Empire became the one and only ally of great-power status which the rebellious Bohemian states could muster after they had shaken off Habsburg rule and had elected Frederick V as a Protestant king". Ambassadors were exchanged, with Heinrich Bitter visiting Constantinople in January 1620, and Mehmed Aga visiting Prague in July 1620. The Ottomans offered a force of 60,000 cavalry to Frederick and plans were made for an invasion of Poland with 400,000 troops in exchange for the payment of an annual tribute to the Sultan. These negotiations triggered the Polish–Ottoman War of 1620–21. The Ottomans defeated the Poles, who were supporting the Habsburgs in the Thirty Years' War, at the Battle of Cecora in September–October 1620, but were not able to further intervene efficiently before the Bohemian defeat at the Battle of the White Mountain in November 1620. Later Poles defeated the Ottomans at the Battle of Chocim and the war ended with a status-quo.
The emperor, who had been preoccupied with the Uskok War, hurried to muster an army to stop the Bohemians and their allies from overwhelming his country. Count Bucquoy, the commander of the Imperial army, defeated the forces of the Protestant Union led by Count Mansfeld at the Battle of Sablat, on 10 June 1619. This cut off Count Thurn's communications with Prague, and he was forced to abandon his siege of Vienna. The Battle of Sablat also cost the Protestants an important ally — Savoy, long an opponent of Habsburg expansion. Savoy had already sent considerable sums of money to the Protestants and even troops to garrison fortresses in the Rhineland. The capture of Mansfeld's field chancery revealed the Savoyards' involvement, and they were forced to bow out of the war.
The Spanish sent an army from Brussels under Ambrosio Spinola to support the Emperor. In addition, the Spanish ambassador to Vienna, Don Íñigo Vélez de Oñate, persuaded Protestant Saxony to intervene against Bohemia in exchange for control over Lusatia. The Saxons invaded, and the Spanish army in the west prevented the Protestant Union's forces from assisting. Oñate conspired to transfer the electoral title from the Palatinate to the Duke of Bavaria in exchange for his support and that of the Catholic League.
The Catholic League's army (which included René Descartes in its ranks as an observer) pacified Upper Austria, while Imperial forces under Johan Tzerclaes, Count of Tilly, pacified Lower Austria. The two armies united and moved north into Bohemia. Ferdinand II decisively defeated Frederick V at the Battle of White Mountain, near Prague, on 8 November 1620. In addition to becoming Catholic, Bohemia would remain in Habsburg hands for nearly three hundred years.
This defeat led to the dissolution of the League of Evangelical Union and the loss of Frederick V's holdings despite the tenacious defence of Trebon, Bohemia (under Colonel Seton) until 1622 and Frankenthal (under Colonel Vere) the following year. Frederick was outlawed from the Holy Roman Empire, and his territories, the Rhenish Palatinate, were given to Catholic nobles. His title of elector of the Palatinate was given to his distant cousin, Duke Maximilian of Bavaria. Frederick, now landless, made himself a prominent exile abroad and tried to curry support for his cause in Sweden, the Netherlands and Denmark.
This was a serious blow to Protestant ambitions in the region. As the rebellion collapsed, the widespread confiscation of property and suppression of the Bohemian nobility ensured the country would return to the Catholic side after more than two centuries of Hussite and other religious dissent. The Spanish, seeking to outflank the Dutch in preparation for renewal of the Eighty Years' War, took Frederick's lands, the Electorate of the Palatinate. The first phase of the war in eastern Germany ended 31 December 1621, when the Prince of Transylvania and the Emperor signed the Peace of Nikolsburg, which gave Transylvania a number of territories in Royal Hungary.
Some historians regard the period from 1621 to 1625 as a distinct portion of the Thirty Years' War, calling it the "Palatinate phase". With the catastrophic defeat of the Protestant army at White Mountain and the departure of the Prince of Transylvania, greater Bohemia was pacified. However, the war in the Palatinate continued: Famous mercenary leaders – such as, particularly, Count Ernst von Mansfeld – helped Frederick V to defend his countries, the Upper and the Rhine Palatinate. This phase of the war consisted of much smaller battles, mostly sieges conducted by the Spanish and the Imperial armies. Mannheim and Heidelberg fell in 1622, and Frankenthal was finally transferred two years later, thus leaving the Palatinate in the hands of the Spaniards.
The remnants of the Protestant armies, led by Count Ernst von Mansfeld and Duke Christian of Brunswick, withdrew into Dutch service. Although their arrival in the Netherlands did help to lift the siege of Bergen-op-Zoom (October 1622), the Dutch could not provide permanent shelter for them. They were paid off and sent to occupy neighboring East Frisia. Mansfeld remained in the Dutch Republic, but Christian wandered off to "assist" his kin in the Lower Saxon Circle, attracting the attentions of Count Tilly. With the news that Mansfeld would not be supporting him, Christian's army began a steady retreat toward the safety of the Dutch border. On 6 August 1623, ten miles short of the border, Tilly's more disciplined army caught up with them. In the ensuing Battle of Stadtlohn, Christian was decisively defeated, losing over four-fifths of his army, which had been some 15,000 strong. After this catastrophe, Frederick V, already in exile in The Hague, and under growing pressure from his father-in-law, James I, to end his involvement in the war, was forced to abandon any hope of launching further campaigns. The Protestant rebellion had been crushed.
Huguenot rebellions (1620–1628)
Following the Wars of Religion of 1562–1598, the Protestant Huguenots of France (mainly located in the southwestern provinces) had enjoyed two decades of internal peace under Henry IV, who, originally a Huguenot before converting to Catholicism, had protected Protestants through the Edict of Nantes. His successor, Louis XIII, under the regency of his Italian Catholic mother, Marie de' Medici, was much less tolerant. The Huguenots responded to increasing persecution by arming themselves, forming independent political and military structures, establishing diplomatic contacts with foreign powers, and finally, openly revolting against the central power. The revolt became an international conflict with the involvement of England in the Anglo-French War (1627-1629). The House of Stuart in England had been involved in attempts to secure peace in Europe (through the Spanish Match), and had intervened in the war against both Spain and France. However, defeat by the French (which indirectly led to the assassination of the English leader the Duke of Buckingham), lack of funds for war, and internal conflict between Charles I and his Parliament led to a redirection of English involvement in European affairs – much to the dismay of Protestant forces on the continent. This saw the continued reliance on the Anglo-Dutch brigade as the main agency of English military participation against the Habsburgs, though regiments also fought for Sweden thereafter. France remained the largest Catholic kingdom unaligned with the Habsburg powers, and would later actively wage war against Spain. The French Crown's response to the Huguenot rebellion was not so much a representation of the typical religious polarization of the Thirty Years' War, but rather of an attempt at achieving national hegemony by an absolutist monarchy.
Danish intervention (1625–1629)
Peace following the Imperial victory at Stadtlohn (1623) proved short-lived, with conflict resuming at the initiation of Denmark. Danish involvement, referred to as the Low Saxon War or Kejserkrigen ("the Emperor's War"), began when Christian IV of Denmark, a Lutheran who also ruled as Duke of Holstein, a duchy within the Holy Roman Empire, helped the Lutheran rulers of neighbouring Lower Saxony by leading an army against the Imperial forces in 1625. Denmark had feared that the recent Catholic successes threatened its sovereignty as a Protestant nation. Christian IV had also profited greatly from his policies in northern Germany. For instance, in 1621, Hamburg had been forced to accept Danish sovereignty. Denmark's King Christian IV had obtained for his kingdom a level of stability and wealth that was virtually unmatched elsewhere in Europe. Denmark was funded by tolls on the Oresund and also by extensive war-reparations from Sweden. Denmark's cause was aided by France which, together with Charles I, had agreed to help subsidize the war, not least because Christian was a blood uncle to both the Stuart king and his sister Elizabeth of Bohemia through their mother, Anna of Denmark. Some 13,700 Scottish soldiers were to be sent as allies to help Christian IV under the command of General Robert Maxwell, 1st Earl of Nithsdale. Moreover, some 6,000 English troops under Charles Morgan also eventually arrived to bolster the defence of Denmark though it took longer for these to arrive than Christian hoped, not least due to the ongoing British campaigns against France and Spain. Thus Christian, as war-leader of the Lower Saxon Circle, entered the war with an army of only 20,000 mercenaries, some of his allies from Britain and a national army 15,000 strong, leading them as Duke of Holstein rather than as King of Denmark.
To fight Christian, Ferdinand II employed the military help of Albrecht von Wallenstein, a Bohemian nobleman who had made himself rich from the confiscated estates of his countrymen. Wallenstein pledged his army, which numbered between 30,000 and 100,000 soldiers, to Ferdinand II in return for the right to plunder the captured territories. Christian, who knew nothing of Wallenstein's forces when he invaded, was forced to retire before the combined forces of Wallenstein and Tilly. Christian's poor luck continued when all of the allies he thought he had were forced aside: France was in the midst of a civil war, Sweden was at war with the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth, and neither Brandenburg nor Saxony were interested in changes to the tenuous peace in eastern Germany. Moreover, neither of the substantial British contingents arrived in time to prevent Wallenstein defeating Mansfeld's army at the Battle of Dessau Bridge (1626) or Tilly's victory at the Battle of Lutter (1626). Mansfeld died some months later of illness, apparently tuberculosis, in Dalmatia.
Wallenstein's army marched north, occupying Mecklenburg, Pomerania, and Jutland itself, but proved unable to take the Danish capital Copenhagen on the island of Zealand. Wallenstein lacked a fleet, and neither the Hanseatic ports nor the Poles would allow the building of an Imperial fleet on the Baltic coast. He then laid siege to Stralsund, the only belligerent Baltic port with sufficient facilities to build a large fleet; it soon became clear, however, that the cost of continuing the war would far outweigh any gains from conquering the rest of Denmark. Wallenstein feared losing his North German gains to a Danish-Swedish alliance, while Christian IV had suffered another defeat in the Battle of Wolgast (1628); both were ready to negotiate.
Negotiations concluded with the Treaty of Lübeck in 1629, which stated that Christian IV could retain control over Denmark if he would abandon his support for the Protestant German states. Thus in the following two years the Catholic powers subjugated more land. At this point the Catholic League persuaded Ferdinand II to take back the Lutheran holdings that were, according to the Peace of Augsburg, rightfully the possession of the Catholic Church. Enumerated in the Edict of Restitution (1629), these possessions included two Archbishoprics, sixteen bishoprics, and hundreds of monasteries. In the same year Gabriel Bethlen, the Calvinist Prince of Transylvania, died. Only the port of Stralsund continued to hold out against Wallenstein and the Emperor, having been bolstered by Scottish 'volunteers' who arrived from the Swedish army to support their countrymen already there in the service of Denmark. These men were led by Colonel Alexander Leslie who became governor of the city. As Colonel Robert Monro recorded:
"Sir Alexander Leslie being made Governour, he resolved for the credit of his Country-men, to make an out-fall upon the Enemy, and desirous to conferre the credit on his own Nation alone, being his first Essay in that Citie"
Leslie held Stralsund until 1630, using the port as a base to capture the surrounding towns and ports in order to provide a secure beach-head for a full scale Swedish landing under Gustavus Adolphus.
Swedish intervention (1630–1635)
Some within Ferdinand II's court did not trust Wallenstein, believing that he sought to join forces with the German Princes and thus gain influence over the Emperor. Ferdinand II dismissed Wallenstein in 1630. He was later to recall him, after the Swedes, led by King Gustavus Adolphus, had successfully invaded the Holy Roman Empire and turned the tables on the Catholics.
Like Christian IV before him, Gustavus Adolphus came to aid the German Lutherans, to forestall Catholic suzerainty in his back yard, and to obtain economic influence in the German states around the Baltic Sea; he was also concerned about the growing power of the Holy Roman Empire, and, like Christian IV before him, was heavily subsidized by Cardinal Richelieu, the Chief Minister of Louis XIII of France, and by the Dutch. From 1630 to 1634, Swedish-led armies drove the Catholic forces back, regaining much of the lost Protestant territory. During his campaign he managed to conquer half of the Imperial kingdoms, making Sweden the continental leader of Protestantism until the Swedish Empire ended in 1721.
Swedish forces entered the Holy Roman Empire via the Duchy of Pomerania, which served as the Swedish bridgehead since the Treaty of Stettin (1630). After dismissing Wallenstein in 1630, Ferdinand II became dependent on the Catholic League. Gustavus Adolphus allied with France in the Treaty of Bärwalde (January 1631). France and Bavaria signed the secret Treaty of Fontainebleau (1631), but this was rendered irrelevant by Swedish attacks against Bavaria. At the Battle of Breitenfeld (1631), Gustavus Adolphus's forces defeated the Catholic League led by Tilly. A year later they met again in another Protestant victory, this time accompanied by the death of Tilly. The upper hand had now switched from the league to the union, led by Sweden. In 1630, Sweden had paid at least 2,368,022 daler for its army of 42,000 men. In 1632, it contributed only one-fifth of that (476,439 daler) towards the cost of an army more than three times as large (149,000 men). This was possible due to subsidies from France, and the recruitment of prisoners (most of them taken at the Battle of Breitenfeld) into the Swedish army.
Before that time Sweden waged war with the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth and couldn't support the Protestant States properly. For that reason the king Gustav II enlisted support of the Russian tsar Michael I who also fought the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth in hopes of getting back Smolensk. While a separate conflict, the Smolensk War became an integral part of Thirty Years' confrontation.
The majority of mercenaries recruited by Gustavus II Adolphus were German but Scottish soldiers were also very numerous. These were composed of some 12,000 Scots already in service before the Swedes entered the war under the command of General Sir James Spens and colonels such as Sir Alexander Leslie, Sir Patrick Ruthven and Sir John Hepburn. These were joined by a further 8,000 men under the command of James Marquis Hamilton. The total number of Scots in Swedish service by the end of the war is estimated at some 30,000 men, no less than 15 of whom served with the rank of major-general or above.
With Tilly dead, Ferdinand II returned to the aid of Wallenstein and his large army. Wallenstein marched up to the south, threatening Gustavus Adolphus's supply chain. Gustavus Adolphus knew that Wallenstein was waiting for the attack and was prepared, but found no other option. Wallenstein and Gustavus Adolphus clashed in the Battle of Lützen (1632), where the Swedes prevailed, but Gustavus Adolphus was killed.
Ferdinand II's suspicion of Wallenstein resumed in 1633, when Wallenstein attempted to arbitrate the differences between the Catholic and Protestant sides. Ferdinand II may have feared that Wallenstein would switch sides, and arranged for his arrest after removing him from command. One of Wallenstein's soldiers, Captain Devereux, killed him when he attempted to contact the Swedes in the town hall of Eger (Cheb) on 25 February 1634. The same year, the Protestant forces, lacking Gustav's leadership, were defeated at the First Battle of Nördlingen by the Spanish-Imperial forces commanded by Cardinal-Infante Ferdinand.
By the Spring of 1635, all Swedish resistance in the south of Germany had ended. After that, the Imperialist and the Protestant German sides met for negotiations, producing the Peace of Prague (1635), which entailed a delay in the enforcement of the Edict of Restitution for 40 years and allowed Protestant rulers to retain secularized bishoprics held by them in 1627. This protected the Lutheran rulers of northeastern Germany, but not those of the south and west (whose lands had been occupied by the Imperial or League armies prior to 1627).
The treaty also provided for the union of the army of the Emperor and the armies of the German states into a single army of the Holy Roman Empire (although John George I of Saxony and Maximillian I of Bavaria kept, as a practical matter, independent command of their forces, now nominally components of the "Imperial" army). Finally, German princes were forbidden from establishing alliances amongst themselves or with foreign powers, and amnesty was granted to any ruler who had taken up arms against the Emperor after the arrival of the Swedes in 1630.
This treaty failed to satisfy France, however, because of the renewed strength it granted the Habsburgs. France then entered the conflict, beginning the final period of the Thirty Years' War. Sweden did not take part in the Peace of Prague and it continued the war together with France.
Initially after the Peace of Prague, the Swedish armies were pushed back by the reinforced Imperial army up north into Germany.
French intervention and continued Swedish participation (1635–1648)
France, although Roman Catholic, was a rival of the Holy Roman Empire and Spain. Cardinal Richelieu, the Chief Minister of King Louis XIII of France, considered the Habsburgs too powerful, since they held a number of territories on France's eastern border, including portions of the Netherlands. Richelieu had already begun intervening indirectly in the war in January 1631, when the French diplomat Hercule de Charnacé signed the Treaty of Bärwalde with Gustavus Adolphus, by which France agreed to support the Swedes with 1,000,000 livres each year in return for a Swedish promise to maintain an army in Germany against the Habsburgs. The treaty also stipulated that Sweden would not conclude a peace with the Holy Roman Emperor without first receiving France's approval.
After the Swedish rout at Nördlingen in September 1634 and the Peace of Prague in 1635, in which the Protestant German princes sued for peace with the German emperor, Sweden's ability to continue the war alone appeared doubtful, and Richelieu made the decision to enter into direct war against the Habsburgs. France declared war on Spain in May 1635 and the Holy Roman Empire in August 1636, opening offensives against the Habsburgs in Germany and the Low Countries. France aligned her strategy with the allied Swedes in Wismar (1636) and Hamburg (1638).
After the Peace of Prague, the Swedes reorganised the Royal Army under Johan Banér and created a new one, the Army of the Weser under the command of Alexander Leslie. The two army groups moved south from spring 1636, re-establishing alliances on the way including a revitalised one with Wilhelm of Hesse-Kassel. The two Swedish armies combined and confronted the Imperialists at the Battle of Wittstock. Despite the odds being stacked against them, the Swedish army won. This success largely reversed many of the effects of their defeat at Nördlingen, albeit not without creating some tensions between Banér and Leslie.
Emperor Ferdinand II died in 1637 and was succeeded by his son Ferdinand III, who was strongly inclined toward ending the war through negotiations. His army did however win an important success at the battle of Vlotho in 1638 against a combined Swedish-English-Palatine force. This victory effectively ended the involvement of the Palatinate in the war.
French military efforts met with disaster, and the Spanish counter-attacked, invading French territory. The Imperial general Johann von Werth and Spanish commander Cardinal-Infante Ferdinand of Spain ravaged the French provinces of Champagne, Burgundy and Picardy, and even threatened Paris in 1636. Then the tide began to turn for the French. The Spanish army was repulsed by Bernhard of Saxe-Weimar. Bernhard's victory in the Battle of Compiègne pushed the Habsburg armies back towards the borders of France. Then, for a time, widespread fighting ensued until 1640, with neither side gaining an advantage.
However, the war reached a climax and the tide of the war turned clearly toward the French and against Spain in 1640 starting with the siege and capture of the fort at Arras. (This is the battle mentioned in Edmond Rostand's play, Cyrano de Bergerac, as being the battle in which Rostand's fictional character Cyrano fought.) The French conquered Arras from the Spanish following a siege that lasted from 16 June to 9 August 1640. When Arras fell, the way was opened to the French to take all of Flanders. The ensuing French campaign against the Spanish forces in Flanders culminated with a decisive French victory at Rocroi in May 1643. News of these French victories provided strong encouragement to separatist movements in the Spanish province of Catalonia and in Portugal. The Catalonian revolt had sprung up spontaneously in May 1640. Since that time it had been the conscious goal of Cardinal Richelieu to promote a "war by diversion" against the Spanish. Richelieu wanted to create difficulties for the Spanish at home which might encourage them to withdraw from the war. To fight this war by diversion Cardinal Richelieu had been supplying aid to the Catalonians.
In December 1640, the Portuguese rose up against Spanish rule and once again Richelieu supplied aid to the insurgents. The war by diversion had its intended effect. Philip IV of Spain was reluctantly forced to divert his attention from the war in northern Europe to deal with his problems at home. Indeed, even at this time, some of Philip's advisers, including the Count of Oñate, were recommending that Philip withdraw from overseas commitments. With Trier, Alsace, and Lorraine all in French hands and the Dutch in charge of Limburg, the Channel and the North Sea, the "Spanish Road" connecting Habsburg Spain with the Habsburg possessions in the Netherlands and Austria was severed. Philip IV could no longer physically send reinforcements to the Low Countries. On 4 December 1642, Cardinal Richelieu died. However, his policy of war by diversion continued to pay dividends to France. Spain was unable to resist the continuing drumbeat of French victories—Gravelines was lost to the French in 1644, followed by Hulst in 1645 and Dunkirk in 1646. The Thirty Years' War would continue until 1648 and the conflict between France and Spain until 1659, but in the end a new order on the continent was established. This new order was embodied in the Treaty of the Pyrenees in 1659 which finally ended the war between France and Spain.
Meanwhile, an important act in the war was played out by the Swedes. After the battle of Wittstock, the Swedish army regained the initiative in the German campaign. In the Second Battle of Breitenfeld in 1642, outside Leipzig, the Swedish Field Marshal Lennart Torstenson defeated an army of the Holy Roman Empire led by Archduke Leopold Wilhelm of Austria and his deputy, Prince-General Ottavio Piccolomini, Duke of Amalfi. The Imperial army suffered 20,000 casualties. In addition, the Swedish army took 5,000 prisoners and seized 46 guns, at a cost to themselves of 4,000 killed or wounded. The battle enabled Sweden to occupy Saxony and impressed on Ferdinand III the need to include Sweden, and not only France, in any peace negotiations.
In 1643, Louis XIII died, leaving his five-year-old son Louis XIV on the throne. Mere days later, French General Louis II de Bourbon, 4th Prince de Condé, Duc d'Enghien, The Great Condé defeated the Spanish army at the Battle of Rocroi in 1643. The same year, however, the French were defeated by the Imperial and Catholic League forces at the battle of Tuttlingen. The chief minister of Louis XIII, Cardinal Mazarin, facing the domestic crisis of the Fronde in 1645, began working to end the war.
In 1643, Denmark made preparations to again intervene in the war, but on the Imperial side (against Sweden). The Swedish marshal Lennart Torstenson expelled Danish prince Frederick from Bremen-Verden, gaining a stronghold south of Denmark and hindering Danish participation as mediators in the peace talks in Westphalia. Torstensson went on to occupy Jutland, and after the Royal Swedish Navy under Carl Gustaf Wrangel inflicted a decisive defeat on the Danish Navy in the battle of Fehmern Belt in an action of 13 October 1644 forcing them to sue for peace. With Denmark out of the war, Torstenson then pursued the Imperial army under Gallas from Jutland in Denmark down to Bohemia. At the Battle of Jankau near Prague, the Swedish army defeated the Imperial army under Gallas and could occupy Bohemian lands and threaten Prague as well as Vienna.
In 1645, a French army under Turenne was almost destroyed by the Bavarians at the Battle of Herbsthausen. However, reinforced by Louis II de Bourbon, Prince de Condé, it defeated its opponent in the Second Battle of Nördlingen. The last Catholic commander of note, Baron Franz von Mercy, died in the battle. On the other hand, the French army's effort on the Rhine had little result, in contrast to its string of victories in Flanders and Artois. The same year, the Swedes entered Austria and besieged Vienna, but they could not take the city and had to retreat. The siege of Brünn in Bohemia proved as fruitless as the Swedish army met with fierce resistance from the Habsburg forces. After five months, the Swedish army, severely worn out, had to withdraw.
On 14 March 1647 Bavaria, Cologne, France and Sweden signed the Truce of Ulm. In 1648 the Swedes (commanded by Marshal Carl Gustaf Wrangel) and the French (led by Turenne and Condé) defeated the Imperial army at the Battle of Zusmarshausen and the Spanish at Lens. However, an Imperial army led by Octavio Piccolomini managed to check the Franco-Swedish army in Bavaria, though his position remained fragile. The Battle of Prague in 1648 became the last action of the Thirty Years' War. The general Hans Christoff von Königsmarck, commanding Sweden's flying column, entered the city and captured Prague Castle (where the event that triggered the war – the Defenestration of Prague – took place, 30 years before). There they captured many valuable treasures, including the Codex Gigas which is still today preserved in Stockholm. However they failed to conquer the right-bank part of Prague and the old city, which resisted until the end of the war. These results left only the Imperial territories of Austria safely in Habsburg hands.
Peace of Westphalia
Over a four-year period, the warring parties (Holy Roman Emperor, France and Sweden) were actively negotiating at Osnabrück and Münster in Westphalia. The end of the war was not brought about by one treaty but instead by a group of treaties such as the Treaty of Hamburg. On 15 May 1648, the Peace of Münster was signed ending the Thirty Years' War. Over five months later, on 24 October, the Treaties of Münster and Osnabrück were signed.
Casualties and disease
So great was the devastation brought about by the war that estimates put the reduction of population in the German states at about 25 to 40 percent. Some regions were affected much more than others. For example, Württemberg lost three-quarters of its population during the war. In the territory of Brandenburg, the losses had amounted to half, while in some areas an estimated two-thirds of the population died. The male population of the German states was reduced by almost half. The population of the Czech lands declined by a third due to war, disease, famine and the expulsion of Protestant Czechs. Much of the destruction of civilian lives and property was caused by the cruelty and greed of mercenary soldiers. Villages were especially easy prey to the marauding armies. Those that survived, like the small village of Drais near Mainz, would take almost a hundred years to recover. The Swedish armies alone may have destroyed up to 2,000 castles, 18,000 villages and 1,500 towns in Germany, one-third of all German towns.
The war caused serious dislocations to both the economies and populations of central Europe, but may have done no more than seriously exacerbate changes that had begun earlier. Also, some historians contend that the human cost of the war may actually have improved the living standards of the survivors. According to Ulrich Pfister, Germany was one of the richest countries in Europe per capita in 1500 but ranked far lower in 1600. Then, it recovered during the 1600–1660 period, in part thanks to the demographic shock of the Thirty Years' War.
Pestilence of several kinds raged among combatants and civilians in Germany and surrounding lands from 1618 to 1648. Many features of the war spread disease. These included troop movements, the influx of soldiers from foreign countries, and the shifting locations of battle fronts. In addition, the displacement of civilian populations and the overcrowding of refugees into cities led to both disease and famine. Information about numerous epidemics is generally found in local chronicles, such as parish registers and tax records, that are often incomplete and may be exaggerated. The chronicles do show that epidemic disease was not a condition exclusive to war time, but was present in many parts of Germany for several decades prior to 1618.
When the Danish and Imperial armies clashed in Saxony and Thuringia during 1625 and 1626, disease and infection in local communities increased. Local chronicles repeatedly referred to "head disease", "Hungarian disease", and a "spotted" disease identified as typhus. After the Mantuan War, between France and the Habsburgs in Italy, the northern half of the Italian peninsula was in the throes of a bubonic plague epidemic (see Italian Plague of 1629–1631). During the unsuccessful siege of Nuremberg, in 1632, civilians and soldiers in both the Swedish and Imperial armies succumbed to typhus and scurvy. Two years later, as the Imperial army pursued the defeated Swedes into southwest Germany, deaths from epidemics were high along the Rhine River. Bubonic plague continued to be a factor in the war. Beginning in 1634, Dresden, Munich, and smaller German communities such as Oberammergau recorded large numbers of plague casualties. In the last decades of the war, both typhus and dysentery had become endemic in Germany.
Among the great traumas abetted by the war, was a major outbreak of witchcraft persecutions. This violent wave of witch-hunting first erupted in the territories of Franconia following the first phase of the war. However, the hardship and turmoil the conflict had produced among the general population enabled the hysteria to spread quickly to other parts of Germany. Residents of areas that had been devastated not only by the conflict itself, but also by the numerous crop failures, famines and epidemics that accompanied it, were quick to attribute these calamities to various supernatural causes. In this tumultuous and highly volatile environment allegations of witchcraft against neighbors and fellow citizens flourished. The sheer volume of trials and executions during this time would mark the period as the peak of the European witch-hunting phenomenon.
The persecutions began in the Bishopric of Würzburg, then under the leadership of Prince-Bishop Phillip Adolf von Ehrenberg. An ardent devotee of the Counter-Reformation, Ehrenberg was eager to consolidate Catholic political authority in the territories he administered. Beginning in 1626, Ehrenberg staged numerous mass trials for witchcraft in which all levels of society (including the nobility and the clergy) found themselves targeted in a relentless series of purges. By 1630 it is estimated that 219 men, women and children were burned at the stake in the city of Würzburg itself, while elsewhere an additional 900 people were believed to have been killed in the rural areas of the province.
Concurrent with the events in Würzburg, Prince-Bishop Johann von Dornheim would embark upon a similar series of large-scale witch trials in the nearby territory of Bamberg. A specially designed Malefizhaus (witch house) was erected containing a torture chamber whose walls were adorned with Bible verses, in which to interrogate the accused. The Bamberg witch trials would drag on for years and claimed between 300 and 600 lives, among them Dorothea Flock and the city's long-time Bürgermeister (mayor) Johannes Junius. Meanwhile, in Upper Bavaria, 274 suspected witches were put to the torch in the Bishopric of Eichstatt in 1629 while another 50 perished in the adjacent Duchy of Palaitinate-Neuburg the same year.
Elsewhere, the persecutions arrived in the wake of the early Imperial military successes. The witch hunts would expand into Baden following its reconquest by Tilly, while the defeat of Protestantism in the Palatinate opened the way for their eventual spread to the Rhineland. The Rhenish electorates of Mainz and Trier would both witness mass-burnings of suspected witches during this time. In Cologne, that territory's Prince-Archbishop, Ferdinand of Bavaria, presided over a particularly infamous persecution that included the controversial trial and execution of Katharina Henot in 1627. During this time the witch-hunts also continued their unchecked growth, as new and increased incidents of alleged witchcraft began surfacing in the territories of Westphalia.
The witch-hunts reached their peak around the time of the Edict of Restitution in 1629 and much of the remaining institutional and popular enthusiasm for them faded quickly in the aftermath of Sweden's entry into the war the following year. However, in Würzburg the persecutions would continue until the death of Ehrenberg in July, 1631. The excesses of this period would inspire the Jesuit scholar and poet Father Friedrich Spee to author his scathing legal and moral condemnation of the witch trials, the Cautio Criminalis. This influential work would later be credited with bringing an end to the practice of witch-burning in some areas of Germany and its gradual abolition throughout Europe.
One result of the war was an increase in the autonomy of the constituent states of the Empire, limiting the power of the Emperor and decentralizing authority in German-speaking central Europe.
The Thirty Years' War rearranged the European power structure. The last decade of the conflict saw clear signs of Spain weakening. While Spain was fighting in France, Portugal — which had been under personal union with Spain for 60 years — acclaimed John IV of Braganza as king in 1640, and the House of Braganza became the new dynasty of Portugal (see Portuguese Restoration War, for further information). Meanwhile, Spain was forced to accept the independence of the Dutch Republic in 1648, ending the Eighty Years' War. Bourbon France challenged Habsburg Spain's supremacy in the Franco-Spanish War (1635–59); gaining definitive ascendancy in the War of Devolution (1667–68), and the Franco-Dutch War (1672–78), under the leadership of Louis XIV.
For Austria and Bavaria, the result of the war was ambiguous. Bavaria was defeated, devastated and occupied, but it won some territories at the peace of Westphalia. Austria had utterly failed in reasserting its authority in the empire but it had successfully suppressed Protestantism in its own dominions. Compared to large parts of Germany, most of its territory was not significantly devastated, and its army was stronger after the war than it was before, unlike that of most other states of the Empire. This, along with the shrewd diplomacy of Ferdinand III, allowed it to play an important role in the following decades and to regain some authority on the other German states in order to face the growing threats of the Ottoman Empire and France.
From 1643–45, during the last years of the Thirty Years' War, Sweden and Denmark fought the Torstenson War. The result of that conflict and the conclusion of the great European war at the Peace of Westphalia in 1648 helped establish post-war Sweden as a major force in Europe.
The arrangements agreed upon in the Peace of Westphalia were instrumental in laying the legal foundations of the modern sovereign nation-state. Aside from establishing fixed territorial boundaries for many of the countries involved in the ordeal (as well as for the newer ones created afterwards), the Peace of Westphalia changed the relationship of subjects to their rulers. Previously, many people had borne overlapping, sometimes conflicting political and religious allegiances. Henceforth the inhabitants of a given state were understood to be subject first and foremost to the laws and edicts of their respective state authority, not to the claims of any other entity, be it religious or secular.
The war also had more subtle consequences. It was the last major religious war in mainland Europe, ending the large-scale religious bloodshed accompanying the Reformation, which had begun over a century before. There were other religious conflicts in the years to come, but no great wars. Also, the depravations (such as the Schwedentrunk) and destruction caused by mercenary soldiers defied description; the resulting revulsion did much to end the age of Landsknecht mercenaries and to usher in the age of better disciplined national armies.
Outside of Europe
The war also had consequences abroad, as the European powers extended their rivalry via naval power to overseas colonies. In 1630, a Dutch fleet of 70 ships had taken the rich sugar-exporting areas of Pernambuco (Brazil) from the Portuguese though it would lose them by 1654. Fighting also took place in Africa and Asia. Ceylon was a case in point. The destruction of the Koneswaram temple of Trincomalee in 1624 and Ketheeswaram temple accompanied by an extensive campaign of destruction of five hundred Hindu shrines, the Saraswathi Mahal Library, many Buddhist temples and libraries and forced conversion to Roman Catholicism of Hindus and Buddhists conducted by the Portuguese upon their conquest of the Jaffna kingdom to the north of the island and Kingdom of Kotte in the south stand out as brutal consequences. Thus, the country witnessed echoes of battles of the Thirty Years' War and general hostilities of the Eighty Years' War; Phillip II and III of Portugal and later the Dutch and English used forts built from the destroyed temples, including Fort Fredrick in Trincomalee, and others in south of Ceylon as Colombo and Galle Fort to fight sea battles with the Dutch, Danish, the French and English, which saw the beginning of the loss of the sovereignty of the island to European powers.
Involved states (chart)
|Directly against Emperor|
|Indirectly against Emperor|
|Directly for Emperor|
|Indirectly for Emperor|
- Vida y hechos de Estebanillo González, hombre de buen humor, compuesta por él mismo (Antwerp, 1646). The last of the great Spanish Golden Age picaresque novels, set against the background of the Thirty Years' War and thought to be authored by a writer in the entourage of Ottavio Piccolomini. The main character crisscrosses Europe at war in his role as messenger, witnessing, among other events, the 1634 battle of Nordlingen.
- Simplicius Simplicissimus (1668) by Hans Jakob Christoffel von Grimmelshausen, one of the most important German novels of the 17th century, is the comic fictional autobiography of a half-German, half-Scottish peasant turned mercenary who serves under various powers during the war, based on the author's first-hand experience. An opera adaptation by the same name was produced in the 1930s, written by Karl Amadeus Hartmann.
- Daniel Defoe (1720). Memoirs of a Cavalier. "A Military Journal of the Wars in Germany, and the Wars in England. From the Years 1632 to 1648".
- G.A. Henty, The Lion of the North: The adventures of a Scottish lad during the Thirty Years’ War (2 vol., 1997 reprint). Available under a number of sub-title variants including a comic strip. Also Won By the Sword: A story of the Thirty Years' War.
- Friedrich Schiller's Wallenstein (play) trilogy (1799) is a fictional account of the downfall of this general.
- Alessandro Manzoni's I Promessi Sposi (1842) is an historical novel taking place in Italy in 1629. It treats a couple whose marriage is interrupted, among other things, by the Bubonic Plague, and other complications of 30 Years' War.
- Edmond Rostand's (1897) play Cyrano de Bergerac (act IV is set during the siege of Arras in 1640).
- Gertrud von le Fort's historical novel "Die Magdeburgische Hochzeit," a fictional account of romantic and political intrigue during the siege of Magdeburg.
- Alfred Döblin's sprawling historical novel Wallenstein (1920) is set in the Thirty Years' War and centers on the court of Holy Roman Emperor Ferdinand.
- Bertolt Brecht's play Mother Courage and Her Children, an anti-war theatre piece, is set during the Thirty Years' War.
- Queen Christina, the 1933 film starring Greta Garbo, opens with the death of Christina's father, King Gustavus Adolphus, at the Battle of Lützen in the Thirty Years' War. The subsequent plot of the film is entirely set against the backdrop of the war and her determination as Queen, as depicted a decade later, to end the war and bring about peace and resolution.
- The Last Valley (1971). A film starring Michael Caine and Omar Sharif, who discover a temporary haven from the Thirty Years' War. Written by J B Pick, a Scottish author.
- Das Treffen in Telgte (1979) trans. The Meeting at Telgte (1981) by Günther Grass, set in the aftermath of the war, sets out to make implicit parallels with the postwar Germany of the late 1940s.
- Michael Moorcock's novel, The War Hound and the World's Pain (1981) has as its central character Ulrich von Bek, a mercenary who took part in the sack of Magdeburg.
- Eric Flint's Ring of Fire series of novels deals with a temporally displaced American town from the early 21st century arriving in the early 1630s war torn Germany.
- Parts of Neal Stephenson's Baroque Cycle are set in lands devastated by the Thirty Years' War.
- Magdeburg by Heather Richardson (Belfast, Lagan Press, 2009) is a fictional account of the Sack of Magdeburg and its aftermath, and treats among other things the complexity of Lutheran and Catholic relationships and loyalties amongst both soldiers and civilians.
- In "The Hangman's Daughter" by Oliver Pötzsch the protagonist, hangman Jakob Kuisl, and other prominent characters have served in a General Tilly's army and participated in the massacre and sacking of the city of Magdeburg during the Thirty Years' War. "The Great War" and Swedish incursion into north-central Germany are frequently referenced.
- Hermann Löns' novel Der Wehrwolf is about an alliance of peasants using guerrilla tactics to fight the enemy during the Thirty Years' War.
- "Der Tag von Stadtlohn" novel about the real event of the rape and pillage of the town of Stadtlohn by Tylli's army August 1623
- "The Cavalier Club" (2015) begins with the siege of Pilsen in 1618, then journeys through the Battle of Lomnice and ends at the Battle of Zablati. ISBN 9780987144737.
War Scene, by Sebastian Vrancx
Battle of Sablat, 10 June 1619
Battle of Wimpfen, 6 May 1622
Battle of Fleurus of 29 August 1622
Battle of Stadtlohn, 6 August 1623
Siege of Stralsund, May to 4 August 1628
Sack of Magdeburg, 1631. Of the 30,000 citizens, only 5,000 survived.
Battle of Frankfurt an der Oder, April 1631
Battle of Rocroi, 1643
Unsuccessful Swedish siege of Brno, 1645
- List of wars and disasters by death toll
- Scotland and the Thirty Years' War
- Second Thirty Years' War
- At war with Spain 1625–30 (and France 1627–29). 6000 Englishmen also fought under Charles Morgan in the Danish campaigns. These were largely drawn from the famous English brigade of four regiments which were based in the Dutch Republic
- Scotland declared war and fought against Spain 1625–1630 and France 1627–1629, mostly conducting the war at sea. In addition to providing 2000 troops for the campaign against France in 1627, Scottish privateers harried French shipping and captured and occupied Nova Scotia, Cape Breton and Quebec. The Scottish Privy Council also provided warrants for 13,700 troops for Danish service who fought under Scottish flag with a Dannerbrog in the top left corner. These were led initially by the Catholic Robert Maxwell, Earl of Nithsdale and more famously by Donald Mackay Lord Reay. In 1630, 8000 more Britons, mostly Scots led by James 3rd Marquis Hamilton landed in Germany under British flag. They wre explicitly called the "British army" and had been raised on warrants issued by the English and Scottish Privy councils for allied service alongside Sweden. They joined an estimated 12,000 Scots already in Swedish service commanded by General Sir James Spens, Alexander Leslie, Patrick Ruthven and John Hepburn. The latter man led a Scottish brigade in France from 1634–1636 after which it fell under the control of the Douglas family. Throughout the entire period of the war, the Scots maintained a brigade of three regiments in Dutch service. The 1625–1638 period represents the period of greatest engagement, though Scots were active as allies in the anti-Habsburg alliance throughout the whole course of the war
- "into line with army of Gabriel Bethlen in 1620." Ágnes Várkonyi: Age of the Reforms, Magyar Könyvklub publisher, 1999. ISBN 963-547-070-3
- Russia supported Sweden against Poland-Lithuania (Smolensk War)
- Ervin Liptai: Military history of Hungary, Zrínyi Military Publisher, 1985. ISBN 9633263379
- Hussar (Huszár) hu.wikipedia
- Denmark fought Sweden and the Dutch Republic in the Torstenson War
- Helmolt, Hans Ferdinand (1903). The World's History: Western Europe to 1800. W. Heinemann. p. 573. ISBN 0-217-96566-0.
- Swedish Intervention
- Danish Military Intervention
- page 54 http://www.pikeandshotsociety.org/documents/article4.pdf "When the dutch army was increased to 77.000 in 1629 during the threatened Spanish invasion..."
- Gabriel Bethlen's army numbered 5,000 Hungarian pikemen and 1,000 German mercenary, with the anti-Habsburg Hungarian rebels numbered together approx. 35,000 men. László Markó: The Great Honors of the Hungarian State (A Magyar Állam Főméltóságai), Magyar Könyvklub 2000. ISBN 963-547-085-1
- László Markó: The Great Honors of the Hungarian State (A Magyar Állam Főméltóságai), Magyar Könyvklub 2000. ISBN 963-547-085-1
- Davis, Norman (1996). Europe, a history. Oxford University Press. p. 568. ISBN 978-0-7126-6633-6.
- Peter H. Wilson, Europe’s Tragedy: A New History of the Thirty Years War (London: Penguin, 2010), 787
- "Diets of Speyer (German history) – Britannica Online Encyclopedia". britannica.com. Retrieved 24 May 2008.
- Geoffrey Parker, The Thirty Years' War (Roultledge Pub.: London, 1997) pp. 17–18.
- "::The Peace of Prague::". historylearningsite.co.uk. Retrieved 24 May 2008.
- "Peace of Prague (1635) – Historic Event — German Archive: The Peace of Prague of 30 May 1635 was a treaty between the Holy Roman Emperor, Ferdinand II, and most of the Protestant states of the Empire. It effectively brought to an end the civil war aspect of the Thirty Years' War (1618–1648); however, the war still carried on due to the continued intervention on German soil of Spain, Sweden, and, from mid-1635, France.". germannotes.com. Retrieved 24 May 2008.[dead link]
- "The Thirty Years War". Pipeline. Retrieved 24 May 2008.
- "Frederick the Winter King. The Columbia Encyclopedia, Sixth Edition. 2001–07". bartleby.com. Retrieved 24 May 2008.
- C. V. Wedgwood, The Thirty Years' War (Penguin, 1957, 1961), p. 48.
- Pierre de l'Estoile, Journal pour le règne de Henri IV, Paris: Gallimard, p 84, 1960.
- C. V. Wedgwood, The Thirty Years' War (Penguin, 1957, 1961), p. 50.
- "The Defenestration of Prague " Criticality". steveedney.wordpress.com. Retrieved 25 May 2008.
- "Bohemian Revolt-30 Years War". Thirty Years War. Retrieved 25 May 2008.
- "Wars of the Western Civilization". visualstatistics.net. Retrieved 24 May 2008.
- T. Walter Wallbank, Alastair M. Taylor, Nels M. Bailkey, George F. Jewsbury, Clyde J. Lewis, Neil J. Hackett , Bruce Borland (Ed.) (1992). Civilization Past & Present Volume II. New York, N.Y: Harper Collins Publishers. pp. 15. The Development of the European State System: 1300–1650. ISBN 0-673-38869-7. Retrieved 23 May 2008.
- Kellie, Pallas Armata, p. 2a; Monro, His Expedition, vol. 1, p. 37.
- Joseph Polisensky, 'A Note on Scottish Soldiers in the Bohemian War, 1619–1622' in Steve Murdoch (ed.), Scotland and the Thirty Years' War, 1618–1648 (Brill, Leiden, 2001), pp.111–113
- Polisensky, 'A Note on Scottish Soldiers', p.113
- An economic and social history of the Ottoman Empire Halil İnalcık, Suraiya Faroqhi, Donald Quataert, Bruce McGowan, Sevket Pamuk, Cambridge University Press, 1997 ISBN 0-521-57455-2 p. 424–425 
- The winter king Brennan C. Pursell p.112-113. Google Books. Retrieved 18 May 2012.
- God's Playground: The origins to 1795 by Norman Davies p. Google Books. Retrieved 18 May 2012.
- History of the Ottoman Empire and modern Turkey by Ezel Kural Shaw p.191 
- Halil İnalcık, p.424-425. Google Books. 28 April 1997. Retrieved 18 May 2012.
- Leszek Podhorodecki: Chocim 1621, seria: Historyczne bitwy", MON, 1988.
- Polisensky, A Note on Scottish Soldiers', pp.113–114,
- Concerning Mansfeld, one of the greatest military enterprisers in the early years of the war (1618–1626) see Krüssmann, Ernst von Mansfeld, (doctoral thesis, Cologne 2007) Berlin 2010.
- Adam Marks, England, the English and the Thirty Years' War, 1618–1648, PhD thesis, University of St Andrews, 2012
- Lockhart, Paul Douglas (2007). Denmark, 1513–1660: the rise and decline of a Renaissance monarchy. Oxford University Press. p. 166. ISBN 0-19-927121-6. Retrieved 7 August 2009.
- "Danish Kings · Christian 4.". danskekonger.dk. Retrieved 24 May 2008.
- Paul D. Lockhart, Denmark, 1513–1660: the rise and decline of a Renaissance monarchy (Oxford University Press, 2007).
- Wilson, Peter. "Europe's Tragedy". Penguin, 2009, p. 400–433
- Murdoch and Grosjean, pp.43–46
- "Wallenstein Palace Gardens". prague-guide.co.uk. Archived from the original on 5 April 2008. Retrieved 24 May 2008.
- "The Danish interval". History.wisc.edu. Retrieved 18 May 2012.
- "CATHOLIC ENCYCLOPEDIA: Albrecht von Wallenstein". newadvent.org. Retrieved 24 May 2008.
- Lockhart, Paul Douglas (2007). Denmark, 1513–1660: the rise and decline of a Renaissance monarchy. Oxford University Press. p. 170. ISBN 0-19-927121-6. Retrieved 5 August 2009.
- Murdoch and Grosjean, pp.47–51
- Monro, His Expedition, vol. 1, pp. 77–8
- The Thirty-Years-War
- "Thirty Years War". hyperhistory.com. Retrieved 25 May 2008.
- "Lecture 6: Europe in the Age of Religious Wars, 1560–1715". historyguide.org. Retrieved 25 May 2008.
- "HistoryNet — From the World's Largest History Magazine Publisher » Thirty Years' War: Battle of Breitenfeld". historynet.com. Retrieved 24 May 2008.
- and Lützen: AD 1631–1632 "History of THE THIRTY YEARS' WAR" Check
|url=scheme (help). historyworld.net. Retrieved 25 May 2008.
- Dukes, Paul, ed. (1995). Muscovy and Sweden in the Thirty Years' War 1630–1635. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 9780521451390.
- "Soldater i trettioåriga kriget". Sfhm.se. Retrieved 18 May 2012.
- Alexia Grosjean, An Unofficial Alliance, p.106. NB Grosjean rounds down the previous figure of 35,000 Scots believing that that number is to high as it does not separate out the English and Irish contingents
- Murdoch and Grosjean, Alexander Leslie and the Scottish Generals, passim
- Thion, S. French Armies of the Thirty Years’ War (Auzielle: Little Round Top Editions, 2008).
- Murdoch, S., K. Zickermann and A. Marks, ‘The Battle of Wittstock 1636: Conflicting Reports on a Swedish Victory in Germany’, Northern Studies, vol. 43 (2012), pp. 71–109; Murdoch and Grosjean, pp.80–85.
- Geoffrey Parker, The Thirty Years' War (Routledge Press: London, 1984) p. 134.
- Rhea Marsh Smith, Spain: A Modern History (University of Michigan Press: Ann Arbor, Michigan, 1965) p. 195.
- Rhea Marsh Smith, Spain: A Modern History, p. 195.
- Geoffrey Parker, The Thirty Years' War, p. 153; Thion, French Armies, pp.108, 129
- Geoffrey Parker, The Thirty Years' War (Routledge Press: London, 1984) p. 153.
- Geoffrey Parker, The Thirty Years' War, p. 137.
- John A. Lynn, The Wars of Louis XIV (Longman Publishers: Harlow, England, 1999) p. 11.
- John A. Lynn, The Wars of Louis XIV: 1667–1714., pp. 11–12.
- Böhme, Klaus-R (2001). "Die sicherheitspolitische Lage Schwedens nach dem Westfälischen Frieden". In Hacker, Hans-Joachim. Der Westfälische Frieden von 1648: Wende in der Geschichte des Ostseeraums (in German). Kovač. p. 35. ISBN 3-8300-0500-8.
- "Franz, baron von Mercy – Britannica Online Encyclopedia". britannica.com. Retrieved 22 May 2008.
- French armies of the thirty years war, Stephane Thion
- "::The Thirty Years War::". Chris Atkinson. Retrieved 23 May 2008.
- End of the Eighty Years War "The Thirty Years War: The Peace of Westphalia" Check
|url=scheme (help). pipeline.com. Retrieved 23 May 2008.
- "Germany History Timeline". countryreports.org. Retrieved 24 May 2008.
- "History of Europe – Demographics". Encyclopædia Britannica.
- Thirty Years' War: Battle of Breitenfeld, HistoryNet
- "Germany — The Thirty Years' War — The Peace of Westphalia". About.com. Retrieved 24 May 2008.
- Prussia in the later 17th century, University of Wisconsin-Madison
- Coins of the Thirty Years' War, The Wonderful World of Coins, Journal of Antiques & Collectibles January Issue 2004
- "The Thirty Years' War — Czech republic". czech.cz. Archived from the original on 4 May 2008. Retrieved 24 May 2008.
- "Historical/Cultural Timeline – 1600s". College of Education, University of Houston. Retrieved 24 May 2008.
- "The Thirty Year War and its Consequences — Universitätsstadt Tübingen". tuebingen.de. Retrieved 23 May 2008.
- "Population". History Learningsite. Retrieved 24 May 2008.
- Germany after the Thirty Years' War, Boise State University
- "The Thirty Years' War". history-world.org. Retrieved 23 May 2008.
- German economic growth, 1500–1850, Pfister
- War and Pestilence, Time
- White, Matthew: The Great Big Book of Horrible Things W.W. Norton & co. New York, 2012 p.220
- Briggs, Robin:Witches and Neighbors: The Social and Political Context of European Witchcraft Penguin Books, New York 1996[page needed]
- The Path of the Devil: Early Modern Witch Hunts – Gary F. Jensen – Google Books. Books.google.com. Retrieved 5 August 2013.
- "Online Library of Liberty – 3: The European Witch-craze of the Sixteenth and Seventeenth Centuries – The Crisis of the Seventeenth Century". Oll.libertyfund.org. Retrieved 5 August 2013.
- Hugh Trevor-Roper: The Crisis of the Seventeenth Century. The European Witch-craze of the Sixteenth and Seventeenth Centuries (1967)[page needed]
- [Pamela Reilly, 'Friedrich von Spee's Belief in Witchcraft: Some Deductions from the "Cautio Criminalis", The Modern Language Review, Vol. 54, No. 1. (Jan. 1959), pp. 51–55.]
- Histoire de l'empire habsbourg, Jean Bérenger
- "Lecture 6: Europe in the Age of Religious Wars, 1560–1715". historyguide.org. Retrieved 27 May 2008.
- Gnanaprakasar, S. A critical history of Jaffna, pp. 153–72.
- "Portuguese Colonial Period (1505–645 CE)". Rohan Titus. Retrieved 7 December 2007.
- Åberg, A. (1973). "The Swedish army from Lützen to Narva". In Roberts, M. Sweden's Age of Greatness, 1632–1718. London: St. Martin's Press.
- Benecke, Gerhard (1978). Germany in the Thirty Years War. London: St. Martin's Press.
- Bonney, Richard. The Thirty Years' War 1618–1648 (Osprey, 2002), 96pp; focus on combat
- Dukes, Paul, ed. (1995) Muscovy and Sweden in the Thirty Years' War 1630–1635 Cambridge University Press.
- Grosjean, Alexia (2003) An Unofficial Alliance: Scotland and Sweden, 1569–1654, Brill, Leiden.
- Cramer, Kevin (2007). The Thirty Years' War & German Memory in the Nineteenth Century. Lincoln: University of Nebraska. ISBN 978-0-8032-1562-7.
- Gindely, Antonín (1884). History of the Thirty Years' War. Putnam.
- Gutmann, Myron P. (1988). "The Origins of the Thirty Years' War". Journal of Interdisciplinary History 18 (4): 749–770. doi:10.2307/204823.
- Kamen, Henry. "The Economic and Social Consequences of the Thirty Years' War," Past and Present (1968) 39#1 pp 44–61 in JSTOR
- Kennedy, Paul (1988). The Rise and Fall of the Great Powers: Economic Change and Military Conflict from 1500 to 2000. New York: Harper Collins.
- Langer, Herbert (1980). The Thirty Years' War. Poole, England: Blandford Press.
- Lynn, John A., The Wars of Louis XIV: 1667–1714 (Longman Publishers: Harlow, England, 1999).
- Murdoch, Steve (2001). Scotland and the Thirty Years' War, 1618–1648. Brill.
- Murdoch, S., K. Zickermann and A. Marks (2012), ‘The Battle of Wittstock 1636: Conflicting Reports on a Swedish Victory in Germany’, Northern Studies, vol. 43, pp. 71–109.
- Murdoch, Steve and Alexia Grosjean (2014), Alexander Leslie and the Scottish generals of the Thirty Years' War, 1618–1648 Pickering & Chatto, London
- Parker, Geoffrey (1984). The Thirty Years' War. London: Routledge and Kegan Paul.
- Parrott, D (2001) Richelieu’s Army: War, Government and Society in France, 1624–1642 Cambridge: CUP.
- Polišenský, J. V. (1954). "The Thirty Years' War". Past and Present 6: 31–43. doi:10.1093/past/6.1.31.
- Polišenský, J. V. (1968). "The Thirty Years' War and the Crises and Revolutions of Seventeenth-Century Europe". Past and Present 39: 34–43. doi:10.1093/past/39.1.34.
- Joseph Polisensky (2001), 'A Note on Scottish Soldiers in the Bohemian War, 1619–1622' in Steve Murdoch (ed.), Scotland and the Thirty Years' war, 1618–1648 Brill, Leiden, pp. 109–115.
- Prinzing, Friedrich (1916). Epidemics Resulting from Wars. Oxford: Clarendon Press.
- Rabb, Theodore K. "The Effects of the Thirty Years' War on the German Economy," Journal of Modern History (1962) 34#1 pp. 40–51 in JSTOR
- Roberts, Michael (1958). Gustavus Adolphus: A History of Sweden, 1611–1632. Longmans, Green and C°.
- Thion, S. (2008) French Armies of the Thirty Years’ War, Auzielle: Little Round Top Editions.
- Ward, A. W. (1902). The Cambridge Modern History, vol 4: The Thirty Years War.
- Wedgwood, C.V.; forward by Anthony Grafton, (2005). Thirty Years War. New York: The New York Review of Books, Inc. ISBN 1-59017-146-2.
- Wilson, Peter H. (2009). Europe's Tragedy: A History of the Thirty Years War. Allen Lane. ISBN 978-0-7139-9592-3.
- Sir Thomas Kellie, Pallas Armata or Military Instructions for the Learned, The First Part (Edinburgh, 1627).
- Monro, R. His Expedition with a worthy Scots Regiment called Mac-Keyes, (2 vols., London, 1637).
- Helfferich, Tryntje, ed. The Thirty Years' War: A Documentary History, (Indianapolis: Hackett, 2009). 352 pages. 38 key documents including diplomatic correspondence, letters, broadsheets, treaties, poems, and trial records. excerpt and text search
- Wilson, Peter H. ed. The Thirty Years' War: A Sourcebook (2010); includes state documents, treaties, correspondence, diaries, financial records, artwork; 240pp
- Dr Bernd Warlich has edited four diaries of the Thirty Years' War (1618–1648). These diaries can be viewed (in German) at: http://www.mdsz.thulb.uni-jena.de/sz/index.php
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Thirty Years War.|
|Wikisource has the text of the 1911 Encyclopædia Britannica article Thirty Years' War.|
- The Thirty Years' War – Czech republic
- Thirty Years' War – LoveToKnow 1911
- The Thirty Years' War – The Catholic Encyclopedia
- The Thirty Years' War LearningSite
- Thirty Years' War Timeline
- Project "Peace of Westphalia" (among others with Essay Volumes of the 26th Exhibition of the Council of Europe "1648: War and Peace in Europe", 1998/99)
- History of the Thirty Years' War by Friedrich von Schiller at Project Gutenberg
- The Thirty Years' War
- BBC Radio4 documentary – The Invention of Germany: The Thirty Years' War and Magdeburg