|Millennium:||1st millennium BC|
|317 BC by topic|
|Gregorian calendar||317 BC
|Ab urbe condita||437|
|Ancient Egypt era||XXXIII dynasty, 7|
|- Pharaoh||Ptolemy I Soter, 7|
|Ancient Greek era||115th Olympiad, year 4|
|Balinese saka calendar||N/A|
|Chinese calendar||癸卯年 (Water Rabbit)
2380 or 2320
— to —
甲辰年 (Wood Dragon)
2381 or 2321
|Coptic calendar||−600 – −599|
|Ethiopian calendar||−324 – −323|
|- Vikram Samvat||−260 – −259|
|- Shaka Samvat||N/A|
|- Kali Yuga||2784–2785|
|Iranian calendar||938 BP – 937 BP|
|Islamic calendar||967 BH – 966 BH|
|Minguo calendar||2228 before ROC
|Thai solar calendar||226–227|
−190 or −571 or −1343
— to —
−189 or −570 or −1342
Year 317 BC was a year of the pre-Julian Roman calendar. At the time, it was known as the Year of the Consulship of Brutus and Barbula (or, less frequently, year 437 Ab urbe condita). The denomination 317 BC for this year has been used since the early medieval period, when the Anno Domini calendar era became the prevalent method in Europe for naming years.
- Seleucus joins Antigonus against Eumenes and recaptures Babylon.
- Battle of Paraitacene: The first battle of Western armies each with an elephant corps who fights for control over Alexander's empire.
- Armenia's Persian satrap, Ardvates, frees his country from Macedonian control.
- After capturing Athens from Macedonia's regent Polyperchon, Cassander entrusts the government of Athens to the Athenian orator, statesman, and philosopher, Demetrius Phalereus.
- Polyperchon flees to Epirus, where he joins Alexander the Great's mother Olympias, Alexander's widow Roxana, and Alexander's infant son Alexander IV. He forms an alliance with Olympias, who is acting as regent for Alexander IV, and King Aeacides of Epirus.
- While Cassander is occupied in the Peloponnesus, Olympias leads an army into Macedonia. She is initially successful, defeating the army of King Philip III Arrhidaeus and captures King Philip and his wife, Eurydice, as well as Cassander's brother, Nicanor, and has them murdered.
- Ptolemy marries Berenice, lady-in-waiting to Eurydice, wife of Ptolemy.
- Acestorides, a native of Corinth, is made supreme commander by the citizens of Syracuse.
- After twice being banished for attempting to overthrow the oligarchical party, Agathocles returns with an army and banishes or murders about 10,000 citizens (including the oligarchs), and sets himself up as tyrant of Syracuse. Acestorides is banished from the city.
- Private funeral monuments are banned in Athenian cemeteries.