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|Millennium:||1st millennium BC|
|344 BC by topic|
|Gregorian calendar||344 BC
|Ab urbe condita||410|
|Ancient Egypt era||XXX dynasty, 37|
|- Pharaoh||Nectanebo II, 17|
|Ancient Greek era||109th Olympiad (victor)¹|
|Balinese saka calendar||N/A|
|Chinese calendar||丙子年 (Fire Rat)
2353 or 2293
— to —
丁丑年 (Fire Ox)
2354 or 2294
|Coptic calendar||−627 – −626|
|Ethiopian calendar||−351 – −350|
|- Vikram Samvat||−287 – −286|
|- Shaka Samvat||N/A|
|- Kali Yuga||2757–2758|
|Iranian calendar||965 BP – 964 BP|
|Islamic calendar||995 BH – 994 BH|
|Minguo calendar||2255 before ROC
|Thai solar calendar||199–200|
−217 or −598 or −1370
— to —
−216 or −597 or −1369
Year 344 BC was a year of the pre-Julian Roman calendar. At the time it was known as the Year of the Consulship of Rutilus and Torquatus (or, less frequently, year 410 Ab urbe condita). The denomination 344 BC for this year has been used since the early medieval period, when the Anno Domini calendar era became the prevalent method in Europe for naming years.
- The king of Caria, Idrieus, dies, leaving the Persian satrapy, by his will, to his sister Ada, to whom he was married.
- The Athenian statesman, Demosthenes, travels to Peloponnesus, in order to detach as many cities as possible from Macedon's influence, but his efforts are generally unsuccessful. Most of the Peloponnesians see Philip II as the guarantor of their freedom, so they send a joint embassy to Athens to express their grievances against Demosthenes' activities. In response to these complaints, Demosthenes delivers the Second Philippic, which is a vehement attack against Philip II.
- The aristocracy of Syracuse appeal to their mother city of Corinth against their tyrant Dionysius II. The Corinthian general Timoleon is chosen to lead a liberation force to Sicily. Landing at Tauromenium (Taormina) in the summer, Timoleon faces two armies, one under Dionysius and the other under Hicetas (tyrant of nearby Leontini), who has also called in Carthaginian forces. By shrewd tactics Timoleon defeats his enemies and occupies Syracuse.
- Dionysius II goes into exile once more after the successful invasion by Timoleon of Corinth.
- The Greek philosopher and scientist, Aristotle, travels from Assus to Lesbos to study natural history, especially marine biology.