The 310s decade ran from January 1, 310, to December 31, 319.
- 1 Events
- 1.1 310
- 1.2 311
- 1.3 312
- 1.4 313
- 1.5 314
- 1.6 315
- 1.7 316
- 1.8 317
- 1.9 318
- 1.10 319
- 2 Significant people
- 3 Births
- 4 Deaths
- 5 References
- Maximian, retired co-emperor, rebels against Constantine the Great while campaigning against the Franks. He attempts to make himself emperor at Arles. Constantine marches his army along the Rhine and embarks his troops at Chalon-sur-Saône. Maximian flees to Marseille and is captured. Constantine encourages his suicide and Maximian, age 60, hangs himself.
- Maximinus II and Constantine I are declared filii Augustorum ("Sons of the Augusti"). For the first time four emperors administer the Roman Empire.
- Constantine constructs near the town of Colonia Claudia Ara Agrippinensium (Cologne) a stone bridge over the Rhine, which is guarded by the castellum Divitia (modern Deutz).
- Constantine begins to build the Basilica of Constantine in Augusta Treverorum (Trier).
- A large Pictish raid southwards is attempted.
- Constantine at Trier orders the minting of a new coin, the solidus, in an effort to offset the declining value of the denarius and bring stability to the imperial currency by restoring a gold standard. The solidus (later known as the bezant) will be minted in the Byzantine Empire without change in weight or purity until the 10th century.
- April 18, 309 or 310 – Pope Eusebius succeeds Pope Marcellus I as the 31st pope, but is banished on August 17 by the Emperor Maxentius to Sicily, where he dies, perhaps from a hunger strike.
- April 30 – Emperor Galerius declares on his deathbed religious freedom and issues his Edict of Toleration, ending persecution of Christians in the Eastern part of the Roman Empire.
- May 5 – Emperor Galerius dies, age 51, from a gruesome disease, possibly bowel cancer or Fournier gangrene.
- Maximinus II divides the Eastern Empire between co-emperor Licinius, and mobilises his army for a campaign in Asia Minor. He recommences the persecution of Christians.
- Maxentius, Roman usurper, reconquers the African provinces from Domitius Alexander.
- Maxentius builds the Circus of Maxentius near the Via Appia. The circus is 513 meters long and 91 meters wide, and offers an accommodation to some 10,000 people.
- December 3 – Diocletianus dies at his palace in Split (Croatia). Possibly he commits suicide.
- Jin Huaidi, emperor of the Jin Dynasty, is captured at Luoyang. The capital city is pillaged by Liu Cong, ruler of the Xiongnu state (Huns), the invaders slaughter 30,000 citizens.
- July 2 – Pope Miltiades succeeds Pope Eusebius as the 32nd pope.
- The Donatist schism occurs in the African church.
- Constantine the Great crosses the Cottian Alps with an army (40,000 men) and auxiliaries. He defeats Maxentius in three battles at Turin, Brescia and Verona. Maxentius's most senior commander Ruricius Pompeianus is killed during the fightings.
- October 28 – Battle of the Milvian Bridge: Constantine I defeats usurper Maxentius at the Milvian Bridge and becomes the only Roman emperor in the West. During the battle, he reportedly has a vision of a cross (labarum) with the phrase "in hoc signo vinces" ("In this sign you shall conquer").
- October 29 – Constantine I enters Rome; he stages a grand adventus in the city, and is met with popular jubilation. Maxentius' body is fished out of the Tiber and decapitated.
- Constantine I forges an alliance with co-emperor Licinius, and offers him his halfsister Constantia in marriage. The Praetorian Guard and Imperial Horse Guard (equites singulares Augusti) are disbanded.
- Construction begins on the Arch of Constantine in Rome. On a sculptural relief Constantine I addresses the people in the Roman Forum (approximate date).
- Constantine I adopts the words "in hoc signo vinces" as a motto and have the letters X and P (the first letters of the Greek word Christ) emblazoned on the shields of his soldiers.
- The Council of Carthage supports Donatism, which espouses a rigorous application and interpretation of the sacraments. These doctrines will be condemned by the Council of Arles (314).
- Constantine I promotes a policy of state sponsorship of Christianity, perhaps even becoming a Christian himself (see Constantine the Great and Christianity).
- February 3 – Edict of Milan: Constantine the Great and co-emperor Licinius meet at a conference in Mediolanum (modern Milan). They proclaim a policy of religious freedom for all, ending the persecution of Christians in the Roman Empire and returning property confiscated from Christians. 
- Emperor Maximinus II crosses the Bosphorus with an army of 70,000 men and lays siege to Heraclea (Turkey). He captures the city after eight days.
- April 30 – Battle of Tzirallum: Licinius defeats his rival Maximinus II and becomes Emperor of the Eastern Roman Empire. Maximinus flees to Nicomedia and commits suicide.
- March 14 – Emperor Jin Huidi is executed by Liu Cong, ruler of the Xiongnu state (Han Zhao). At the imperial new year he and a number of former Jin officials are poisoned. Crown prince Jin Mindi, age 13, succeeds in Chang'an his uncle Jin Huidi and becomes the new emperor of the Jin dynasty.
- Nintoku, the fourth son of Ōjin, becomes the 16th emperor of Japan.
- Basilica of Maxentius and Constantine (Basilica Nova), Rome, is finished.
- February 3 – Edict of Milan: Constantine the Great and co-emperor Licinius meet at a conference in Mediolanum (modern Milan). They proclaim a policy of religious freedom for all, ending the persecution of Christians in the Roman Empire and returning property confiscated from Christians.
- October 2 – Lateran Synod: Donatism is declared a heresy.
- Arius preaches of the human nature of Jesus.
- October 8 – Battle of Cibalae: Constantine the Great defeats his rival Licinius near the town of Colonia Aurelia Cibalae (modern Vinkovci, Croatia). Licinius is forced to flee to Sirmium, and loses all of the Balkans except for Thrace. Peace negotiations are initiated between the two Augusti, but they are unsuccessful.
- A large Pictish raid southwards is attempted.
- January 11 – Pope Miltiades' reign ends.
- January 31 – Pope Sylvester I succeeds Pope Miltiades as the 33rd pope.
- August 30 – Council of Arles: Confirms the pronouncement of Donatism as a schism, and passes other canons.
- Synod of Ancyra: Consulting a magician is declared a sin earning five years of penance.
- Alexander becomes Bishop of Byzantium.
- Constantine the Great and co-emperor Licinius battle the Sarmates, the Goths and the Carpians along the Danube. Constantine leads a punitive expedition into Dacia and reestablished the Roman fortifications of the frontier.
- July 25 – The Arch of Constantine is completed near the Colosseum at Rome to commemorate Constantine's victory over Maxentius at the Milvian Bridge. As part of the ceremony Constantine is expected to make a sacrifice to Rome's traditional gods, but he refuses to do so.
- Constantine I dedicates the Basilica of Maxentius and installs a large statue of himself inside it.
- Crucifixion is abolished as punishment in the Roman Empire.
- A program of assistance to the poor is established in the Roman Empire.
- Immense baths are constructed in Augusta Treverorum (modern Trier).
- Eusebius becomes bishop of Caesarea (approximate date).
- The lamb becomes the symbol of Jesus in Christian art.
- Emperor Constantine the Great issues an edict prohibiting the punishment of slaves by crucifixion and facial branding.
- Constantine I sends his half-brother Julius Constantius to Licinius at Sirmium (Pannonia), with the proposal to accept Bassianus as Caesar and his power over Italy. Licinius refuses and forces a conspiracy against Constantine.
- Licinius elevates Valerius Valens to Augustus, and mobilises an army against Constantine. Bassianus is accused of conspiracy and executed.
- December – Battle of Mardia: Constantine I defeats his rival Licinius and senior officier Valerius Valens near the town of Harmanli (Bulgaria).
- The Xiongnu sack Chang'an, capital of the Chinese Western Jin Dynasty. Emperor Jin Mindi surrenders to Liu Yao.
- The Western Jin Dynasty ends and Ancient China is divided.
- At the request of the Roman Catholic Church, Constantine I attempts to end the schism with the Donatist church.
- March 1 – Emperor Constantine the Great and co-emperor Licinius elevate their sons Crispus, Constantine II (being still a baby) and Licinius II to Caesars. After this arrangement Constantine rules the dioceses Pannonia and Macedonia, and establishes his residence at Sirmium, from where he prepares a campaign against the Goths and Sarmatians.
- Licinius recognises Constantine I as senior emperor and executes Valerius Valens.
- Sixteen Kingdoms: Jin Yuandi flees with remnants of the Jin court and noble families to the south. He succeeds Jin Mindi as first emperor of the Eastern Jin Dynasty, and decides to make Jiankang (modern Nanjing) his new capital.
- The earliest historically verified reference to tea is recorded, although the Chinese have been drinking the beverage for centuries.
- Emperor Constantine the Great gives the ancient Roman town Drepana (Asia Minor) the name Helenopolis, after his mother Helena, and builds a church in honour of the martyr St. Lucian.
- Emperor Constantine the Great is given the title Brittanicus Maximus, for successful engagements in Britain (the details of which are unknown).
- The Chinese Empire loses its territories to the north of the Yangtze River, to the benefit of the Xiongnu and the Xianbei. The Former Zhao state is proclaimed; Liu Can and the state ruling family at Pingyang are executed in a coup d'état by Jin Zhun, who is in turn overthrown by Shi Le and Liu Yao.
- Liu Yao becomes the new emperor of Han Zhao and moves his capital to Chang'an.
- Emperor Constantine the Great prohibits the separation of the families of slaves during a change in ownership.
- Arius travels to Nicomedia at the invitation of bishop Eusebius, after having been accused of heresy and condemned by Alexander, the Patriarch of Alexandria. This gives rise to the Arian Controversy.
- Tiridates III, King of Armenia (287–330)
- Ousanas, King of Axum (c.310-c.320)
- Huai, Emperor of China (307 - 313)
- Min, Emperor of China (313 - 317)
- Yuan, Emperor of China (317 - 322)
- Fíacha Sroiptine, High King of Ireland (285-322)
- Ōjin, Emperor of Japan, 270-310
- Nintoku, Emperor of Japan, 313-399
- Shapur II, Sassanid dynasty King of Persia (309-379)
- Galerius, Roman Emperor (305-311)
- Constantine, Roman Emperor (306-337)
- Maxentius, Roman Emperor (306-312)
- Licinius, Roman Emperor (308-324)
- Maximinus II, Roman Emperor (311-313)
- Alexander of Byzantium, Bishop of Byzantium (314-337)
- Pope Eusebius, Pope of the Roman Catholic Church (309-310)
- Metrophanes of Byzantium, Bishop of Byzantium (306-314)
- Miltiades, Pope of the Roman Catholic Church (311-314)
- Sylvester I, Pope of the Roman Catholic Church (314-335)
- Girim, King of Silla (298–310)
- Heulhae, King of Silla (310–356)
This section needs expansion. You can help by adding to it. (March 2016)
- Flavius Claudius Constantinus, better known as Constantine II. Born in 316, he would become a Roman emperor.
- Flavius Julius Constantius, better known as Constantius II. Born in 317, he would become a Roman emperor.
This section needs expansion. You can help by adding to it. (March 2016)
- Maximian, Roman emperor. Died in 310. He had voluntary abdicated the throne in 305, in order to retire from politics. He changed his mind and devoted the rest of his life to (mostly failed) attempts at regaining his throne.
- Galerius, Roman emperor. Died in 311.
- Diocletian, Roman emperor. Died in 311. He had voluntary abdicated the throne in 305, and spend the rest of his life in retirement.
- Maxentius, Roman emperor. Died in 312, a casualty of the Battle of the Milvian Bridge.
- Maximinus II, Roman emperor. Died in 313.
- Valerius Valens, Roman emperor. Died in 317.
- Frend, W. H. C. The Early Church SPCK 1965, p. 137