34th Bomb Squadron
|34th Bomb Squadron
Aircrews from the 34th Bomb Squadron and 28th Operations Support Squadron stand in front of B-1B Lancer 86-0095 at Ellsworth Air Force Base, S.D., 30 March 2011.
|Active||1917–1919; 1931–1945; 1947–1948; 1952–1958; 1962–1976; 1992–present|
|Branch||United States Air Force|
|Part of||Global Strike Command
8th Air Force
28th Bomb Wing
28th Operations Group
|Garrison/HQ||Ellsworth Air Force Base|
|Nickname(s)||Original Thunderbirds (Doolittle's Raiders)|
|Colors||Red, Black|
|Engagements||World War I
World War II
Operation Enduring Freedom
Operation Iraqi Freedom
|Decorations||Distinguished Unit Citation
Air Force Outstanding Unit Award
French Croix de Guerre with Palm
Republic of Korea Presidential Unit Citation
|34th Bomb Squadron emblem (approved 18 June 1932)|
- 1 Overview
- 2 History
- 3 Lineage
- 4 See also
- 5 References
The 34th Bomb Squadron is presently the 4th-oldest active squadron in the United States Air Force, being formed on 10 May 1917, less than a month after the United States' entry into World War I.[dubious ] Members of the squadron participated in World War I, World War II, Korean War, Operation Enduring Freedom and Operation Iraqi Freedom.
Today, the 34th Bomb Squadron stands ready to provide combat-ready aircrews to project global power anytime in support of the Combatant Commander's objectives.
World War I
The 34th Bomb Squadron can trace its origins to the organization of 2d Company H, Kelly Field, Texas which was organized on 10 May 1917.[dubious ] At the time Kelly Field consisted mostly of a field of cotton plants, as it was just obtained by the Army for the establishment of a training airfield, just to the south of San Antonio, Texas. When the first soldiers arrived, there were not any tents or cots for them so they slept on the ground. When the first tents arrived, they were assigned locations for them and they were pitched. A few days later, when the Company received its full quota of men, it was changed to 1st Company G, Kelly Field. The men received their indoctrination into the Army as soldiers, standing guard duty and other rudimentary duties. The lack of sanitary facilities and also uniforms meant most men worked in the civilian clothing they arrived in and slept in them without bathing until latrines and washing facilities were constructed. The men dug ditches for water mains, erected wooden buildings for barracks and a large YMCA.
Across the Atlantic
On 15 July, the unit was redesignated as the 34th Provisional Squadron,[dubious ] and rumors began to circulate that the unit would be sent to Europe. On the 25th, it was again re-designated as the 34th Aero Squadron, and they were issued proper uniforms and began to be equipped for overseas duty. On 10 August, the squadron received orders to leave Kelly Field for transport to Hoboken, New Jersey the next day. Five days later, the squadron arrived at Fort Totten, New York. On the 22d they were transported to the Port of Entry, Hoboken, and were boarded on the RMS Baltic. The next day, they left Pier 59, en route to Halifax, Nova Scotia where the ship anchored awaiting for a convoy. Finally, on 5 September, the convoy was formed and the trans-Atlantic journey began.
On the night of 14 September, two red rockets were fired from an accompanying destroyer that had spotted a submarine periscope. The destroyer dropped depth charges on the submarine, and the Baltic made a sudden turn to port, that caused both men and anything loose aboard the ship to move. Suddenly a large explosion was heard and five long blasts were made by the ship's whistle and everyone on board was ordered to report to their assigned lifeboats. The Baltic's captain announced that a torpedo had struck the ship, but it had only made a glancing blow on the bow; that the emergency pumps were working and there was no danger.
Training in England
The next day the Baltic arrived at Liverpool, England where the squadron boarded a train for Southampton, arriving on the 16th. There, the squadron received orders that it would remain in England for training by the Royal Flying Corps. On the 20th the men (about 200 in all), were divided into groups and sent to schools to take training in the different types of work they would be expected to do. 75 men were sent to the machine-gun school in Grantham; the remainder sere sent to schools in Reading, Upaven Station, Wendover, Farnsborough, Halton, Pemlice and other RFC Stations. The 34th Aero Squadron was the first American unit to completely train in England.
2d Aviation Instructional Center
After the detachments received their training, the squadron was re-assembled at Winchester for a final inspection. On the 18th, the squadron departed for France, arriving at the port of Le Havre on the 20th. After a few days wait in a "Rest Camp", they boarded a troop train for the city of Tours, arriving on the 23d. From there, the squadron marched to the American Second Aviation Instructional Center (2d AIC), at Tours Aerodrome, their assigned duty station in France on 23 December 1917.
The 2d AIC was established by the Training Section, AEF to train aerial observers and observation pilots. The observer also manned two Lewis Machine Guns for defense. Several squadron members, who had been trained by the RFC in machine guns, started a machine gun school at the base. Other men were engaged in construction activities, putting up aircraft hangars and wooden buildings for all manner of uses from training classes to barracks. Men were assigned as mechanics to airplanes arriving at Tours, and others were used as instructors for the various classes that were organized at the base. In February, there was a general reorganization of the 2d AIC and about half the men of the 34th were transferred to other squadrons, and new men were transferred into the 34th. Many promotions were given to the senior members of the squadron who had arrived the previous December. Training was given to many members of the Corps Observation squadrons of the First Army Air Service as they arrived in France; and beginning in August 1918, new pilots and observers for the planned Second Army Air Service began to arrive for training.
By the time of the Armistice on 11 November, the men of the 34th Aero Squadron held about 75% of the responsible positions at the 2d AIC. Although they did not enter combat, the men trained the men who went to the front and gave them the best of training so they might accomplish their work.
The AEF was notoriously slow in returning men to the United States after the end of hostilities, and men who served on the front had priority over those who served in the rear areas. The 34th, therefore, remained at Tours until May, 1919 when orders were received to proceed to the 1st Air Depot, Colombey-les-Belles Airdrome, France, for demobilization. From Colombey, the squadron was moved to a staging camp under the Services of Supply waiting for a date to report to a base port for transportation home. In mid-May, the squadron boarded a troop ship, arriving in New York on the 27th. From there, the 34th moved to Mitchel Field, New York where the men were demobilized and returned to civilian life.
On 24 March 1923, the World War I 34th Aero Squadron was reconstituted into the permanent United States Army Air Service as the 34th Pursuit Squadron. The Army allotted the unit to the Sixth Corps Area, but it remained inactive, although nominally assigned to the inactive 8th Pursuit Group. Unitl 1927. its designated Active Associate Unit was the 27th Pursuit Squadron. In 1927 its allotted Corps Area became the IX Corps Area, and in 1928, the VIII Corps Area. In 1929, it became a Regular Army Inactive unit, remaining inactive, but with reserve officers assigned. These officers participated in summer training exercises at Kelly Field between 1929 and 1931.
In the early 1930s, the squadron flew Boeing P-12 and Boeing P-26 fighter aircraft until, in 1935, it was redesignated the 34th Attack Squadron and acquired the Northrop A-17 attack dive bomber. In 1939 the A-17 was considered obsolete, and the squadron was re-equipped with the new Douglas Douglas B-18 Bolo medium bomber, being re-designated as the 34th Bombardment Squadron.
In June 1940 the squadron was moved to McChord Field, Washington where it began flying reconnaissance patrols over the Pacific Northwest. The B-18 had a short life in front-line service, and the 34th was re-equipped with the new North American B-25 Mitchell medium bomber in February 1941, being one of the first squadrons in the Army Air Corps to receive the new bomber. In June, the squadron was reassigned to Pendleton Field, Oregon, as part of a dispersal plan by the Northwest Air District as part of the buildup of the Air Corps. In August, it received the updated B-25B, that had a much heavier defensive armament, dictated by the results of combat reports coming in from Europe.
World War II
In the immediate aftermath of the Pearl Harbor Attack, the 34th flew anti-submarine warfare patrols in the Pacific Northwest from 22 December 1941 to c. March 1942. It was reassigned to Lexington County Airport, South Carolina, on 9 February 1942 in order to meet the greater threat from German submarines operating off the East Coast. At that time, the only B-25s in service were with the 17th Bombardment Group.
Planning for a retaliatory bombing raid on Japan began in December 1941, and the B-25 was determined to be the only Army land-based bomber with the range to be able to attack the Japanese Home Islands that could be launched (one-way) from an aircraft Carrier. Twenty-four B-25Bs were diverted from the 17th Bombardment Group, and volunteers from all three squadrons (34th, 37th and 95th) were recruited, the crews being told only that this was going to be a secret and very dangerous mission against heavy odds. The volunteers moved to Eglin Field in Florida for training. Still not knowing what kind of mission they were training for, the crews practiced making takeoffs in as short a distance as possible. Upon completion of training, seventeen crews left Eglin Field, some from the 34th for McClellan Field in California for final modifications to the B-25s before moving to Naval Air Station Alameda, where the bombers were loaded on the USS Hornet (CV-8) and the men of the Doolittle Raider task force departed on 2 April 1942.
The remainder of the squadron remained in Columbia, flying antisubmarine patrols until 23 June when it was moved to Barksdale Field, Louisiana. There, the squadron was re-equipped with the Martin B-26 Marauder, and began transition training under Third Air Force.
In November 1942, the squadron was deployed to North Africa in December 1942 as part of Operation Torch, and was assigned to the new Twelfth Air Force in Algeria. The squadron flew tactical bombing raids on enemy targets in Algeria and later Tunisia as the American forces moved east and participated in the Tunisian Campaign. Remaining assigned to the Mediterranean Theater of Operations, the squadron flew combat missions in the invasion of Sicily; invasion of southern Italy; Corsican Campaign; and Operation Dragoon, the invasion of southern France, during the summer of 1944.
Moving into southern France, the squadron supported American ground forces moving north through Lyon and eventually joined American forces in eastern France which had participated in the northern France Campaign after the Normandy D-Day landings in June. The 39th participated in the Western Allied invasion of Germany in the spring of 1945, carrying out tactical bombing missions from Lyon Airfield, primarily hitting enemy targets in central and southern Germany until the German capitulation in May.
After the end of hostilities, the 34th became part of the United States Air Forces in Europe occupation forces, being assigned to the American Zone of Occupation in Austria; performing occupation duty at Linz Airport and other cities. It remained in Austria until November 1945, its personnel being demobilized in France and returning to the United States. The squadron was inactivated as a paper unit in late November.
The squadron was reactivated as part of the Tactical Air Command Ninth Air Force in 1947, and programmed as a Douglas A-26 Invader light bombardment squadron. Funding issues associated with the postwar Air Force meant that the "Attack Bomber" concept had to be shelved, with TAC's resources being put into jet fighters. In June 1948, the Attack designation category was officially eliminated and the aircraft was re-designated as the B-26. The B-26B and B-26Cs that were available were subsequently transferred to Air Force Reserve or Air National Guard units. Subsequently, the squadron was never manned or equipped and was inactivated in 1948.
When the North Korean army invaded the South on 25 June 1950, the USAF was critically short of light bombers. In particular, the 1054 B-26s that were still officially in the USAF inventory were mostly in reserve units or in storage in the southwest. To meet the emergency needs of the Korean War, the 452d Bombardment Group (Light), an Air Force Reserve unit out of Long Beach Airport, California, was called to active duty. When the 452d reached the end of its federalization period, the group was re-designated as the 17th Bombardment Group (Light) as part of Far East Air Forces, and the reserve 728th Bombardment Squadron inactivated and its mission, personnel and equipment were transferred to the 34th Bombardment Squadron at Pusan West Air Base, South Korea, on 10 May 1952. Reserve personnel were replaced by active duty personnel that had been trained on the B-26 at George Air Force Base, California, then deployed to South Korea.
During the conflict, the 17th and the 3d Bombardment Groups flew a total of 55,000 interdiction sorties throughout the war, at first in both day and night conditions and later almost exclusively at night. Attacks were carried out on Communist forces, primarily over South Korea, until the Korean War armistice.
Tactical Air Command
After the Korean armistice in June 1953, the squadron remained in South Korea for a year and a half until being moved to Miho Air Base, Japan in October 1954. Funding reductions after the Korean War led to the squadron's B-26s being reassigned to the 3d Bombardment Group; and the 34th, along with the 17th Bombardment Wing, was moved to Eglin Air Force Auxiliary Field No. 9, Florida on 1 April 1955 and transferred to Tactical Air Command (TAC) as the 34th Bombardment Squadron, Tactical.
At Eglin, the squadron was re-equipped with the new Martin B-57B Canberra, which had gone into service with TAC as a replacement for the B-26 Invader. The early model B-57Bs, however suffered from many technical problems, including an engine malfunction which filled up the cockpit with toxic fumes, which led to a brief grounding. The type was also found to be severely accident prone, due to difficulties with the aircraft's control surfaces.
The Canberras were replaced by the Douglas B-66B Destroyer, which began arriving in March 1956, with the 34th being the first recipient. The B-66, being an Air Force version of the Navy Douglas A3D Skywarrior, was a much more reliable aircraft that filled the needs of the Air Force for a jet medium bomber. In January 1958, the squadron deployed to RAF Sculthorpe, England where its aircraft were subsequently transferred to the 47th Bombardment Wing, replacing obsolete North American B-45C Tornados.
Strategic Air Command
The squadron designation was transferred from TAC to Strategic Air Command (SAC) in November 1962 as part of a process to re-designate Boeing B-52 Stratofortress "Strategic Wings", which were set up by SAC to disperse its bombers to numerous bases to avoid a single nuclear strike taking out an entire wing at one place. The dispersal, or "Strategic" wings consisted of one bomb and one air refueling squadron. As SAC Major Command designated units (MAJCOM), the wings were not able to carry a lineage or history as Air Force designated wings (AFCON) could.
To remedy this, the Strategic Wings would be given designations of inactive MAJCOM Wings that had notable combat records in World War II, and/or low pre-war designations. The 17th Bombardment Wing, Heavy, was organized on 1 February 1963 which assumed the assets of the 4043d Strategic Wing at Wright-Patterson Air Force Base, Ohio. The 34th Bombardment Squadron, Heavy, was placed under the 17th Bomb Wing, and assumed the personnel and B-52Es of the 42d Bombardment Squadron, which was inactivated. These changes were administrative in nature, and no actual personnel changes were made.
The squadron stood nuclear alert at Wright-Patterson, and also provided crews to other Strategic Air Command units conducting combat operations over Southeast Asia ss part of Operation Arc Light, however the squadron's B-52Es were never deployed and remained on nuclear alert. Upgraded to the B-52H in 1968 when the E-models were retired and sent to storage at Davis-Monthan Air Force Base.
The squadron moved to Beale Air Force Base, California when SAC pulled out of Wright-Patterson in 1975, absorbing the B-52G assets of the 744th Bombardment Squadron. It flew training missions at Beale for about a year when it was inactivated along with the 17th Bombardment Wing as part of the phaseout of the B-52 at Beale in 1976.
The 34th Bomb Squadron was reactivated at Castle Air Force Base, California on 1 July 1992 by Air Combat Command. With the inactivation of SAC, ACC formed a B-52G squadron at Castle as a geographically separated unit of the 366th Wing, a composite wing based at Mountain Home Air Force Base, Idaho. It operated its B-52 squadron at Castle separately from the 93d Bomb Wing, that had the facilities to support the Stratofortress and provided logistical and maintenance support for the 34th.
In early 1994 the B-52Gs were retired with the closing of Castle and the squadron was reassigned to Ellsworth Air Force Base, South Dakota where it transitioned to the Rockwell B-1B Lancer, remaining part of the 366th Operations Group at Mountain Home. In 1997 the squadron moved to Mountain Home, taking its B-1s with it. In 2001, the squadron assigned conducted devastating attacks versus the Taliban and Al Queda after the 9/11 attacks.
Reassigned to the 28th Bomb Wing in 2002 when the 366th ended its composite organization and moved back to Ellsworth. Deployed again to South Asia and, in 2003, the squadron kicked off Operation Iraqi Freedom with the largest precision guided bomb strike in history, when four B-1s delivered 96 GBU-31 2,000 lb JDAMs.
- Organized as the 34th Aero Squadron on 11 June 1917
- Redesignated 34th Aero Squadron (Construction) on 25 July 1917
- Redesignated 34th Aero Squadron (Training) on 23 December 1917
- Demobilized on 10 June 1919
- Reconstituted and redesignated 34th Pursuit Squadron on 24 March 1923
- Activated on 15 July 1931
- Redesignated 34th Attack Squadron on 1 March 1935
- Redesignated 34th Bombardment Squadron (Medium) on 17 October 1939
- Redesignated 34th Bombardment Squadron, Medium on 9 October 1944
- Inactivated on 26 November 1945
- Redesignated 34th Bombardment Squadron, Light on 29 April 1947
- Activated on 19 May 1947
- Inactivated on 10 September 1948
- Redesignated 34th Bombardment Squadron, Light, Night Intruder on 8 May 1952
- Activated on 10 May 1952
- Redesignated 34th Bombardment Squadron, Tactical on 1 October 1955
- Inactivated on 25 June 1958
- Redesignated 34th Bombardment Squadron, Heavy and activated on 15 November 1962 (not organized)
- Organized on 1 February 1963
- Inactivated on 30 September 1976
- Redesignated 34th Bomb Squadron and activated on 1 July 1992
- Headquarters, Camp Kelly, 11 June 1917
- Aviation Concentration Center, 11 August 1917
- Air Service Headquarters, American Expeditionary Force, British Isles, 19 September 1917 (attached to Royal Flying Corps for training: 20 September – 18 December 1917)
- Second Aviation Instructional Center, 23 December 1917 – May 1919
- Services of Supply, May 1919
- Eastern Department, 27 May – 10 June 1919
- 17th Pursuit Group (later 17th Attack Group, 17th Bombardment Group), 15 July 1931 – 26 November 1945[note 2]
- 17th Bombardment Group, 19 May 1947 – 10 September 1948; 10 May 1952 – 25 June 1958
- Strategic Air Command, 15 November 1962 (not organized)
- 17th Bombardment Wing, 1 February 1963 – 30 September 1976
- 366th Operations Group, 1 July 1992
- 28th Operations Group, 19 September 2002 – present
- Regular Army Inactive units had Organized Reserve officers assigned although they remained on the inactive list.
- The squadron was allotted to the Sixth Corps Area until 28 February 1927 and the Ninth Corps Area until 1 September 1928. It was assigned in inactive status to the 8th Pursuit Group until 1 September 1928, then the 17th Pursuit Group until activated. Clay, p. 1399.
- While in Regular Army Inactive status from 1929 to 1931, reserve officers performed their summer training at Kelly Field. Clay, p. 1399.
- Haulman, Daniel (9 October 2015). "Factsheet 34 Bomb Squadron (AFGSC)". Air Force Historical Research Agency. Archived from the original on 3 March 2016. Retrieved 6 February 2017.
- Gorrell, Series E, Volume 7, History of the 30th–37th Aero Squadrons.
- Order of Battle of the United States Land Forces in the World War[page needed]
- Gorrell, Series D, Weekly Statistical Reports of Air Service Activities, October 1918 – May 1919.[page needed]
- Clay, p. 1399
- Baugher, Joe. "B-25 Mitchell". joebaugher.com. Retrieved 7 February 2017.[not in citation given]
- "17th Bomb Group WWII Stories". 17th/452nd Bomb Wing/Group. 11 August 2009. Retrieved 6 February 2017.
- Baugher, Joe (29 December 2006). "A-26/B-26 Invader in USAAF/USAF Service". joebaugher.com. Retrieved 7 February 2017.
- Baugher, Joe (21 June 2000). "Martin B-57B". joebaugher.com. Archived from the original on 4 March 2016. Retrieved 7 February 2017.
- Baugher, Joe (8 April 2001). "Douglas B-66B Destroyer". joebaugher.com. Retrieved 7 February 2017.
- Staff, no byline (7 May 2011). "34th Bomb Squadron (34th BS)". Globalsecurity.com. Retrieved 7 February 2017.
- Lineage, including assignments, in Haulman, Factsheet 34 Bomb Squadron, except as noted.
- Station number in Johnson.
- Clay, Steven E. (2011). US Army Order of Battle 1919-1941 (PDF). Vol. 3 The Services: Air Service, Engineers, and Special Troops 1919-1941. Fort Leavenworth, KS: Combat Studies Institute Press. ISBN 978-0-98419-014-0. LCCN 2010022326. OCLC 637712205. Retrieved 16 October 2012.
- Gorrell, Col. Edgar S. (1974). History of the American Expeditionary Forces Air Service, 1917-1919. Washington, DC: National Archives and Records Service, General Services Administration. OCLC 215070705.
- Johnson, 1st Lt. David C. (1988). U.S. Army Air Forces Continental Airfields (ETO) D-Day to V-E Day (PDF). Maxwell AFB, AL: Research Division, USAF Historical Research Center.
- Maurer, Maurer, ed. (1983) . Air Force Combat Units of World War II (PDF) (reprint ed.). Washington, DC: Office of Air Force History. ISBN 0-912799-02-1. LCCN 61060979. Retrieved 17 December 2016.
- Maurer, Maurer, ed. (1982) . Combat Squadrons of the Air Force, World War II (PDF) (reprint ed.). Washington, DC: Office of Air Force History. ISBN 0-405-12194-6. LCCN 70605402. OCLC 72556. Retrieved 17 December 2016.
- Ravenstein, Charles A. (1984). Air Force Combat Wings, Lineage & Honors Histories 1947-1977 (PDF). Washington, DC: Office of Air Force History. ISBN 0-912799-12-9. Retrieved 17 December 2016.
- Order of Battle of the United States Land Forces in the World War. Vol. 3, Part 3 Zone of the Interior: Directory of Troops (Reprint ed.). Washington, DC: Center of Military History. 1988 . Retrieved 22 January 2017.