32nd Arkansas Infantry Regiment

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32nd Arkansas Infantry (Confederate)
Flag of Arkansas.svg
Arkansas state flag
Active 1862 to 1865
Country Confederate States of America
Allegiance CSA Dixie
Branch Infantry
Engagements

Battle of Whitney's Lane
Battle of Prairie Grove
Battle of Helena
Battle of Little Rock
Red River Campaign

Arkansas Confederate Infantry Regiments
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31st Arkansas Infantry Regiment 33rd Arkansas Infantry Regiment

The 32nd Arkansas Infantry Regiment, also called 4th Trans-Mississippi Regiment, (1862–1865) was a Confederate Army infantry regiment during the American Civil War. This Regiment was designated at various times as Matlock's Battalion Arkansas Cavalry, 4th Regiment (Gause's) Trans-Mississippi Infantry, and Gause's Regiment Arkansas Infantry.[1]

Organization[edit]

May 1862 found Confederate Arkansas, with almost no organized army facing an invasion by forces under Union General Samuel R. Curtis. In March, Major General Earl Van Dorn had been ordered to move his Army of the West, via riverboats to the east side of the Mississippi River to reinforce Confederate forces near Corinth, Mississippi, leaving the state of Arkansas with no organized Confederate forces.[2] Major General Thomas C. Hindman was dispatched to Arkansas to assume command of the Department of the Trans-Mississippi, arriving in Little Rock on 31 May 1862. Earlier in the month, Confederate Brigadier General John S. Roane, who had been left in command in Little Rock by General Van Dorn, had managed to stop a Texas Cavalry Regiment that was traversing the state to join General Van Dorn in Mississippi. This gave General Hindman one organized Cavalry Regiment to attempt to stop General Curtis's force from moving from Batesville, which had been occupied in early May, south to the state capital. Fortunately for General Hindman, the Confederate Congress had passed a Conscription (Draft) law in April 1862.[3] The passage of this law had two effects that would help Hindman. The first, the law provided a method of pressing manpower into the Confederate Army through conscription or threat of conscription. Second, the law required that all existing Confederate regiments be re-organized, with new elections for officers, but gave the existing officers the option of resigning rather than standing for re-election. Many of the regimental officers serving in Arkansas regiments east of the Mississippi river chose to resign and follow General Hindman back to Arkansas and assist in the raising of new forces. This gave Hindman an officer corps around which to build his new army.[4]

On June 1, 1862, immediately upon assuming command of the District of the Trans-Mississippi, Major General Hindman ordered Lt. Col. Andrew B. Burleson, of Parson's Texas Cavalry Regiment to Camp Cache [Arkansas] to assume command of the separate Missouri and Arkansas mounted men then operating between the White and Mississippi rivers. He was directed to take all persons within those limits liable to conscription and use them to assist him in the execution of his sealed orders and to enroll all men thus taken as Conscripts.[5] On June 9, 1862, General Hindman directed that all companies of mounted men east of the White River be ordered to Camp Cache under the command of Colonel Burleson. Col Burleson was authorized to raise ten companies. The regiment thus formed was intended be commanded by Colonel Burleson, temporarily, but Lieutenant Colonel Charles H. Matlock, recently returned to Arkansas from the 2nd Arkansas Mounted Rifles, was ordered to report to Colonel Burleson for duty. Colonel Burleson was directed to have all cotton in Jackson and St. Francis counties burned without delay.[6]

On 16 June 1862, Matlock organized Matlock's Battalion of Arkansas Cavalry at Camp Cashe as part of Col Burleson's Command. Lucien C. Gause, formerly of the Jackson Guards, became Matlock’s adjutant and Charles L. Young was appointed major. Matlock's Battalion consisted of existing mounted Arkansas and Missouri Companies. Later these Missouri companies were replaced with new Arkansas Companies. Matlock's Cavalry Battalion was dismounted to serve as infantry on July 18, 1862, by orders from General Hindman. Matlock was promoted to colonel on August 6, 1862, and his battalion of dismounted cavalry was re-organized into the 32nd Regiment Arkansas Infantry. When the regiment was organized, all the regimental officers were from Jackson County:[7]

  • Charles H. Matlock, colonel;[7]
  • Charles L. Young, lieutenant-colonel; and[7]
  • Lucien C. Gause, major.[7]

The unit was formed from the following existing companies :[7]

Colonel Lucien C. Gause, would survive the war to serve in the United States House of Representatives
  • Company A was Capt. William T. Hicks organized an independent cavalry company at Searcy, Arkansas, on February 22, 1862. The company skirmished with Federal forces in small-scale actions throughout White County during the spring of 1862, and fought a significant engagement at the Battle of Whitney’s Lane, east of Searcy, on May 19, 1862, inflicting heavy casualties on the Union’s 17th Missouri Infantry. On June 16, 1862, the company lost its independent status when it was assigned to Lieutenant-Colonel Charles H. Matlock’s cavalry battalion. The company lost its cavalry status when the battalion was dismounted to serve as infantry on July 18, 1862. Its original officers were: William Hicks, captain; Lucius M. Jones, 1st lieutenant; James A. Poe and James S. Wilkes, 2nd lieutenants. When Captain Hicks was promoted to lieutenant-colonel December 10, 1862, he was replaced by Lt. James A. Poe as captain. Lucius M. Jones was promoted to regimental quartermaster December 15, 1862.[8][9]
  • Company B was organized May 28, 1862, at Cotton Plant. Its original officers were: Arthur F. Stephenson, captain; George W. Johnson, 1st lieutenant; William H. Montgomery and William S. Farley, 2nd lieutenants. When Arthur F. Stephenson was promoted to major on December 9, 1862, he was replaced by Lt. William H. Montgomery as captain. Captain Montgomery died April 10, 1863, and was replaced by James T. McIver as captain. Captain McIver was killed April 30, 1864.[9]
  • Company C was organized June 15, 1862, at Camp Cache. It was originally composed of part of Captain Richard Hooker’s cavalry company. Its original officers were: William P. Anderson, captain; J.M. Siddall, 1st lieutenant; and George R. Barnes and Christopher Y. Steen, 2d lieutenants.[9]
  • Company D was organized June 15, 1862, at Camp Cache composed mostly of men in the vicinity of Tupelo (Arkansas). It was originally composed of part of Captain Richard Hooker’s cavalry company. Its original officers were: John Bland, captain; Elijah M. Shettlesworth, 1st lieutenant; and William P. Eason and J.R. Jelks, 2nd lieutenants. Captain Bland was killed April 1, 1864.[9]
  • Company E was organized June 17, 1862, at Camp Cache. Its original officers were: Robert J. Anthony, captain; A.V. Posey, 1st lieutenant; and Robert B. Camp and D.B. Miers, 2nd lieutenants.[9]
  • Company F was organized June 16, 1862, at Burrowville. Its original officers were: Samuel Leslie, captain; John A. Hallabaugh, 1st lieutenant; A.C. Stephenson and James Watkins, 2nd lieutenants. This Company contained many former members of the 45th Regiment of Arkansas Militia:[9][10]
  • Company G was organized June 13, 1862, at Camp Cache. Its original officers were: Charles L. Young, captain; Jesse Grider, 1st lieutenant; and William C. Scofield and Green Brandenburg, 2nd lieutenants. After Captain Young’s promotion to Lieut-Colonel, Charles M. Montell was elected captain.[9]
  • Company H was organized July 12, 1862, at E.D. Rushing. Its original officers were: James R. Morris, captain; William A. Mauldin, 1st lieutenant; R.F. McKinny and Samuel Richard, 2nd lieutenants.[9]
  • Company I was organized June 20, 1862, at Camp Cache. Its original officers were: John Campbell, captain; J. Thomas Robinson, 1st lieutenant; and John Tharp and Henry G. Williams, 2nd lieutenants. Captain Campbell died July 23, 1862, and John Horne became captain July 28, 1862. Frank M. Wells was elected captain December 1, 1863. The company included men who lived between Augusta and Jacksonport.[9]
  • Company K was organized May 25, 1862, in White County. More recruits were added June 15, 1862, at Camp Stokes and the company was completed July 12, 1862, at Springfield, Arkansas. Its original officers were: T.B. Moseley, captain; James H. Word, 1st lieutenant; Samuel Coddings and George H. Hale 2nd lieutenants. Captain Moseley died June 30, 1862, and was replaced by Lt. George H. Hale as captain.[9]

The regiment served in McRae's, Churchill's, L. C. Gause's, and Roane's Brigade. The field officers were Colonels Lucien C. Gause and C. H. Matlock, Lieutenant Colonels William Hicks and C. L. Young, and Major Arthur F. Stephenson.[11] The unit was field consolidated with the 30th Arkansas Infantry Regiment from December 1863 until sometime in 1864.[12]

Colonel Matlock resigned November 10, 1862, on Surgeon's Certificate of Disability. He was succeeded by Lucien C. Gause as Colonel of the 32nd.[7]

Service[edit]

Fall 1861[edit]

Many of the companies that would eventually compose the 32nd Arkansas were in service long before the organization of the regiment. In the fall of 1861, Colonel Solon Borland, commanding Confederate forces near Pocahontas became as sufficiently alarmed over of Union intentions to attack Confederate camps at Pittman's Ferry, near the Arkansas-Missouri boarder that he issued a call for reinforcements from the state militia. On November 5, 1861, Col. Borland issued an appeal for volunteers in the surrounding counties to hastily organize companies for the defense of Pitman’s Ferry until new regular Confederate regiments could be organized and dispatched.[13] A company of 30 day volunteers was organized in Jackson County by Captain Richard Hooker.[14] The company was organized at Jacksonport November 5, 1861, and went to Pocahontas where it was mustered into Confederate service November 29, 1861, and discharged on December 28, 1861, also at Pocahontas. The men were armed with shotguns and borrowed sabers.[13] The company was known as Captain Hooker’s Company, Arkansas 30-Day 1861 Mounted Volunteers. The company re-organized on February 26, 1862, at Jacksonport and more men mustered into it.[15]

Curtis Invasion of Arkansas[edit]

Before becoming part of the 32nd Infantry Regiment, Hooker’s Arkansas Mounted Volunteers figured prominently in efforts to oppose General Curtis's Union force as it occupied Batesville Arkansas and began movements to the south through Jackson and White County Arkansas in the spring. The March 31, 1862, morning report gave Hooker’s Company’s strength at 130 officers and men. The original members of Hooker’s Company were divided between companies C and D of the new 32nd Arkansas Infantry when the regiment was organized. Before this, Hooker company and Captain Hick's company formed a very effective cavalry squadron operating in the Jacksonport area.[16]

The beginnings of Company A, 32nd Arkansas, were recruited in Northeast Arkansas by Captain William Hicks. On April 23, 1862, a scouting party from Captain Hicks Company, under Lieutenant James A. Poe, advanced to Smithville in Lawrence County, Arkansas, in a few miles of the advance of the Union forces under Union General Thomas Curtis. The enemy surrounded the place and captured two of the houses which the men were forced to abandon. Then, on May 17, 1862, Lieutenant Poe’s scouting party attacked a foraging party of the enemy on Little Red River. Again in May a scout from Captain Hick's Company attacked the enemy’s outposts at Searcy Landing on Little Red River, drove in their pickets and wounded one. On May 19, 1862, Captain Hicks’ Company and Captain Hooker's Company, along with elements of Parson's Texas Cavalry was engaged in the skirmish at Whitney’s Lane near Searcy, Arkansas, against a foraging party of infantry and cavalry from the 17th Missouri Infantry and the 4th Missouri Cavalry. The company losses were one captured and 5 wounded, none severely.[17]

Brigadier General Rust reported to General Hindman on June 11, 1862, that Col Burleson had begun his mission with three Arkansas companies amounting in aggregate to 260 men.[18] On June 12, 1862, Captain Hooker's Company, along with members of the 12th Texas Cavalry were engage in a skirmish at Waddell's Farm, near Village Creek, in Jackson County. Union reports indicated twenty-eight Confederates as killed, wounded, and prisoners, including a private and a captain identified as members of Hooker’s Company.[19] On Arkansas On June 15, a battalion was organized at Camp Cache under the command of Lt. Col. Matlock, in addition to the Arkansas companies already under Col Burleson’s command, two companies Missouri troops were temporarily attached to the new battalion, including, Captain William L Jeffers Missouri Company. This company had previously operated in southeast Missouri and Northern Ark independently, where they successfully engaged the enemy at Jackson, Missouri and Chalk Bluff, Arkansas. On the same day Colonel Burleson telegrammed General Hindman to report that he had eight companies in camp, and one on the way and others organizing. He believed that he could assemble more than ten companies at his camp due to the availability of conscripts and Forage. He reported that Lieutenant Colonel Matlock with seventy five men had been dispatched up the White River to burn cotton stores and collect ammunition. He also reported an engagement led by Lieutenant Hillsworth on 12 June in which four enemy were killed and seven wounded.[20]

On June 17 Col Burleson telegrammed General Hindman regarding his fear of being surrounded on the east side of the river. He informed the General that the Yankees were at Chalk Bluff, Memphis and above him at Jacksonport and he feared that his command was in danger of being surrounded and “assassinated”.[21] General Hindman reacted quickly to what he perceived as Burleson’s fear and refusal to fight. On June 19, General Hindman relieved Col Burleson from command and turned the regiment over to Lt. Col. Matlock.[22] The next day on June 20, 1862, Col Burleson telegraphed to General Hindman stating “I received your dispatch and have turned over the command to Col. Matlock with 858 men organized and by night I would have had 1000. I am proud to be relieved of the command and also proud of the success I have had over here in raising troops. I will go to my regiment as soon as I can. In conclusion allow me to return to you my sincere thanks for the honor you conferred in giving me the command over here on Cache, and if I can be of service to my country or the cause you are engaged in, at any time, call on Burleson.” [23] Lt. Col. Matlock was directed to obtain mounts for his infantry companies and then proceed with the formal organization of a regiment and send recommendations for field and staff officers.[24]

On June 20, Lt. Col. Matlock telegraphed Hindman to report that he had nine companies of cavalry and one infantry totaling 858 men and camped ten miles east of Augusta. Matlock hand learned that morning that 800 Federals were then at Gainesville, in Green County about 80 miles north of his camp. Hindman responded and ordered Col Matlock to remain where he was. On the same day, General Hindman ordered Lt Col Matlock to send Capt Allen’s Company, which had been organized on Crowley's Ridge, to report to Col McNeill who was organizing what would become the 30th Arkansas Infantry Regiment on Crowley's Ridge.[25]

General Hindman was presuming a scorched earth policy to hinder the advance of General Curtis through northeast Arkansas. On 24 June 1862 General Hindman telegrammed Col. Matlock, directing him to attempt to hinder Curtis advices down the White River by "falling trees into all fords. Destroying all bridges and ferry boats, and in every way obstructing the roads. Destroying all forage and subsistence that cannot be removed within five miles of the road. Call out the entire Negro force in every direction along the Augusta and Jacksonport roads. Burn all bridges and block up all boards especially of village creek. If followed by the enemy attack him at all points continuing however the work of obstruction. In falling back obstruct every foot of road. Place your train at some convenient place well in your rear. If you can certainly accomplish what is above directed, and at the same time strike the enemy at Smithville do, so risk nothing in this. The work of obstruction is the greatest importance. You are expected to do your whole duty. Your movements are part of a general plan. Your failure would defeat the whole. Keep open your communication with these Head Quarters also with Clarendon. If the enemy should land at that point burn bridges and obstruct roads."[26]

On 27 June 1862, Captain Hooker's Company was engaged in a skirmish with Curtis's command at Stewart's Plantation in Jackson County against elements of the 3rd Iowa Cavalry, 8th Indiana Infantry, and 9th Illinois Cavalry. According to reports, Union losses included five killed and thirty-five wounded. Confederate losses were reported as five killed.[27] June 28, 1862, six companies of the Matlock's Battalion under command of Captain Hicks, attacked the enemy on White River near Groves Glaze. The battle commenced near night and was continued until the flash of the enemy’s guns could be distinctly seen in the darkness. The enemy’s loss was recorded as 90 killed and wounded. Confederates lost 1 killed and 4 wounded. The Union troops withdrew from the field.[16] On June 29, 1862. Lieutenant Colonel Matlock telegrammed General Hindman from Camp Stoke to report on his attacks on enemy foraging parties and efforts to obstruct the roads and rivers in the area to slow the advance of General Curtis.[28]

Matlock's Regiment continued to obstruct the roads southward, felling trees and attacking from ambush, but on July 2, the regiment was apparently surprised and scattered near Augusta, in Woodruff County, Arkansas. One of Matlock’s men reported to Brigadier General Rust, that "Matlock was stampeded" in what was described as an extremely disgraceful Occurrence." The soldier reported that the enemy have re-crossed with Matlock’s bacon - 1000 lbs a number of horses & guns which Matlock left..." [29] Union report described the capture of 2000 lbs. of buried bacon on July 3 at Augusta. According to the reports, freed slaves in the area led Union forces to a new grave that had a head board and a foot board but no name. When they dug it up 2000lbs of bacon was discovered. The freed slaves indicated that a force of 400 Confederates had fled the area following a skirmish at one of the barricades the day before (July 2). This appears to match General Rust's report that the enemy had captured Matlock’s Bacon.[30]

On July 8, 1862, Company A of Matlock's Battalion was involved in the Battle of Cotton Plant on Cache River under General Albert Rust.[31] The morning report for August 15, 1862, shows the station of the regiment at Camp Bragg near Batesville, Arkansas.[16] Following the action at Cotton Plant, General Curtis changed the objective of his invasion from Little Rock, and instead moved to and occupied the Mississippi River port at Helena Arkansas. General Hindman’ s quickly assembled force had prevented the capture of the state capital for at least another year.[32]

On July 11, 1862, the record of events in the regimental muster rolls recorded that the companies in the regiment were dismounted by order of General Hindman. On August 6, 1862, five companies of conscripts were assigned to the battalion in order to bring it up to the full ten required to be formally organized as a regiment.[33] On August 10, 1862, Special Orders #62, Army of the South West, announced the Field Officers of Matlock’s Regiment of Arkansas Infantry as, Charles H. Matlock, colonel; Charles L. Young, lieutenant-colonel; and Lucien C. Gause, major.[7]

Prairie Grove Campaign[edit]

General Holmes issued Special Orders September 28, 1862, assigning Colonel Dandridge McRae to command of a brigade composed of his own 28th Arkansas Infantry Regiment, Morgan’s 26th Arkansas, Pleasant’s 29th Arkansas, McNeill’s 30th Arkansas, Matlock’s 32nd Arkansas, A.N. Johnson’s regiment and Woodruff’s Arkansas Battery. This brigade was ordered to move at once to Elkhorn in northwest Arkansas and report to Brig. Gen. J.S. Rains.[34]

The regiment participated in the campaign in Northwest Arkansas under General Hindman including the Battle of Prairie Grove. Colonel Charles H. Matlock resigned on a surgeon's certificate of disability before the Battle on November 7, 1862. Lieutenant Colonel Charles L. Young, who had assumed command in place of Colonel Matlock was killed during the December 7, 1862 Battle of Prairie Grove. Colonel Dandridge McRea mentioned Colonel Young's death in his report on the battle of Prairie Grove:

Although no close engagement of long duration took place along my lines, yet, during the whole time of the engagement, with but little intermission, my command was exposed to a terrible artillery fire, and much of the time to musketry, and my line of skirmishers (which was composed of two companies to each regiment) was engaged nearly all of the time the fight was progressing, and I must say that both officers and men behaved themselves admirably, exposed for hours to a heavy cross fire, without being able to return it, and I am happy to state that there was scarcely any straggling to the rear, much less than I have ever witnessed before. Captain Biscoe of Col McNeill's regiment and Lt McKay of McRae's regiment are entitled to great credit for the manner in which they managed their companies, which were acting as skirmishers. It is my melancholy duty to inform you of the death of Lt Col Charles L. Young. He died like a good soldier and patriot, at the head of his regiment. In his death the country has suffered great loss.[35]

Following the battle, the regiment withdrew with General Hindman’ s Army to Van Buren, Arkansas Where the regiment conducted elections to replace its missing commanders. Maj. Lucien C. Gause, was elected colonel, December 9, 1862. Capt. William T. Hicks, was elected lieutenant-colonel on December 10, 1862, and Capt. Arthur F. Stephenson, was promoted to major, December 9, 1862.[36] May 1, 1863, 18 men who had returned from desertion, most from Company F, were detailed to work in the Nitre Works in Searcy County, Arkansas.

Helena Campaign[edit]

On May 5, 1863, the regiment moved camp from Little Rock to Camp Anderson 4 miles north. On May 20, the regiment moved camp to Bayou Meto 12 miles east of Little Rock because of a scarcity of water. The regiment took up line of march from Bayou Meto direction northeast June 1, 1863, arriving at Jacksonport June 6, a distance of 90 miles. The regiment left Jacksonport June 21 en route to Helena, Arkansas, a distance of 100 miles, through swamp country.[16]

July 4, 1863, the regiment, as part of McRea’s Brigade, participated in the Battle of Helena, Arkansas. The regiment fought in the Battle of Helena as part of McRea's Brigade. On July 2, Price's, including McRea's Brigade with the 32nd Arkansas rendezvoused with Brigadier General Fagan's forces at Lick Creek, west of Helena, and the next morning Generals Holmes, Price, Walker, Fagan, and Marmaduke met in the Allen Polk farmhouse five miles west of Helena to discuss plans for the attack the following day. Holmes issued his general orders outlining the plan of attack on the Union garrison. Price's troops, with his brigades commanded by Brigadier Generals Dandridge McRae and Mosby M. Parsons were to advance by way of the Little Rock Road and attack Battery C atop Graveyard Hill, while Fagan's brigade was to attack Battery D atop Hindman Hill. Confusion in Major General Price's ranks crippled the Confederate attack. Price did not order his troops to resume their march until at least an hour after both Fagan and Marmaduke had begun their attacks. His two brigade commanders, Parsons and McRae, failed to maintain communications with one another and failed to attack, each expecting the order to come from the other. When Price's forces finally regrouped and began their attack, they stormed Graveyard Hill under fire from Batteries B, C, and D. against Parsons' and McRae's assault, the 33rd Missouri infantry defending Battery C were ordered to spike their guns and retreat, and Graveyard Hill fell to the Confederate advance. Before General Price could have his own artillery moved up from his rear to defend Battery C and fire on Fort Curtis, Prentiss ordered the guns of Batteries A, B, and D, as well as the Tyler's artillery turned on the Confederate enclave. In the confusion, General Holmes disregarded the standard chain of command and ordered one of Parson's regimental commanders to attack Fort Curtis. The other commanders misunderstood and, thinking a general attack order had been issued, joined in the advance down Graveyard Hill, into the murderous crossfire of the Union batteries, the Tyler's artillery, and the reformed Union line. The Confederate assault broke and began to retreat in disorder. General McRae, meanwhile, gathered what men he could of his brigade and led them down the ravine separating Graveyard Hill and Hindman Hill to assist General Fagan's assault on Battery D.[37] The Union defenders opened fire as McRae's troops started to climb Hindman Hill, and the attack collapsed before it had begun. The diversion did enable Fagan to make a charge and take the last line of rifle pits protecting Battery D, but they were unable to take the battery itself.[38] After action reports inaccurately show 5 officers (Captain J. R. Morris, and Lieutenants R. B. Camp, Thos. A. Eppes, R. F. McKinney, and W. T. Tompkins) and 12 enlisted men killed; 7 officers and 39 enlisted men wounded; 1 officer and 25 enlisted men missing or captured. Another source indicates that the 32nd Regiment losses at Prairie Grove and Helena were 17 killed, 46 wounded, and 26 missing.[11][39]

The fall of Little Rock[edit]

From Helena, the regiment moved back to camp on Bayou Meto near Little Rock, Arkansas, and arrived there July 23, 1863. They marched through swamp country and lost many men by death and desertion. A portion of Company C, Captain Anderson commanding, was detailed as Provost Guard at Jacksonport and rejoined the command at Searcy, Arkansas, on the march to camp on Bayou Meto. August 31, 1863, shows the station of the regiment at Camp Bowen. The regiment participated in the defense of Little Rock and on September 10, 1863.[16] The Union advance on Little Rock was opposed mainly by the Confederate cavalry divisions of Generals Marmaduke and Walker. The Confederate infantry brigades were dug in on the north side of the Arkansas River. According to Captain Ethan Allen Pinnell of the Eighth Missouri Infantry, "Our works extend from the Arkansas river two miles below the city. to the eastern part of Crystal Hill, a distance of 6 miles. Gen'l Fagan's Brig. is on the extreme right, Parson's on Fagan's left, Frost in the center and McRea's on the left."[40] The Union forces established a pontoon bridge near Bayou Fourche, and crossed to the south side of the very low Arkansas River. With his works on the north side of the river now flanked, Major General Price was forced to abandon the city on September 10, after a brief engagement at Bayou Fourche. Price's Army withdrew in the direction of Rockport.[41]

The 32nd Arkansas Infantry was re-organized December 1, 1863. Miscellaneous records, certificates and rolls show that the 30th and the 32nd Arkansas Infantry Regiments were consolidated during December 1863 and remained consolidated until the summer of 1864.[42]

Red River Campaign[edit]

On January 28, 1864, the regiment moved from Camp Bragg, Ouachita County to Camp Sumpter, Hempstead County, Arkansas, a distance of 40 miles. Official reports show the regiment assigned to Churchill’s Brigade, Price’s Division, District of Arkansas, on January 31, 1864. The regiment remained at Camp Sumpter during February 1864. When Churchill was elevated to division commander, Colonel Gause once again assumed command of the brigade. While Colonel Gause was assigned as brigade commander, Lieutenant Colonel William Hicks commanded the regiment.[16]

Upon the launch of the Federal’s Red River Campaign, seizing Alexandria, Louisiana and moving on Natchitoches and Shreveport, General Churchill's Arkansas Infantry Division, including Gause’s Brigade and the 32nd Arkansas was sent south to Shreveport, Louisiana, in early March 1864 to assist General Kirby Smith's army in countering Union General Nathaniel Banks' advance along the Red River. Churchill’s division reached Keatchie, Louisiana, in time to support General Richard Taylor’s main force who routed Banks’ army in the Battle of Mansfield (Sabine Crossroads) on April 8, 1864. The next day, the Confederate forces united to attack the Union rear guard at Pleasant Hill on the afternoon of April 9. The Confederates had endured a long forced march from south central Arkansas to Mansfield, and another of ten hours to Pleasant Hill that day with only two hours’ rest. The Union troops held a formidable position, and although the Arkansans and Missourians fought valiantly, they were repulsed and retreated six miles to the nearest water.[43]

After the battle of Pleasant Hill, Churchill's Division made a hasty return with General Kirby Smith back to Arkansas to assist General Price in dealing with the other half of the Red River campaign, Union General Frederick Steele's Camden Expedition moving southwest from Little Rock.[44] The division and Gause’s Brigade arrived just in time to join the pursuit of Steele's army as it retreated from Camden, and join in the attack on Steele as he tried to cross the Saline River at Jenkins' Ferry on April 30, 1864. After an all-night march through a rainstorm and ankle-deep mud, Gause’s Brigade fell upon the federal rear guard and drove them for more than a mile, until the brigade on their flank began to give way. Reinforced by Tappan’s Brigade, and personally led by General Churchill, the Confederate line rallied and made repeated attacks on the Union forces attempting to cross the river.[45] Colonel Gause described the efforts of his brigade as follows:

"Too much praise cannot be accorded those men who drove the enemy's center a half mile after all support had given way. When all acted so gallantly it is difficult, if not impossible to point out particular instances. Colonel Davie, Lieutenant-Colonel Brooks, and Lieutenant Colonel Hicks, commanding regiments, did their whole duty, urging their men forward in the advance and rallying them when driven back. In this they were faithfully assisted by Major Hathaway, of Davie's regiment; Major Stanley, Yells regiment; and Captain Anthony, acting lieutenant colonel, and Captain Montell, acting major, Gause's regiment. Major Stanley and Captain Anthony were both wounded, the latter severely. I am particularly indebted to Lieutenant Smither, volunteer aide, for valuable services on the march from Camden and during the engagement. He was conspicuous for his gallantry, every ready and prompt to execute orders, and deserves particular mention. I desire also to mention Captain Carter, acting assistant adjutant-general; Lieutenants Ross, assistant Adjutant and inspector-general, and Leroy Burrow, acting aide-de-camp, of my staff, for the promptness and energy with which they discharged their several duties. My loss is 16 killed and 67 wounded, as will be seen by reference to a report forwarded herewith. Among the killed are the gallant Captain McIver, Lieutenants Cude, Lasiter and Ponder, all of whom fell bravely leading the men in the charge. Their loss is sad and an almost irreparable blow to their command. Braver or truer men never fell in any battle. About 2 p.m. I withdrew my brigade from the field and bivouacked on the hill on the Princeton Road, and marched thence to this place. Respectfully submitted." Col. L.C. Gause, 32nd Ark. Inf. CSA.[46]

Final Year of the War[edit]

On September 30, 1864, the regiment was assigned to Brigadier General John S. Roane’s 1st (Arkansas) Brigade, Acting Major General Thomas J. Churchill’s 1st (Arkansas) Division, Major General John B. Magruder’s Second Army Corps, Army of the Trans-Mississippi and remained in that assignment through December 31, 1864.[47] On 31 December 1864, General Kirby Smith's report on the organization of his forces lists the 32rd Arkansas, under the command of Colonel Gause as belonging to Brigadier General John Selden Roane's, 1st Brigade of Acting Major General Thomas J. Churchill's 1st Arkansas Infantry Division of Major General John B. Magruder's 2nd Army Corps, Confederate Army of the Trans-Mississippi.[48]

Roane's Brigade was ordered to move to Fulton, near Washington, in Hempstead County on 19 January 1865 in order to assist with the building of fortifications along the Red River.[49] The brigade was then ordered to move to Minden, Louisiana, on 26 January 1865 where they established winter quarters.[50] Lieutenant Colonel William Hicks resigned February 1, 1865, to become state senator.[16]

Union commanders in the Department of the Gulf reported on March 20, 1865, that General Roane's brigade was composed of four regiments—Colonel Gause, 250 men; Colonel Hill, 250 men; Colonel Brooks, 250 men; Colonel Davie, 250 men. It indicated that all of Churchill's Division, except for Shaver's regiment was located at Minden.[51] By 1 April 1865, elements of Roane's Brigade had been ordered to Shreveport, Louisiana, and then a week later were ordered to move to Marshall, Texas. The brigade was at Marshall, Texas, when the surrender occurred.[52]

Surrender[edit]

The formal surrender of the Army of the Trans-Mississippi, was dated May 26, 1865, at New Orleans. Lieutenant General S.B. Buckner, acting for General E. Kirby Smith, Confederate Commander of the Trans-Mississippi Department, entered into military convention with Federal Major General Peter J. Osterhaus, representing Major General E.R.S. Canby. Under the terms of the surrender all resistance would cease, and officers and men would be paroled under terms similar to those of the Appomattox surrender. General Smith actually approved the convention June 2, 1865, at Galveston, Texas.[53] This surrender agreement required the surrendered Confederate soldiers to report to Federal parole centers set up in key communities in Confederate-held Arkansas, Louisiana, and Texas to be accounted for and to give and receive their final parole. The 32nd Arkansas, along with most of the other Arkansas infantry regiments, was camped around Marshall, Texas, when the Trans-Mississippi Army surrendered. With few exceptions, the Arkansas infantry regiments simply disbanded at Marshall and went home. A few men, including Colonel Gause, stopped off at Shreveport to receive paroles, but for the most part, the men simply went home without bothering with paroles.[12] Of the 1,245 men who had served in the 33nd Arkansas, during its existence, 28 were killed in action, 88 were captured and 165 died of disease. A total of 253 deserted and never returned to the unit, 46 deserted and returned to duty, and 28 deserted, returned to duty and then deserted a second time.[16]

Bibliography[edit]

Bears, Edwin C. “The Battle of Helena, July 4, 1863.” Arkansas Historical Quarterly 20 (Autumn 1961): 256–297.

Christ, Mark K. Civil War Arkansas, 1863: The Battle for a State. Norman: University of Oklahoma Press, 2010.

Christ, Mark K., ed. Rugged and Sublime: The Civil War in Arkansas. Fayetteville: University of Arkansas Press, 1994.

Christ, Mark K. “‘We Were Badly Whipped’: A Confederate Account of the Battle of Helena, July 4, 1863.” Arkansas Historical Quarterly 69 (Spring 2010): 44–53.

Hess. Earl J.; Shea, William L.; Piston, William G.; Hatcher, Richard W.: Wilson's Creek, Pea Ridge, and Prairie Grove: A Battlefield Guide, with a Section on Wire Road, Lincoln, Nebraska, U.S.A. Bison Books 2006, ISBN 978-0-8032-7366-5

Neal, D., & Kremm, T. W. (1993). Lion of the South: General Thomas C. Hindman. Macon, Ga: Mercer University Press.

Schieffler, George David. “Too Little, Too Late to Save Vicksburg: The Battle of Helena, Arkansas, July 4, 1863.” MA thesis, University of Arkansas, 2005

Shea, William L. Fields of Blood: The Prairie Grove Campaign. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 2009. ISBN 978-0-8078-3315-5

Sikakis, Stewart, Compendium of the Confederate Armies, Florida and Arkansas Facts on File, 1992, ISBN 978-0-8160-2288-5

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External links

See also[edit]