31st Armoured Brigade
|31st Armoured Brigade|
|Engagements||Western Front (1944–45)|
|Formation sign of the 31st Armoured Brigade|
The 31st Army Tank Brigade was formed in the UK on 15 January 1941, in Northern Command and comprised the 9th Royal Tank Regiment and 10th Royal Tank Regiment. The 141st Regiment Royal Armoured Corps (141 RAC) was added on 8 November 1941 and on 29 November the brigade was transferred to South Eastern Command.
In May 1942 the unit was renamed the 31st Tank Brigade and was transferred to the 53rd (Welsh) Infantry Division, as part as an experimental "mixed" formation of a tank and two infantry brigades. The experiment ended on 10 September 1943, as it was judged unsuitable for the terrain in north-western Europe. On 1 April 1943, the 10th RTR was renamed 7th Royal Tank Regiment, after the original was destroyed at the Battle of Gazala (May–June 1942). The 31st Tank Brigade, equipped with Churchill tanks, was a follow-up unit in the Normandy landings, arriving in northern France on 19 June 1944. The brigade supported the 15th (Scottish) Infantry Division until the end of July, in operations to capture the town of Caen.
The 141st Regiment RAC had been detached from the brigade on 21 June, to re-equip with the Churchill Crocodile flame-throwing tank and it was also decided to convert the rest of the brigade to the "Crocodile". The 7th RTR was detached from the brigade on 17 August 1944 and was briefly replaced by 144th Regiment Royal Armoured Corps on 23 August. The 144th RAC and 9 RTR were detached on 31 August and on 4 September the brigade was transferred to the 79th Armoured Division, where the 141st Regiment RAC rejoined and was brought back up to strength with the addition of 11th Royal Tank Regiment and the 1st Battalion, Fife and Forfar Yeomanry on 2 November. The 11th RTR was detached on 22 December and replaced by the 49th Armoured Personnel Carrier Regiment and the 1st Canadian Armoured Personnel Carrier Regiment equipped with the "Kangaroo", a tank with its gun turret removed, for use as an armoured personnel carrier.
On 2 February 1945 the unit became the 31st Armoured Brigade. The 7th RTR, with its Crocodiles, returned on 14 February and the brigade, as part of the 79th Armoured Division, played its part in the Operation Plunder, the crossing of the Rhine, on 24 March. On 15 April, the Western Allied invasion of Germany began; the LVT Buffaloes of the 4th Royal Tank Regiment (formerly the 144th Regiment Royal Armoured Corps) was added to the brigade and was augmented by the Sherman DD tanks of the Staffordshire Yeomanry from 18 to 28 April.
Germany surrendered on 8 May 1945 (V-E Day) and week later, the brigade lost the 1st Canadian APC Regiment. The Fife and Forfar Yeomanry were detached on 6 June and were replaced by the Royal Scots Greys. As part of the occupation forces of the British Army of the Rhine, the 31st Brigade slowly disbanded, losing the 4th RTR on 9 June 1945, the 49th APC on 1 July, the 7th RTR on 23 August and the 141st Regiment RAC on 27 August. The 3rd Royal Tank Regiment joined on 28 August but on 31 August they and the Greys were detached from the 31st Armoured Brigade, bringing an end to the formation.
Order of battle
|9th Royal Tank Regiment||15 January 1941||31 August 1944|
|10th Royal Tank Regiment
(renamed 7th Royal Tank Regiment, 22 February 1943)
|15 January 1941||17 August 1944|
|14 February 1945||31 August 1945|
|141st Regiment Royal Armoured Corps||8 November 1941||21 June 1944|
|4 September 1944||27 August 1945|
|144th Regiment Royal Armoured Corps||23 August 1944||31 August 1944|
|1st Battalion, Fife and Forfar Yeomanry||2 November 1944||6 June 1945|
|11th Royal Tank Regiment||2 November 1944||22 December 1944|
|49th Armoured Personnel Carrier Regiment||22 December 1944||1 July 1945|
|1st Canadian Armoured Personnel Carrier Regiment||22 December 1944||15 May 1945|
|4th Royal Tank Regiment
(formerly 144th Regiment Royal Armoured Corps until 1 March 1945)
|15 April 1945||9 June 1945|
|Staffordshire Yeomanry||18 April 1945||28 April 1945|
|Royal Scots Greys||6 June 1945||31 August 1945|
|3rd Royal Tank Regiment||28 August 1945||31 August 1945|
- Brigadier T. D. Murray (15 January 1941 – 1 March 1941)
- Brigadier T. R. Price (1 March 1941 – 24 August 1942)
- Brigadier G. S. Knight (24 August 1942 – 18 April 1945)
- Brigadier A. W. Brown (18 April 1945 – 31 August 1945)
- "31 Army Tank Brigade: Unit Honours". Orders of Battle Military Unit Database. Retrieved 30 November 2016.
- Cole 1973, p. 126.
- "Organization of British Tank Brigades 1939–1945" (PDF). Combined Arms Research Library. U.S. Army. Retrieved 30 November 2016.
- "9th Royal Tank Regiment". The Royal Tank Regiment Association. Retrieved 30 November 2016.
- Barclay (1956), p. 47.
- Barclay (1956), p. 52.
- "Organization of British Armored Brigades 1939–1945" (PDF). Combined Arms Research Library. U.S. Army. Retrieved 30 November 2016.
- New, Laurence. "1943–1947". The History of the 4th and 7th Royal Tank Regiments. Retrieved 30 November 2016.
- "31 Armoured Brigade: Officer Commanding". Orders of Battle Military Unit Database. Retrieved 30 November 2016.