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|338 by topic|
|Ab urbe condita||1091|
|Balinese saka calendar||259–260|
|Chinese calendar||丁酉年 (Fire Rooster)|
3034 or 2974
— to —
戊戌年 (Earth Dog)
3035 or 2975
|- Vikram Samvat||394–395|
|- Shaka Samvat||259–260|
|- Kali Yuga||3438–3439|
|Iranian calendar||284 BP – 283 BP|
|Islamic calendar||293 BH – 292 BH|
|Minguo calendar||1574 before ROC|
|Seleucid era||649/650 AG|
|Thai solar calendar||880–881|
464 or 83 or −689
— to —
465 or 84 or −688
Year 338 (CCCXXXVIII) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar) of the Julian calendar. At the time, it was known as the Year of the Consulship of Ursus and Polemius (or, less frequently, year 1091 Ab urbe condita). The denomination 338 for this year has been used since the early medieval period, when the Anno Domini calendar era became the prevalent method in Europe for naming years.
- The Romans, allied with the Goths, arrive in the north of the Roman Empire to protect the Danube frontier.
- Emperor Constantius II intervenes against the Persians in Armenia.
- Shapur II, king of the Persian Empire, begins a widespread persecution of Christians; he orders forcible conversions to the state religion, Zoroastrianism, lest the Christians disrupt his realm while he is away fighting the Romans in Armenia and Mesopotamia.
- Eusebius of Nicomedia becomes Patriarch of Constantinople after Paul I is banished.
- Non-Christians are persecuted by the Roman Empire as pagans.
- Flavius Ablabius, Roman consul and politician
- Li Qi, emperor of the Ba-Di state Cheng Han (b. 314)
- Tuoba Yihuai, prince of the Tuoba Dai clan