3199 Nefertiti

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3199 Nefertiti
Discovery [1]
Discovered by C. Shoemaker
E. Shoemaker
Discovery site Palomar Obs.
Discovery date 13 September 1982
MPC designation (3199) Nefertiti
Pronunciation /nɛfərˈtti/ nef-ər-TEE-tee
Named after
Nefertiti (Egyptian queen)[2]
1982 RA
Amor · NEO[1][3]
Orbital characteristics[1]
Epoch 16 February 2017 (JD 2457800.5)
Uncertainty parameter 0
Observation arc 34.30 yr (12,529 days)
Aphelion 2.0218 AU
Perihelion 1.1274 AU
1.5746 AU
Eccentricity 0.2840
1.98 yr (722 days)
0° 29m 55.68s / day
Inclination 32.967°
Earth MOID 0.2167 AU · 84.4 LD
Physical characteristics
Dimensions 2.18 km (derived)[4]
2.2 km (Gehrels)[1]
2.82 h[5]
3.01 h[6]
3.020167 h[7]
3.021±0.002 h[8]
3.021 h[9]
0.326 (derived)[4]
0.42 (Gehrels)[1]
B–V = 0.895[1]
U–B = 0.418[1]
S (Tholen), [1] · Sq (SMASS)[1] · K[10] · Q[11] · S[12][4]
14.00[12] · 14.84[1] · 15.02[5] · 15.12±0.50[11] · 15.13[9] · 15.14[4][6]

3199 Nefertiti, provisional designation 1982 RA, is a rare-type asteroid, classified as near-Earth object of the Amor group of asteroids, approximately 2.2 kilometers in diameter. It was discovered on 13 September 1982, by American astronomer couple Carolyn and Eugene Shoemaker at Palomar Observatory, California, United States.[3]

Nefertiti orbits the Sun at a distance of 1.1–2.0 AU once every 1 years and 12 months (722 days). Its orbit has an eccentricity of 0.28 and an inclination of 33° with respect to the ecliptic.[1] It has an Earth minimum orbital intersection distance of 0.2167 AU (32,400,000 km), or 84.4 lunar distances. As no precoveries were taken, and no prior identifications were made, the body's observation arc begins with its official discovery observation at Palomar in 1982.[3]

In the Tholen and SMASS taxonomy, Nefertiti is a stony S-type and transitional Sq-type, respectively. In addition, its spectral type is also that of a bright and rare K and Q type, according to Spitzer and PanSTARRS.[10][11] The Collaborative Asteroid Lightcurve Link derives an albedo of 0.326 and a diameter of 2.18 kilometers using an absolute magnitude of 15.14.[4]

Several rotational light-curves of Nefertiti have been obtained from photometric observations. In descending order of quality, rotation periods were derived by Czech astronomer Petr Pravec in the 1990s (3.021 hours; Δ0.30 mag; U=3),[9] at the Italian Padova and Catania observatories in February 2003 (3.021 hours; Δ0.19 mag; U=3-),[8] by Polish astronomer Wiesław Z. Wiśniewski in the 1980s (2.82 hours; Δ0.12 mag; U=2),[5] by Finnish physicist Mikko Kaasalainen (3.020167 hours; Δmag n.a.; U=n.a.),[7] and by Harris at JPL/Caltech in the 1980s (3.01 hours; Δ0.1 mag; U=n.a.).[6]

This minor planet was named for the ancient Egyptian queen Nefertiti (ca. 1370–1330 BC), mother-in-law of pharaoh Tutankhamun and Chief King's Wife of Akhenaten of the 18th dynasty. Nefertiti and her "heretic" husband are believed to be responsible for a religious revolution, creating a new monotheistic religion, in which they only worshiped the sun disc god Aten.[2] Another minor planet, 1068 Nofretete is also named for her, using a different spelling. Naming citation was published on 27 December 1985 (M.P.C. 10311).[13]


  1. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k "JPL Small-Body Database Browser: 3199 Nefertiti (1982 RA)" (2017-01-01 last obs.). Jet Propulsion Laboratory. Retrieved 9 January 2017. 
  2. ^ a b Schmadel, Lutz D. (2007). Dictionary of Minor Planet Names – (3199) Nefertiti. Springer Berlin Heidelberg. p. 265. ISBN 978-3-540-00238-3. Retrieved 9 January 2017. 
  3. ^ a b c "3199 Nefertiti (1982 RA)". Minor Planet Center. Retrieved 9 January 2017. 
  4. ^ a b c d e "LCDB Data for (3199) Nefertiti". Asteroid Lightcurve Database (LCDB). Retrieved 9 January 2017. 
  5. ^ a b c Wisniewski, W. Z. (June 1987). "Photometry of six radar target asteroids". Icarus: 566–572. Bibcode:1987Icar...70..566W. doi:10.1016/0019-1035(87)90096-0. ISSN 0019-1035. Retrieved 9 January 2017. 
  6. ^ a b c Harris, A. W.; Young, J. W. (June 1985). "Photometric Results for Earth Approaching Asteroids.". Bulletin of the American Astronomical Society. 17: 726. Bibcode:1985BAAS...17R.726H. Retrieved 9 January 2017. 
  7. ^ a b Kaasalainen, Mikko; Pravec, Petr; Krugly, Yurij N.; Sarounová, Lenka; Torppa, Johanna; Virtanen, Jenni; et al. (January 2004). "Photometry and models of eight near-Earth asteroids". Icarus. 167 (1): 178–196. Bibcode:2004Icar..167..178K. doi:10.1016/j.icarus.2003.09.012. Retrieved 9 January 2017. 
  8. ^ a b Gandolfi, D.; Cigna, M.; Fulvio, D.; Blanco, C. (January 2009). "CCD and photon-counting photometric observations of asteroids carried out at Padova and Catania observatories". Planetary and Space Science. 57 (1): 1–9. Bibcode:2009P&SS...57....1G. doi:10.1016/j.pss.2008.09.014. Retrieved 9 January 2017. 
  9. ^ a b c Pravec, P.; Wolf, M.; Sarounová, L.; Mottola, S.; Erickson, A.; Hahn, G.; et al. (December 1997). "The Near-Earth Objects Follow-Up Program". Icarus. 130 (2): 275–286. Bibcode:1997Icar..130..275P. doi:10.1006/icar.1997.5816. Retrieved 9 January 2017. 
  10. ^ a b Thomas, Cristina A.; Emery, Joshua P.; Trilling, David E.; Delbó, Marco; Hora, Joseph L.; Mueller, Michael (January 2014). "Physical characterization of Warm Spitzer-observed near-Earth objects". Icarus. 228: 217–246. arXiv:1310.2000Freely accessible. Bibcode:2014Icar..228..217T. doi:10.1016/j.icarus.2013.10.004. Retrieved 9 January 2017. 
  11. ^ a b c Veres, Peter; Jedicke, Robert; Fitzsimmons, Alan; Denneau, Larry; Granvik, Mikael; Bolin, Bryce; et al. (November 2015). "Absolute magnitudes and slope parameters for 250,000 asteroids observed by Pan-STARRS PS1 - Preliminary results". Icarus. 261: 34–47. arXiv:1506.00762Freely accessible. Bibcode:2015Icar..261...34V. doi:10.1016/j.icarus.2015.08.007. Retrieved 9 January 2017. 
  12. ^ a b Carry, B.; Solano, E.; Eggl, S.; DeMeo, F. E. (April 2016). "Spectral properties of near-Earth and Mars-crossing asteroids using Sloan photometry". Icarus. 268: 340–354. Bibcode:2016Icar..268..340C. doi:10.1016/j.icarus.2015.12.047. Retrieved 9 January 2017. 
  13. ^ "MPC/MPO/MPS Archive". Minor Planet Center. Retrieved 9 January 2017. 

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