|Millennium:||1st millennium BC|
|310 BC by topic|
|Gregorian calendar||310 BC|
|Ab urbe condita||444|
|Ancient Egypt era||XXXIII dynasty, 14|
|- Pharaoh||Ptolemy I Soter, 14|
|Ancient Greek era||117th Olympiad, year 3|
|Balinese saka calendar||N/A|
|Chinese calendar||庚戌年 (Metal Dog)|
2387 or 2327
— to —
辛亥年 (Metal Pig)
2388 or 2328
|Coptic calendar||−593 – −592|
|Ethiopian calendar||−317 – −316|
|- Vikram Samvat||−253 – −252|
|- Shaka Samvat||N/A|
|- Kali Yuga||2791–2792|
|Iranian calendar||931 BP – 930 BP|
|Islamic calendar||960 BH – 959 BH|
|Minguo calendar||2221 before ROC|
|Seleucid era||2/3 AG|
|Thai solar calendar||233–234|
−183 or −564 or −1336
— to —
−182 or −563 or −1335
Year 310 BC was a year of the pre-Julian Roman calendar. At the time, it was known as the Year of the Consulship of Rullianus and Censorinus (or, less frequently, year 444 Ab urbe condita). The denomination 310 BC for this year has been used since the early medieval period, when the Anno Domini calendar era became the prevalent method in Europe for naming years.
- Antigonus orders Nicanor, one of his generals, to invade Babylonia from the east and his son Demetrius Poliorcetes to attack it from the west. Nicanor assembles a large force but it is surprised and defeated by Seleucus at the river Tigris, and his troops are either cut to pieces or defect to the enemy. Similarly, Demetrius Poliorcetes fails to oust Seleucus.
- Ptolemy attacks Cilicia, territory held by Antigonus.
- The cities of Antigonia Troas (later known as Alexandria Troas) and Antigoneia (later known as Nicaea) are founded by Antigonus I Monophthalmus.
Sicily and Africa
- The tyrant of Syracuse Agathocles escapes from the siege of the city by the Carthaginians with a fleet and carries the war with the Carthaginians back into his enemy's territory. He defeats the Carthaginians in the Battle of White Tunis.
- Rome deals with renewed trouble from the Etruscans, who are persuaded by the Samnites to cease their alliance with the Romans. In the Battle of Lake Vadimo, the Romans under Fabius Maximus Rullianus defeat the Etruscans.
- Aristarchus of Samos, Greek astronomer and mathematician (approximate date) (d. c. 230 BC)
- Huiwen of Zhao, Chinese king of Zhao (Warring States Period) (d. 266 BC)
- Xun Zi, Chinese philosopher (approximate date) (d. c. 230 BC)
- Pytheas, Greek merchant, geographer and explorer from the Greek colony Massilia (today Marseille) (b. c. 380 BC)
- Nicocles (Paphos) king of Paphos