3540 Protesilaos

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3540 Protesilaos
Discovery [1]
Discovered by F. Börngen
Discovery site Karl Schwarzschild Obs.
Discovery date 27 October 1973
MPC designation (3540) Protesilaos
Pronunciation ˌproʊtəsᵻˈleɪəs
Named after
(Greek mythology)[2]
1973 UF5 · 1978 GJ2
1985 VO1
Jupiter trojan[1][3]
(Greek camp)[4]
Orbital characteristics[1]
Epoch 16 February 2017 (JD 2457800.5)
Uncertainty parameter 0
Observation arc 63.20 yr (23,085 days)
Aphelion 5.8931 AU
Perihelion 4.6527 AU
5.2729 AU
Eccentricity 0.1176
12.11 yr (4,423 days)
0° 4m 53.04s / day
Inclination 23.293°
Jupiter MOID 0.5225 AU
Jupiter Tisserand parameter 2.8230
Physical characteristics
Dimensions 70.225±1.076 km[5][6]
76.84 km (calculated)[3]
87.66±3.46 km[7]
8.945 h[8]
8.95±0.02 h[9]
0.057 (assumed)[3]
9.00[7] · 9.3[1][3] · 9.38±0.38[10] · 9.4[5]

3540 Protesilaos (proe'--sə-LAY'-əs), provisional designation 1973 UF5, is a carbonaceous Jupiter trojan from the Greek camp, approximately 80 kilometers in diameter. It was discovered on 27 October 1973, by German astronomer Freimut Börngen at the Karl Schwarzschild Observatory in Tautenburg, Germany.[11]

The dark C-type asteroid is orbiting in the leading Greek camp at Jupiter's L4 Lagrangian point, 60° ahead of its orbit (see Trojans in astronomy). It orbits the Sun at a distance of 4.7–5.9 AU once every 12 years and 1 month (4,423 days). Its orbit has an eccentricity of 0.12 and an inclination of 23° with respect to the ecliptic.[1] The first precovery was taken at Palomar Observatory in 1953, extending the asteroid's observation arc by 20 years prior to its discovery.[11]

Two rotational light-curves were obtained by astronomer Stefano Mottola at DLR Institute for Planetary Research (1989), and by Linda French using the Cerro Tololo Inter-American Observatory in Chile (2010). The first light-curve gave a rotation period of 8.945 hours with a brightness amplitude of 0.13 in magnitude (U=2).[8] The second light-curve showed a nearly identical period of 8.95±0.02 hours with no brightness variation given (U=2).[9]

According to the surveys carried out by the Japanese Akari satellite, and the NEOWISE mission of NASA's Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer, the Trojan asteroid has a concurring albedo of 0.062, but measures 87.7 and 70.2 kilometers in diameter, respectively.[5][6][7] The Collaborative Asteroid Lightcurve Link assumes a standard albedo for carbonaceous asteroids of 0.057, and calculates a diameter of 76.8 kilometers.[3]

The minor planet is named after the hero Protesilaus from Greek mythology. In the Trojan War, he was the first Greek to set foot on the shores of Troy. He was later killed by the Trojan Aeneas, after whom one of the largest Jupiter trojans, 1172 Äneas, is named.[2] Another Jupiter trojan, 13062 Podarkes, is named after his brother Podarkes. Naming citation was published on 14 April 1987 (M.P.C. 11751).[12]


  1. ^ a b c d e "JPL Small-Body Database Browser: 3540 Protesilaos (1973 UF5)" (2016-04-29 last obs.). Jet Propulsion Laboratory. Retrieved 5 December 2016. 
  2. ^ a b Schmadel, Lutz D. (2007). Dictionary of Minor Planet Names – (3540) Protesilaos. Springer Berlin Heidelberg. p. 297. ISBN 978-3-540-00238-3. Retrieved 6 April 2016. 
  3. ^ a b c d e f "LCDB Data for (3540) Protesilaos". Asteroid Lightcurve Database (LCDB). Retrieved 6 April 2016. 
  4. ^ "List of Jupiter Trojans". Minor Planet Center. 20 June 2016. Retrieved 4 December 2016. 
  5. ^ a b c d Mainzer, A.; Grav, T.; Masiero, J.; Hand, E.; Bauer, J.; Tholen, D.; et al. (November 2011). "NEOWISE Studies of Spectrophotometrically Classified Asteroids: Preliminary Results". The Astrophysical Journal. 741 (2): 25. arXiv:1109.6407Freely accessible. Bibcode:2011ApJ...741...90M. doi:10.1088/0004-637X/741/2/90. Retrieved 19 May 2016. 
  6. ^ a b c Grav, T.; Mainzer, A. K.; Bauer, J. M.; Masiero, J. R.; Nugent, C. R. (November 2012). "WISE/NEOWISE Observations of the Jovian Trojan Population: Taxonomy". The Astrophysical Journal. 759 (1): 10. arXiv:1209.1549Freely accessible. Bibcode:2012ApJ...759...49G. doi:10.1088/0004-637X/759/1/49. Retrieved 5 December 2016. 
  7. ^ a b c Usui, Fumihiko; Kuroda, Daisuke; Müller, Thomas G.; Hasegawa, Sunao; Ishiguro, Masateru; Ootsubo, Takafumi; et al. (October 2011). "Asteroid Catalog Using Akari: AKARI/IRC Mid-Infrared Asteroid Survey". Publications of the Astronomical Society of Japan. 63 (5): 1117–1138. Bibcode:2011PASJ...63.1117U. doi:10.1093/pasj/63.5.1117. Retrieved 6 April 2016. 
  8. ^ a b Mottola, S.; Gonano, M.; Rebhan, H.; Neukum, G. (December 1989). "CCD Photometry of a Trojan Asteroid". Asteroids: 151. Bibcode:1990acm..proc..151M. Retrieved 6 April 2016. 
  9. ^ a b French, Linda M.; Stephens, Robert D.; Lederer, Susan M.; Coley, Daniel R.; Rohl, Derrick A. (April 2011). "Preliminary Results from a Study of Trojan Asteroids". The Minor Planet Bulletin. 38 (2): 116–120. Bibcode:2011MPBu...38..116F. ISSN 1052-8091. Retrieved 6 April 2016. 
  10. ^ Veres, Peter; Jedicke, Robert; Fitzsimmons, Alan; Denneau, Larry; Granvik, Mikael; Bolin, Bryce; et al. (November 2015). "Absolute magnitudes and slope parameters for 250,000 asteroids observed by Pan-STARRS PS1 - Preliminary results". Icarus. 261: 34–47. arXiv:1506.00762Freely accessible. Bibcode:2015Icar..261...34V. doi:10.1016/j.icarus.2015.08.007. Retrieved 19 May 2016. 
  11. ^ a b "3540 Protesilaos (1973 UF5)". Minor Planet Center. Retrieved 6 April 2016. 
  12. ^ "MPC/MPO/MPS Archive". Minor Planet Center. Retrieved 19 May 2016. 

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